Main Fluent English: Perfect Natural Speech, Sharpen Your Grammar, Master Idiomatic Expressions, Speak Fluently
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LIVING LANGUAGE FLUENT English Written by Barbara Raifsnider Edited by Christopher A. Warnasch Contents Introduction LESSON 3 WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO? 21 LESSON 1 HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE? 1 1A Say It Clearly!: Pronunciation of-ed Ending 1 1C English At Work: Dialogue – Making SmallTalk 1 Build Your Vocabulary 2 1D English Under the Hood: 1B 3A Say It Clearly!: Reductions 21 3B English At Work: Dialogue -Would You Mind if I Looked at Your Resume? 21 3C Build Your Vocabulary 22 3D English Under the Hood: 1. Questions and Negatives in the Simple Past Tense 24 2. The Past Habitual: Used to, Didn't Use to, and Would Always 24 1.The Present Perfect Tense vs. The Simple Past Tense 3 3. Making Polite Requests 26 3E Phrasal Verbs with work 27 3F 3.Using/or and since with the Present Perfect and Simple Past Tenses 5 Real English: Put Your Nose to the Grindstone 28 3G Bring it All Together 28 1E Phrasal Verbs with pick 6 3H Listen Up! 30 1F Real English: See You Later! 6 3I Why Do They Do That? Shaking Hands 30 2.Verbs with Irregular Forms in the Past and Present Perfect Tenses 4 1G Bring it All Together 7 1H Listen Up! 9 1I Why Do They Do That? Greetings and SmallTalk 9 LESSON 4 LAUGHING ALL THE WAY TO THE BANK 32 LESSON 2 4A Say It Clearly!: Y-Vowel Link 32 DON'T GO AWAYI 11 4B English At Work: Reading - Banks in the U.S. 32 4C Build Your Vocabulary 33 2A Say It Clearly!:-s Endings 11 2B English At Work: Recorded Message— The Hotel Royale 11 4D English Under the Hood: 2C Build Your Vocabulary 11 1. Simple Future vs. Immediate Future 34 2D English Under the Hood: 2. The Present Continuous and Simple Present to Express the Future 35 1. -s Endings in the Third Person Singular 14 3. The Simple Present Tense with Prepositions of Time 35 2. The Negative Simple Present Tense 14 3. Questions in the Present Tense 15 4E Phrasal Verbs with pay 36 Phrasal Verbs with turn 16 4F Real English: In the Black 36 Real English: Hold On! 17 4G Bring it ; All Together 37 Bring it All Together 17 4H Listen Up! 39 2H Listen Up! 19 4I Why Do They Do That? Debt 39 2I Why Do They Do That? Americans on the Move 19 2E 2F 2G LESSON 5 2. Degrees of Certainty in the Past Tense 64 THE CUSTOMER'S ALWAYS RIGHT! 41 5A Say It Clearly!: W-Vowel Link 41 3. Degrees of Certainty in the Future Tense 65 5B English At Work: Dialogue - Did You Need Some Help? 4 Phrasal Verbs for Giving and Getting 66 5C Build Your Vocabulary 42 5D English Under the Hood: 1. Prepositions of Time, Motion, and Location 43 Real English: Keeping in Touch with Friendly Advice 67 Bring it All 7G Together 68 Listen Up! 70 7H Why Do They Do That? Benjamin Franklin and the American Work Ethic 70 2. Adjectives Followed by Prepositions 44 LESSON 8 3. Verbs Followed by Prepositions 45 5E Phrasal Verbs for Shopping 46 5F Real English: Shop Till You Drop! 47 5G Bring it All Together 47 YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES 72 8A Say It Clearly!: Consonant-Consonant Linking 2 72 5H Listen Up! 49 8B 5I Why Do They Do That? Service with a Smile 50 English At Work: Dialogue - Do You Know Why I Pulled You Over? 72 8C Build Your Vocabulary 73 8D English Under the Hood: 1. The Passive Voice in the Simple Present and Present Continuous Tenses 75 LESSON 6 I HAVE GOT TO HAVE A NEW CAR! 51 6A Say It Clearly!: Consonant-Vowel Link 51 2.The Passive Voice in the Present Perfect and Simple Past Tenses 75 6B English At Work: Dialogue - Let's Go Look at My New Car. 51 3.The Passive Voice in the Simple Future and Immediate Future Tenses 76 6C Build Your Vocabulary 52 6D English Under the Hood: 8F 1. Modals of Necessity 53 8G Bring it All Together 78 2. Modals of Advisability 54 8H Listen Up! 80 3. Negative Modals 54 8I Why Do They Do That? Some Important Driver's Responsibilities 80 6E Phrasal Verbs with come 55 6F Real English: I Need Some New iWheels! 57 6G Bring it All Together 57 6H Listen Up! 59 6I Why Do They Do That? Americans and Their Cars 59 Phrasal Verbs for Criminal Acts 76 Real English: You're Busted! 77 LESSON 9 THIS IS PARADISE, ISN'T IT? 8 9A Say It Clearly!: Intonation in Tag Questions 82 9B English At Work: Reading - Aloha from Hawaii! 82 LESSON 7 9C Build Your Vocabulary 83 PUSHING THE ENVELOPE 61 9D English Under the Hood: 7A Say It Clearly!: Consonant-Consonant Linking 61 1. Tag Questions 84 7B English At Work: Reading - A Brief History of Mail Delivery in the U.S.A. 61 3. Beginning Sentences with Negative Adverbs 86 2. Negative Questions 86 7C Build Your Vocabulary 62 9E Phrasal Verbs with look 87 7D English Under the Hood: 9F Real English: Your Island Getaway 88 1. Degrees of Certainty in the Present Tense 63 9 G Bring it All Together 88 LESSON 12 9 H Listen Up! 90 SHE'LL WIN BY A LANDSLIDE! 114 9 I Why Do They Do That? Travel in America 91 12 A Say It Clearly!: Consonant Clusters 114 12 B English At Work: Reading-America Divided, But Always United 114 12 C Build Your Vocabulary 115 LESSON 10 TAKE ME OUT TO THE BALL GAME! 92 12 D English Under the Hood: 1. The Progressive Form of Modals 116 10 A Say It Clearly!: Intonation in Questions in Statement Form 92 10 B English At Work: Dialogue-It's a Great Day for Baseball! 92 10 C Build Your Vocabulary 93 2. The Use of would rather 117 3. Past Ability 118 12 E Phrasal Verbs for Winning and Losing 118 12 F Real English: Does She Have What it Takes? 119 10 D English Under the Hood: 1. Reported Speech: Past, Present, and Future 94 2. Using Modals in Reported Speech 95 3. Questions in Statement Form 96 12 G Bring it All Together 119 12 H Listen Up! 122 12 I Why Do They Do That? Religion in the U.S. 122 10 E Phrasal Verbs with keep 97 10 F Real English: A Day at the Races 97 10 G Bring it All Together 98 LESSON 13 10 H Listen Up! 100 PRIDE OF OWNERSHIP 10 I 124 13 A Say It Clearly!: Reductions with should, could, and would 124 Why Do They Do That? The Super Bowl 100 13 B English At Work: Dialogue — Who Needs Buyer's Remorse? 124 13 C Build Your Vocabulary 125 LESSON 11 SNAIL MAIL JUST WON'T CUT IT! 103 13 D English Under the Hood: 1.Past Forms of should and shouldn't 126 11 A Say It Clearly!: The Vowels in seat and sit 103 11 B English At Work: Reading — A Brief History of the Internet 103 11 C Build Your Vocabulary 104 11 D English Under the Hood: 1. The Present Perfect Tense vs. The Present Perfect Progressive Tense 105 2. The Present Perfect Progressive Tense vs. The Past Perfect Progressive Tense 107 3. The Future Progressive Tense 107 11 E Phrasal Verbs for the Computer 108 11 F Real English: Life Online 109 2.Be supposed to and be to 127 3.Making Suggestions with could 127 13 E Phrasal Verbs for Buying and Selling a House 128 13 F Real English: Real Estate 129 13 G Bring it All Together 129 13 H Listen Up! 131 13 I Why Do They Do That? The American Dream of Home Ownership 132 LESSON 14 HIT THE BOOKS! 134 11 G Bring it All Together no 14 A Say It Clearly!: The Preposition to 134 11 H Listen Up! 112 14 B English At Work: Dialogue - He's Always Been a Good Student! 134 11 I Why Do They Do That? The Internet Generation 112 14 C Build Your Vocabulary 135 14 D English Under the Hood: 1. Verbs Followed by Infinitives 137 2. Adjectives Followed by Infinitives and It Plus Infinitive 138 16 G Bring it All Together 162 3. Verbs Followed by Nouns or Pronouns Plus Infinitives 139 16 I 16 H Listen Up! 164 Why Do They Do That? Watercooler Conversations 165 14 E Phrasal Verbs for School 140 14 F Real English: Life on Campus 140 14 G Bring it All Together 141 LESSON 17 14 H Listen Up! 143 14 I Why Do They Do That? American Teachers 143 LESSON 15 LET'S GET TOGETHER SOMETIME! 145 THIS DIET MAY WORK FOR YOU! 166 17 A Say It Clearly!: Consonant Clusters with / and r 166 17 B English At Work: Dialogue — What are You Going to Get? 166 17 C Build Your Vocabulary 167 17 D English Under the Hood: 15 A I Say It Clearly!:The Vowels in pull and pool 145 1. The Real Conditional in the Present and Future 168 15 B English At Work: Dialogue — Who's That 2. The Unreal Conditional in the Present and Future 169 Over There? 145 15 C Build Your Vocabulary 147 15 D English Under the Hood: 3. The Past Unreal Conditional 170 17 E Phrasal Verbs about Food 170 1. Verbs Followed by Gerunds 149 17 F Real English: This is Your Cup of Tea 2. Verbs Followed by Prepositions and Gerunds 149 171 3. Go plus Gerunds 150 17 H Listen Up! 174 15 E Phrasal Verbs about Relationships 151 17 G Bring it All Together 172 17I 15 F Real English: She's a Real Knockout! 152 Why Do They Do That? Food Manners 174 15 G Bring it All Together 152 15 H Listen Up! 154 LESSON 18 15 I Why Do They Do That? Drop by Anytime! 154 LESSON 16 WATERCOOLER CONVERSATIONS 156 GET INTO SHAPE! 177 18 A Say It Clearly!: Linking Reductions with d, t, s, or z 177 18 B English At Work: Dialogue-Let Us Design a Fitness Program for You! 177 18 C Build Your Vocabulary 178 18 D English Under the Hood: 16 A Say It Clearly!: The Vowel Sound in man 156 1. Implied Conditionals 199 2. Using wish in Conditionals 180 16 B i English At Work: Dialogue - What Do You Think About the New Boss? 156 3. Using would to Make Wishes 181 16 C Build Your Vocabulary 157 18 E Phrasal Verbs for Health and Fitness 182 16 D English Under the Hood: 18 F Real English: You're the Picture of Health! 183 1. Passive and Past Forms of Infinitives and Gerunds 158 2. Passive Infinitives and Gerunds after need 160 3. Using Possessives to Modify Gerunds 160 16 E Phrasal Verbs with take 161 16 F Real English: I Really Work My Tail Off! 162 18 G Bring it All Together 183 18 H Listen Up! 185 18 I Why Do They Do That? The Fitness Craze 186 LESSON 19 2.Verbs of Perception 202 911, EMERGENCY! 188 3.Reflexive Pronouns 203 19 A Say It Clearly!: Dropping Syllables 188 20 E Phrasal Verbs with get 204 19 B English At Work: Dialogue - Isn't This an Emergency? 188 20 F Real English: Shooting the Breeze 205 19 C Build Your Vocabulary 189 20 H Listen Up! 208 19 D English Under the Hood: 20 I Why Do They Do That? Body Language, Personal Space, and More 208 1.Indirect Objects as Passive Subjects 191 2.The Stative Passive 191 3.Common Uses of Get 192 19 E Phrasal Verbs Related to 20 G Bring it All Together 205 APPENDIX A IRREGULAR VERBS 211 Emergencies 193 19 F Real English: Keep Your Cool! 194 19 G Bring it All Together 194 19 H Listen Up! 196 19 I Why Do They Do That? HMO's vs. the Family Doctor 197 APPENDIX B ADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONS 213 APPENDIX C LESSON 20 VERBS FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONS 214 JUST SHOOTING THE BREEZE 199 20 A Say It Clearly!: English Intonation 199 20 B English At Work: Dialogue - A Block Party 199 20 C Build Your Vocabulary 200 20 D English Under the Hood: 1. Participial Adjectives 201 APPENDIX D REAL ENGLISH IDIOMS 215 INDEX 221 INTRODUCTION Fluent English is a high intermediate-/advanced-level course in English as a second or foreign language. It is designed to meet the needs of the intermediate-level student in vocabulary, grammar, listening comprehension, idiomatic usage, and pronunciation. It offers a great deal of practice in each of these areas, through both written exercises and recorded materials. The language used in this course is realistic and practical, and the situations in each of its twenty lessons offer a cultural context that will be recognizable and relevant to most intermediate-level students of English. The course is divided into twenty lessons covering a range of topics from small talk and social situations, to telephones and business meetings, to computers, politics, and the Internet. Each lesson offers essential vocabulary related to its topic, as well as important phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions that are typically challenging to the intermediatelevel student. The lessons are divided into ten sections, each of which focuses on a different English language skill: • Say It Clearly! The first section of each lesson is a recorded pronunciation and intonation warm-up. These sections focus on aspects of pronunciation and intonation that are typically challenging for intermediate students of English — consonant clusters, linking, reduced English, challenging sounds, etc. • English at Work. The second section of each lesson features English in realistic contexts, ranging from dialogues to recorded messages to readings. The English at Work section is the cornerstone of each lesson, where the important grammatical structures and vocabulary are demonstrated. These sections are all recorded, giving the student an opportunity to hear and model native speakers. • Build Your Vocabulary. The vocabulary section of each lesson includes certain vocabulary from the English at Work section as well as other general vocabulary related to the topic of the lesson. Each word or expression is defined in simple English, and an example is given to show realistic usage. • English Under the Hood. Each lesson focuses on three important grammatical structures. Explanations are complete and straightforward, and plenty of examples are given to demonstrate each construction in context. Each grammatical point is also followed by a practice drill, giving the student a chance to practice and check comprehension. • Phrasal Verbs. Each lesson includes a list of important and common phrasal verbs centered either on a common base verb, such as take or get, or a particular theme. Each phrasal verb is clearly defined, and examples of usage follow each definition. • Real English. Important idiomatic expressions related to the topic or theme of each lesson are included in the Real English section. This section is in the form of a short paragraph, where idiomatic expressions are used in context. The student should be able to understand the meaning of each expression from context, but each idiom is also defined in an appendix at the back of the book. • Bring it All Together. Each lesson also includes five comprehensive review exercises. The first exercise focuses on the vocabulary from the lesson, the next three focus on the grammar and structure, and the last one focuses on the phrasal verbs introduced in that lesson. • Listen Up! Each lesson includes a recorded listening comprehension exercise. The student is directed to listen to a short article or dialogue on a topic related to the lesson, and then to answer questions written in the book. The Listen Up sections are designed to use both vocabulary and idiomatic expressions related to the theme of the lesson. • Why Do They Do That? Each lesson includes a culture note that explains an aspect of American culture related to the lesson's topic. These aspects of culture range from table manners to home ownership to driving habits to proper behavior while being pulled over for speeding. The culture notes are designed to be both interesting and relevant to the student's experiences. • Answer Key. Each lesson also includes a key to all exercises. KEY TO SYMBOLS When you see PLAY CD and listen to the examples or exercises on the audio portion of the course. When you see PAUSE CD and return to the book until you seethe next Le esso on 1 How Longg Have You u Been Herre? AR RE YOU READY Y FOR THE LES SSON? Lessson 1, How Lon ng Have You Be een Here?, will ta ake you somew where you may know very we ell: the INS office e. You'll listen in n on a conversa ation between tw wo people waitin ng in line, which is something g people unfortu unately do very often, and whic ch is also a situa ation in which Americans like l to make "sm mall talk."Then, you'll learn som me vocabulary th hat will come in handy h at the INS S or anywhere you y have to fill out o forms. But th hat's not all. Lessson 1 also inccludes: • The e Present Perfec ct Tense vs. The e Simple Past Te ense • Using/or and sinc ce with the Prese ent Perfect and d Sim mple Past Tens ses • Phrasal Verbs with h pick • Idio omatic Express sions for Saying g Goodbye Fin nally, at the end of the lesson you'll read a culture note about casual c greetings and acq quaintances. Bu ut let's start with h a pronunciation warm-up. Rea ady? 1A SA AY IT CLEAR RLY! Turn on your CD to t review the pro onunciation of-e ed, a very imporrtant ending in En nglish. 1B EN NGLISH AT WORK W Dia alogue: Making g Small Talk Sergei, a Russian immigrant, is waiting w in line att the INS. The line is very long, and it's mo oving very slowly. Peter, an Am merican standin ng in front of Se ergei, turns aro ound and striikes up a conve ersation. Sergei is surprised by his friendliness s. Peter Peter Sergei Peter Sergei Peter Sergei I guess we didn't have e anything else e to do today, did d we? Sergei What? I said I guess g they thin nk that we didn n't have anythiing else to do today. t It's just tha at we've been in n this line for a very long time. lt seems like e we aren't going g anywhere e very fast. Yeah. I know. I've been here since about 9:30. Wha at about you? I think I got here just a few minutes before you did d. I decided to pick p up a green-c card application n for my wife. I should've gottten it off the In nternet. That wa ay I could have e just stayed ho ome. Say, where are you from m? Me? I'm m from Russia. Oh, whe ereabouts? I lived in n Moscow for most m of my life e, but I moved around a little.. I was in the military. 2 FLUENT ENGLIS SH Peter Sergei Peter Sergei Peter Sergei Clerk Peter Sergei Intteresting. I've never n been to R Russia, but I've e always wante ed to visit. It seems s like suc ch an interestin ng country. How long have yo ou lived he ere? I'v ve lived in San Diego for only a few weeks, but b I've been in n the U.S. sin nce August. We ell, welcome to o San Diego. I g guess the weather must be a bit wa armer than whe ere you're from m, huh? Ye es, that's true. I've gotten use ed to it. Ha ave you visited d the zoo or Ba alboa Park yet? ? No o, but I really want w to go to Ba alboa Park. I've e heard about all the flo owers and mus seums that are there. ne ext! He ey. That's me. Gotta G go. See y you around. Oh h. OK. See you u. 1C BUILD B YOUR R VOCABUL LARY Perhaps you need n to go to the e I. N. S. to fill o out some forms. Here are some e terms you would see if yo ou were to fill ou ut an application n to register for permanent resid dence. Many of these words have oth her meanings, b but these are the e usages you will w see on I. N. S. forms and other legal do ocuments. To be cited. To T be summoned to appear in ccourt. The police e could cite you u for littering if you throw tra ash out of your car. c To be indicted d. To be charge ed with a crime. Richard Haywa ard was indicted d for espionage whe en he was caug ght selling U.S. d documents to a foreign governm ment. Ordinance. A law or regulatio on, usually passsed by a local go overnment. The e city council passed d an ordinance permitting p the u use of marijuana a by cancer patients. Beneficiary. A person who is or will be the re ecipient of some ething of value from f someone who has died. Harolld and Gerry we ere the sole ben neficiaries of the eir mother's modest estate.. Rehabilitation n. Treatment to help someone rreturn to regular, acceptable, or o normal behavior or abilities. Recoveryy from drug abu use or physical injuries. It was difficult d to convince the governor g that Sa am had been su uccessfully rehabilitated and wa as ready to leave jail and return r to societyy. Clemency. A lesser l penalty th han what a court originally sugg gested. Thinking that Ralph Smith ha ad suffered eno ough for the crim me he committed, the judge gra anted him clemency and gave him a sho orter prison senttence. Amnesty. A pa ardon given to a large group off individuals. Th he government granted amnes sty to all illegal immigrants i who o had come to work w in the fieldss. Procure. To obtain, to buy, to o take possessio on of something g of value. Profe essor Hodges wante ed to procure some ancient artiffacts before retu urning from his sabbatical s in Africa. To engage in.. To become invvolved in something, to do something. Teresa would never engage in illegal activitiies, even if she disagreed with a law. To induce. To o influence some eone to do something. Robbie's s older brother induced i him to steal mo oney from their parents. Lesson 1: How Long Have You Been Here? 3 To conspire. To plan together in secret to do harm. Kathy and Jane conspired to make Mary look foolish. To solicit. To ask for something of value, usually money. Raymond got a job soliciting money for his political party. To sabotage. To destroy or cause to fail. The lab technician sabotaged the experiment by deliberately mixing up the samples. Espionage. Spying. Espionage was a common practice during the Cold War, and it still is today. Affiliated. To be in close connection. The local television stations are all affiliated with major networks. To persecute. To harass, to cause someone to suffer because of a belief. Many people have come to the United States because they were persecuted in their countries. To incite. To move to action, to cause. The Prime Minister's latest announcement incited the protesting crowd to become violent. Fraud. A false claim, trick; a liar or imposter. Sam Jameson created a false medical license and began practicing medicine until he was exposed as a fraud. Waiver. A document that gives up a right or grants unusual permission to someone else. Juan signed a waiver giving his doctor the right to send his medical records to his insurance company. Custody. Having legal guardianship of a child or children, often part of a divorce settlement. When the Camerons divorced, Mrs. Cameron received custody of both children, and her husband won weekend visitation rights. 1D ENGLISH UNDER THE HOOD TOPIC 1: The Present Perfect Tense vs. the Simple Past Tense Let's take a look at the two most common past tenses in English: the present perfect tense and the simple past tense. Present Perfect / have spoken Simple Past I spoke you have spoken you spoke he, she, it has spoken he, she, it spoke we have spoken we spoke they have spoken they spoke As you can see, the present perfect tense is formed with the verb to have and the past participle of the main verb, in this case, spoken. The simple past tense is just the past form of the verb, which in this case is spoke. These tenses are used a bit differently. The present perfect tense expresses an event that happened in the past when the exact time is not known, or when there's a result or a connection being made to the present, or when the time reference is still unfinished, as in so far this week, or up to now, or during my entire life.The simple past tense, on the other hand, expresses an action that happened when a specific finished time is given, such as yesterday or last 4 FLUENT ENGLISH week or in 1995. Sometimes these tenses are interchangeable, depending on what the speaker wishes to emphasize. Here are a few examples. Julia has returned from her trip. (No specific time is given or is important, and the speaker is emphasizing that Julia is now home.) Julia returned from her trip. (Perhaps this is part of a longer narration of events in the past.) I finished reading the novel last night. ("Last night" indicates a specific time in the past.) Has Pam ever been to New York? ("Ever" means "during her entire life.") / worked five days last week. ("Last week" is finished time.) So far this week I've worked three days. ("This week" is unfinished time.) PRACTICE EXERCISE 1: Complete each of the following sentences with either the present perfect or simple past tense. 1. _________________ (drive) Mary her new car to Santa Barbara yesterday. 2. __________________ (not try) Sam on his new pants yet. 3. _______________ (buy) We a new house last week. 4. __________ (eat) ________ you ever fried bananas? 5. _____________________________ (not go) Mr. and Mrs. Denton out of town last weekend. 6. ____________ (see) I _____ never The Birds. 7. ____________________ (not speak) He much English during his trip last April. 8. _____________ (miss) ______you me while I was gone? 9. ____________ (dance) you ever the salsa? 10. ________________ (get) Richard a new car last week. TOPIC 2: Verbs with Irregular Forms in the Past and Present Perfect Tenses A lot of common verbs have irregular simple past and past participial forms. Here are some of the more common ones. You'll also find a list of all of the most important irregular verbs in the appendix on page 211. Present be begin Past was/were began Past Participle been begun bring do eat brought did ate brought done eaten go went gone have know had knew had known see saw seen sing speak sang spoke sung spoken Lesson 1: How Long Have You Been Here? take write took wrote 5 taken written PRACTICE EXERCISE 2: Complete each of the following sentences. 1. (sing) Who ______ that last song? 2. (do) Sarah _____ her homework last night. 3. (be) Where ______ you at breakfast? 4. (begin) Madeline ______ already __________ her new job. 5. (know) Henry _______ all of the answers. 6. (write) _______ you _________ that letter yet? 7. (begin) Angel ______ his university education last spring. 8. (sing) She _____ in Las Vegas many times. 9. (see) ______ anyone really ever _________ Big Foot? 10. (take) I had a headache, so I ______ some aspirin. TOPIC 3: Using for and since with the Present Perfect and Simple Past Tenses Use since when a specific point in time is given. Use/or when a period of time, rather than a specific point in time, is given. Since... yesterday For... one day last week last month a week three months Richard has lived in Chicago since 1985. Richard has lived in Chicago for twenty years. Notice that you can use for and since with either the simple past tense or the present perfect tense, depending on whether or not the action is still happening. I've worked for Green Enterprises for three years. (I still work there.) / worked for Green Enterprises for three years. (Now I work somewhere else.) PRACTICE EXERCISE 3: Complete each sentence with either since or for. 1. We've lived in Los Angeles _________ before Barry was born. 2. We've lived in Los Angeles _________ ten years. 3. There's been a roadblock on the freeway __________ three days. 4. I haven't seen you _________ I was in high school. 5. Why haven't you called __________ two weeks? 6. Susan hasn't gone to work __________ last Tuesday. 7. They stayed at this hotel __________ three nights. 8. Roger and Martin have been gone __________ hours! 9. Have you been waiting for me __________ 7:30? 10. She hasn't spoken to me ___________ the night we got into an argument. 6 FLUENT ENGLISH 1E PHRASAL VERBS WITH PICK Pick up. a) To take something up off of a surface. Pick your coat up off the floor. b) To meet and collect a person from a specific location. Who's going to pick Henry up at the airport? c) To buy something Jordan picked up some milk on the way home. *Note that to pick up a person can also mean to meet someone, usually at a public place such as a bar or night club, and to become sexually involved with him or her after spending only a short time together. Pick out. a) To select, to choose. Melissa picked out a shirt and brought it to the dressing room. b) To separate from. If you break a wine glass, make sure you pick all of the glass out of the carpet. Pick over. To take the best of something and leave what is not so good. The shirts have been on sale so long that they've really been picked over. Pick on. To tease. My sisters and brothers always picked on me because I was the youngest. Pick from. To choose from a group of something. Mrs. Stefanson picked a new assistant from the group of applicants for the job. Pick at. a) To take only very small amounts of food. Jessica ate almost everything on her plate, but she only picked at her peas. b) To scratch or irritate something, such as a cut or scrape. Don't pick at that cut! Let it heal. Pick up on. To understand something, especially something that isn't intended to be understood. They spoke in Spanish in front of Dorothy, so she didn't pick up on what they were talking about. *Note that pick up, pick out, pick from, and pick over are separable. This means the two words can be separated and a pronoun or noun can be inserted between them. Billy picked out the raisins or Billy picked them/the raisins out, but not Billy picked out them. Pick on, pick at, and pick up on are not separable. You cannot separate the verbs from the prepositions. 1F REAL ENGLISH SEE YOU LATER! Saying "good-bye!" is only one way to end a conversation. There are a lot of idiomatic expressions that people use when a conversation is over or when they have to leave. Here are some important ones, listed from most to least formal: Have a good day. Take care. Take it easy. (I'll) See you later. (I'll) See you around. See ya! Catch you later. Gotta go. Note that these expressions are often preceded with Well. Well, have a nice day! Lesson 1: How Long Have You Been Here? 7 1G BRING IT ALL TOGETHER Now let's review everything we've covered in this lesson. REVIEW EXERCISE 1: Vocabulary Place the correct vocabulary word in each space. Use each of the following words once: solicit, beneficiary, indicted, procured, waiver, persecuted, incited, affiliation, espionage, amnesty, conspired, rehabilitation, clemency, sabotage, cited, induce, fraud, custody, ordinance, engaging. 1. When we found out that Dr. Wells hadn't gone to medical school, we knew he was a ________. 2. Learning new skills is essential to the successful ________ from a life of crime. 3. For some people, working is much harder than ________ in crime. 4. The well-known International is an organization dedicated to encouraging governments to free their political prisoners. 5. Bill Jackson feltbecause he had received a dishonorable discharge from the army and few employers would hire him. 6. The soldiers sneaked in behind enemy lines to ______ the next shipment of weapons. 7. ______ by jealousy, Roberto accused his wife of having an affair. 8. If you let your dog walk around without a leash, you are violating a city. 9. I want to show you some new gems we've recently . 10. The senator was forced to resign when his with a racist organization was uncovered. 11. A sixteen-year-old cannot attend adult school without a from high school. 12. Tammy went to several companies to ______ money so that she could afford to travel to the swimming competition. 13. Ralph was ______ for breaking and entering. 14. Mary was ______ for driving with her lights off. 15. The Rangels filed for ______ of their daughter's son. 16. A governor has the power to give to a condemned criminal, commuting a death sentence to life in prison. 17. The boys ______ to scare all the girls in class on Halloween. 18. Wiretaps were placed on the ambassador's phone line in an act of. 19. Tony named his wife, Susan, as the _________ on his life insurance policy. 20. The labels of many poisonous products warn not to ______ vomiting in case of accidental ingestion. REVIEW EXERCISE 2: The Present Perfect Tense vs. the Simple Past Tense Complete each of the following sentences with the correct form of the verb given in parentheses. 1. (arrive) The plane _________on time yesterday, but traffic was awful. 8 FLUENT ENGLISH 2. (be) It _________ a long hot summer, and it's only August 3! 3. (not call) No one can believe he _________ you yet. 4. (put) Who __________ my keys under the couch last night? 5. (eat) We _________ dinner at six. 6. (go) Christian _________ to school already this morning. 7. (visit) We _________ the Metropolitan Museum when we were in New York. 8. (see) I _________ the Eiffel Tower several times, but never in the spring. REVIEW EXERCISE 3: Irregular Verb Forms Fill in the spaces with the missing verb forms. Present Past Past Participle 1. __________ was/were __________ 2. Do __________ __________ 3. __________ __________ gone 4. __________ gave __________ 5. __________ ate __________ 6. Write __________ __________ 7. __________ __________ begun 8. __________ __________ seen REVIEW EXERCISE 4: For and Since Fill in each sentence with since or for. 1. I don't think I've seen you _________ high school. 2. They didn't speak to each other __________ several weeks. 3. How long has it been __________ you left? 4. We haven't spoken _________ three years! 5. Why did you keep silent __________ so many months? 6. I can't believe you've been in Boston__________ September! 7. I'm not sure why he hasn't called ___________ last week. 8. It hasn't rained __________ six months. REVIEW EXERCISE 5: Phrasal Verbs Place the correct phrasal verb with pick in the blank space in each sentence. 1. What time do you want me to ___________ you __________ from the airport? 2. Alex's mother and sister helped her __________ her wedding dress. 3. Look how you __________ your food. You eat like a bird. 4. Johnny,__________all your toys and put them away. Lesson 1: How Long Have You Been Here? 9 5. Evelyn _________ the label on her sweater because it irritates her. 6. Mrs. Russell told the class bully not to __________ the younger children. 7. Barry's a pretty smart little boy; he seems to __________ whatever anyone says. 8. I've a beautiful crystal vase for Bill and Cindy's wedding gift. 1H LISTEN UP! Now let's work on your listening comprehension. Turn on your CD and listen to Section 1H. In this exercise, you will hear someone describing a situation. As you listen, choose the phrasal verb that could be used in the situation. pick out, on, up pick over, up, at pick at, on, upon pick up, from, at pick on, up, over pick up on, at, over 1I WHY DO THEY DO THAT? Greetings and Small Talk Have you ever heard a complete stranger say hello to you as you pass him or her on the street? Don't worry. That's not unusual. Americans often greet people they don't even know. They may talk to strangers while waiting in line, or comment on the weather when standing in an elevator, or even strike up a conversation while sitting next to someone at a public event. It's true that this kind of behavior may seem too casual—or even just plain strange—toothers, but many Americans consider it friendly. Of course, these little pieces of "small talk" aren't meant to discuss anything very serious or personal or make new friendships. When they end, the participants go their separate ways and rarely commit to any kind of social involvement. This is normal for Americans, who often have a lot of acquaintances—at work, in their neighborhoods, at stores and restaurants, at the gym. But Americans also make an important distinction between casual acquaintances and close friends. Lesson 1: Answer Key Practice Exercise 1 1. drove. 2. hasn't tried, 3. bought, 4. Have/eaten, 5. didn't go. 6. have/seen, 7. didn't speak. 8. Did/miss, 9. Have/danced, 10. got Practice Exercise 2 1. sang. 2. did, 3. were, 4. has/begun, 5. knew, 6. Have/written, 7. began, 8. has sung, 9. Has/ seen, 10. took Practice Exercise 3 1. since, 2. for, 3, for, 4. since, 5. for, 6. since, 7. for, 8.for, 9. since, 10. since Review Exercise 1 1.fraud, 2. rehabilitation, 3. engaging, 4. Amnesty, 5. persecuted, 6. sabotage, 7 Incited, 8. ordinance, 9. procured, 10. affiliation, 11.waiver, 12. solicit, 13. indicted, 14. cited, 15. custody, 16. clemency, 17. conspired, 18. espionage, 19. beneficiary, 20. induce Review Exercise 2 1. arrived, 2. has been, 3. hasn't called, 4 put, 5. ate, 6. has gone, 7. visited, 8. have seen 10 FLUENT ENGLISH Review Exercise 3 1. be /been, 2. did/done, 3. go/went, 4. give/given, 5. eat/eaten, 6. wrote/written, Review Exercise 4 1. since, 2.for, 3. since, 4.for, 5.for, 6. since, 7. since, 8. for Review Exercise 5 1. pick/up, 2. pick out, 3. pick at, 4. pick up, 5. picks at, 6. pick on, 7. pick up on, 8. picked out Listen Up! 1. out, 2. up, 3. up on, 4. at, 5. on, 6. over 7. begin/began, 8. see/saw Lesson 2 Don't Go Away! ARE YOU READY FOR THE LESSON? Lesson 2, Don't Co Away!, will take you on that paradise vacation you've been waiting for! You'll read a brochure for a world-class resort hotel and listen to recordings about some exciting vacation spots. Then you'll learn some helpful vocabulary for an exclusive hotel. But there's more. Lesson 2 also includes: • Helpful Hints for the Present Tense • Questions and Negatives in the Simple Present Tense • Phrasal Verbs with turn • Important Idioms for Using the Telephone We'll finish off Lesson 2 with a culture note discussing why Americans move around so much. But first, let's start with a pronunciation warm-up. Ready? 2A SAY IT CLEARLY! Turn on your CD to practice another very important ending,-s. 2B ENGLISH AT WORK Recorded Message: The Hotel Royale Listen to the following recorded phone message from The Hotel Royale in Florida. Hello, and welcome to paradise at The Hotel Royale, Florida, where an exciting adventure beckons. Located near world-famous Disney World in Orlando, Florida, our world-class hotel features well-appointed accommodations designed to pamper you with luxurious amenities. Don't go away. For more information and for rates and reservations, please stay on the line. We'll be right with you. Now let's take a look at a brochure for The Hotel Royale, Florida on the next page. 2C BUILD YOUR VOCABULARY Once again, let's take a look at some vocabulary related to the topic of this lesson. Accommodations. A place to stay, food and services. Because we were poor college students, we chose inexpensive accommodations for our trip through New Mexico. Amenities. Attractive and convenient material comforts. Whenever Nancy showed the smallest townhouses to her clients, she always pointed out the many wonderful amenities, hoping no one would notice the size. Amidst. Among, between. Meredith found one black gumdrop amidst the many yellow, red, and orange ones. 12 FLUENT ENGLISH FLORIDA'S LEGENDARY HOTEL ROYALE is the perfect vacation destination. We are conveniently located just minutes from Disney World, Universal Studios Florida, Sea World Adventure Park, and the dazzling Orlando nightlife. AT THE HOTEL ROYALE, we strive to make your stay memorable. Enjoy a resort atmosphere where you can stroll among the terraced gardens, sip your drink beside the grotto pool, pamper yourself at our luxurious European-style spa, and savor the exceptional cuisine at the Royale Inn. The Hotel Royale, Florida, features such amenities as: • Deluxe appointed guest rooms • A spacious fitness center • Panoramic views • A rooftop botanical garden • Kitchen suites • Banquet and meeting facilities Your stay at The Hotel Royale, Florida, will be a fantasy adventure. We simply have everything: an exciting location, beautiful accommodations, and fabulous service. This just might be paradise. For rates and reservations call 1-800-555-2000. Appointed. Arranged; furnished, provided with what is needed. No one could help but notice how tastefully appointed the mansions were. Beckon. To call someone or something to come towards you, often with the use of a hand or finger gesture that means"come here." Mrs. Applebee beckoned Tommy to her desk where they could discuss his mistakes in private. Cuisine. Manner or way of preparing food, a tradition of cooking particular to a region or country. There are so many wonderful restaurants from around the world that it's hard to choose a favorite cuisine. Dazzling. Something exciting or beautiful; blinding light. The local baseball team often puts on a dazzling fireworks display during its games. Lesson 2: Don't Go Away! 13 Grotto. A cave or cavern, an artificial structure made to look like a cave. The zoo had to fashion a variety of grottos for the animals to hide in when they wanted privacy. Legendary. Similar to a story handed down from the past; something that is spoken of by many people over many years. The children love to read stories about legendary heroes, such as Robin Hood or King Arthur. Luxurious. Expensive, rich, abundant, magnificent; something that appeals to the senses. The hotel rooms were luxurious with their king-size beds, whirlpools, and sun decks. Nightlife. Places to go and things to see and enjoy at night, e.g., restaurants, theaters, bars, clubs, cafes, movies, etc. Most people who do a lot of traveling like to sample at least a little of the nightlife in any city they visit. Pamper. To give a lot of care and attention to someone. When Sally is depressed she pampers herself with a shopping spree. Panoramic. A view that can be seen from all sides. The Empire State Building offers a panoramic view of New York City. Savor. To find delicious; to taste or smell with pleasure. Elwin finds Indian food so delicious that he savors every bite. Sip. To drink slowly in small amounts. We sat in the coffee shop and sipped our coffee for hours. Spacious. Having a lot of space; very large and open. Being used to a tiny apartment, Bill found Marie's home quite spacious. Strive. To work toward a goal with great effort. It is difficult to believe that some people never strive to improve. Stroll. To walk slowly and in a relaxed way. Mr. and Mrs. Oglesbee strolled through their garden every evening. Terraced. With levels arranged like stair steps. Villages in mountainous regions have had to raise their crops in terraced gardens. World-class. Among the best in the world. The city council decided to build a world-class stadium in the hopes of attracting a national football team. 2D ENGLISH UNDER THE HOOD Many students of English feel that one of the most challenging tenses in English is the present tense. Perhaps this is simply because it's the first tense students learn, or that it has so many different uses. But whatever the reasons, there are three areas that often need to be reviewed: • The -s ending of the third person singular • How to form negatives • How to form questions 14 FLUENT ENGLISH TOPIC 1: -s Endings in the Third Person Singular Only the third person singular, or the he/she/it form, of a verb in the simple present tense has an ending,-s. All other forms are the same as the basic form of the verb:/ speak, you speak, we speak, they speak, but he speaks, she speaks, it speaks. The -s ending becomes -ies if the verb ends in a -y-. Ifly,you,fly, we fly, they fly, but he flies, she flies, it flies. The -s ending becomes -es if the verb ends in one of these letters or letter combinations:-s (you dress, she dresses),-sh (I wish, he wishes),-ch (they touch, it touches), or -x (you fix, she fixes). And don't forget that the ending is pronounced -iz. Notice that some verbs end in a silent -e in spelling, but have as their last sound a -j (manage, judge),-z (lose, cruise), or -zh (massage). These verbs will only add an -s in spelling, but the ending will be pronounced as an -iz: she manages, he cruises, she massages, it loses. (You've already seen this in Section A, Say It Clearly!) PRACTICE EXERCISE 1: Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb. 1. (spread) The tree branches over the sidewalk. 2. (begin) When it's very cold, my teeth ___________ to chatter. 3. (run) Cedric __________ in a marathon twice a year. 4. (bark) The neighborhood dogs ___________ most of the night. 5. (sell)The little girl ___________ lemonade on hot Saturday mornings. 6. (take) It __________ a lot of money and good credit to buy a house in some parts of California. 7. (taste) Red apples usually __________ sweet and delicious. 8. (shine) The full moon ___________ clear and bright on warm summer nights. 9. (expect) Meredith ___________ to have another baby before she is 38 years old. 10. (want) All the employees _____ to take a vacation in August. TOPIC 2: The Negative Simple Present Tense As you know, the basic negative simple present tense is formed with not. But you also need to use an auxiliary, or "helping," verb with not, either do or does. The pattern is: subject + auxiliary verb do or does + not + main verb (without -s!) Here are some pairs of examples, first affirmative, and then negative: / drive a car. I do not drive a car. She takes the bus to work. She does not take the bus to work. Mr. Nasser likes this hotel. Mr. Nasser does not like this hotel. Sabrina has a new car. Sabrina does not have a new car. The not comes between do or does and the main verb. It's often attached to do or does in a contraction: I don't drive a car. She doesn't take the bus to work. Mr. Nasser doesn't like this hotel. Sabrina doesn't have a new car. Lesson 2: Don't Go Away! 15 Remember that you shouldn't put the -s ending on the main verb in negatives. Also remember that you should use only one negative in English: I don't speak Spanish. (Not: *l don't speak no Spanish.) She doesn't have any money. (Not: *She doesn't have no money.) / never walk to work in the rain. (Not: *l don't never walk to work in the rain.) And finally, remember that you need do or does in front of not with every verb except be: I am on vacation. I am not on vacation. They are spending a week at the new resort. They aren't spending a week at the new resort. PRACTICE EXERCISE 2: Make the following sentences negative. 1. Tammy rides her horse to school. 2. We pay a lot to take the bus. 3. The children do what the teacher says. 4. Most women like to give their clothes away. 5. Darren and Tom care about the rules of good sportsmanship. 6. Maddie gets as much exercise as she used to. 7. It gets better than this! 8. Many flowers bloom all summer long. 9. The yard gets enough water. 10. The mountains have a lot of snow this time of year. TOPIC 3: Questions in the Present Tense Questions in the present tense are a lot like negatives, because you always need to use the auxiliary do or does, except with be: Sandro studies English at the community center. Does Sandro study English at the community center? They are in New York this week. Are they in New York this week? Remember to begin questions in the simple present tense with do or does, then the subject, and then the main verb (again, always without an -s ending!). Does Tom know Mary? Do the children enjoy reading? Does Maxime have many friends? The exception is questions with a main verb is, am, or are: Am I wrong? Are you happy with the meal? 16 Is Gary at work right now? FLUENT ENGLISH PRACTICE EXERCISE 3: Change the following sentences into questions. 1. Harold likes to go bird watching. 2. Carolyn understands Spanish. 3. Mockingbirds sing very early in the morning. 4. You catch the bus at Fourth and Broadway. 5. I write to my mother at least once a week. 6. Tina teaches with the Peace Corps. 7. Minnie hides the cookies from her children. 8. The companies send their products through the U.S. mail. 9. The Smiths hear a catfight in their yard almost every night. 10. Taka's party begins at noon. 2E PHRASAL VERBS WITH TURN Turn around. To go back in the opposite direction. Turn around! We just passed the theater. Turn down. a) To lower the power of something, such as lights or volume. Turn down the TV! It's too loud. b) To enter a road, especially a secondary road thought of as leading to a lower place. You need to turn down this road and continue to the bottom of the hill. c) To refuse. It was a great job offer, but I had to turn it down because it was too much work. Turn in. a) To leave a street or highway and enter a driveway, parking lot, etc. / think you can turn in here, where the sign says PARK. b) To go to bed. Lawrence usually turns in around 70.00 P.M. because he wakes up so early. c) To give an assignment or paperwork to a boss or a teacher; to submit. Bethany turned in her paper just as the professor was leaving. d) To report someone to the police. When Robert heard about his brother's crimes, he turned him in. Turn into. To become (used with nouns) Jason got a promotion and turned into a real jerk! Turn off. a) To stop an electronic device. Turn off the TV, because I can't sleep with it on. b) To exit a road or freeway. / think you should turn off at the next exit. c) To be unappealing. This music is horrible! It really turns me off. Turn on. a) To start an electronic device. Our show is on in two minutes, so turn on the TV. b) To drive onto a street, highway, or freeway. Why don't we turn on this road and just see where it goes? Lesson 2: Don't Go Away! 17 c) To be appealing or exciting. (Also used to mean "sexually stimulating.") Dancing really turns me on and puts me in a great mood. Turn out. To come to a party, event, etc. Wow! So many people turned out for your party! Turn over. To reverse the position of something from right-side up to upside down. Can you turn over my pancake before it burns? Turn up. a) To appear somewhere, to be found. Don't worry, your earring's not gone forever; it'll turn up. b) To increase the power of something, such as lights or volume. Turn up the lights a bit. It's so dark in here I can't read. c) To enter a road, especially a secondary road thought of as leading to a higher place. Maybe if we turn up this road we'll be able to get to the top of the hill. 2F REAL ENGLISH Hold On! Just about everyone knows that the expressions hello and good-bye are used to begin and end phone conversations in the United States. Here are some other expressions that are commonly used on the phone. If you need to leave the phone momentarily but don't want to end the conversation, you can say, don't go away, hang on, stay on the line, hold on a minute, or hold the line. In business settings, where there is a hold button on the phone, you can say let me put you on hold, please. This is often followed with /'// be right with you. If a receptionist is very busy, instead of answering the phone and waiting for a response, he or she may say right away please hold or we'll be right with you. And then you'll be put on hold. 2G BRING IT ALL TOGETHER REVIEW EXERCISE 1: Vocabulary Place the correct vocabulary word in each space. Use each of the following words once: accommodations, amenities, amidst, appointed, beckon, cuisine, dazzling, grottos, legendary, luxurious, nightlife, pampered, panoramic, savor, sips, spacious, strive, strolled, terraced, world-class. 1. Mr. and Mrs. Bunch _________ to the end of the pier to watch the fisherman. 2. Mrs. Peabody _________ her tea and reads the paper each Sunday afternoon. 3. If you climb to the top of a mountain, you can have a ___________ view of the valley below. 4. Many people around the world consider Chinese to be their favorite ___________ . 18 FLUENT ENGLISH 5. When Karen got engaged she chose the most __________ diamond ring. 6. I just have to go to Hawaii; the islands ___________me! 7. We drove most of the night to find the cheapest ___________ . 8. A lot of people _________ to lose weight in a short time. 9. Karen insisted that her wedding reception be held at a ___________ hotel. 10. Most English-speaking people know the __________ story of Camelot. 11. Martha has the smallest classroom, and Richard has the most ___________ one of all. 12. Little Gloria fell asleep with her head nestled ___________ the pillows on the couch. 13. The _________ banks alongside the freeway are planted with flowers. 14. Don't eat so fast. You need to learn to __________ this delicious food. 15. Tom Sawyer's Island at Disneyland has lots of _________ for children to play in. 16. Karen insisted on purchasing the most __________ wedding gown. 17. Las Vegas is known all over the world for its exciting __________ . 18. This hotel costs a lot of money per night, but the rooms are very well ___________ . 19. Greg had the flu, so he left work, went home and __________ himself on the couch all day. 20. We rented a lovely cabin in the mountains that had all the ___________ of home. REVIEW EXERCISE 2: The Simple Present Tense Fill in the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in the present tense. 1. (burst) The party balloons are cheap, so they ___________ easily. 2. (cling) Baby Meredith often _____________ to her mother's skirt. 3. (bend) The trees sway and the branches____________ in the cool breeze. 4. (freeze) Oranges and lemons ___________ when the temperature drops. 5. (quit) Gerald always ___________ before he gets fired. 6. (sweep) Marta _____________ her kitchen floor everyday. 7. (stick) This window ____________ whenever you try to open it. 8. (rise) Bill and Adriana ____________ at 6:00 A.M. to go to work. REVIEW EXERCISE 3: Negatives in the Present Tense Make these sentences negative. 1. Our local weathermen forecast the weather correctly. 2. Janey grinds her teeth when she's nervous. 3. The washing machine spins the clothes until they are dry. 4. Terrence winds his wristwatch everyday. 5. The boys spread too much butter on their toast. 6. Gladys and Henry mistake the sugar for the salt. 7. Cats creep up on their prey before they attack. 8. Sharon feeds birds in the park. Lesson 2: 2 Don't Go Awa ay! 19 REVIE EW EXERCISE 4: 4 Questions in n the Present Tense T Chang ge the following statements into o questions. 1. The le eaves fall off the e trees every autumn in this cityy. 2. Joe an nd Tom split the e money for eacch job they do. 3. Mrs. Warren W goes to the t store nearly every day. 4. Jenna is part Cherokee. 5. This sttore has nice things. 6. Edwina's clothes hang neatly in her closet. c 7. Jorge sometimes leavves his keys in his h car. 8. This bank is open late e on Thursdays. REVIE EW EXERCISE 5: Phrasal Verb bs Place the correct phra asal verb with tu urn in the blank space in each sentence. s 1. A huge e crowd ______ _____ wheneve er the Rolling Sttones play. 2. The ne ext exit is one-a and-a-half miles away. Let's ___ _________ therre and get some ething to eat. 3. You ha ave exactly one e hour to finish writing w and ____ _________ you ur exams. 4. I'm pre etty tired. I thinkk I'll __ early. 5. Jackie e had to _______ _____ the job offfer, but she wou uld have made a lot of money. 6. You ju ust missed your exit, so ______ ___ and go backk the other way. 7. It's pretty p foggy, butt I think you can n __ to this parkin ng lot on your le eft. 8. Hank loses his wallet all the time, but it always ____ ____ in the stran ngest places. 2H LISTE EN UP! Listen to the recorded d telephone reco ording and answ wer the following questions. 1. 2. How la ate does the park stay open? What happens if it rains? 3. How much m do daily pa asses for two ad dults, one six-ye ear-old child, an nd one three-year-old child cost? c 4. Which h pass has the best b rate if you want w to go to the e park twice in one o week? 5. What street s is the parrk on? 6. How much m does the parking-lot p shutttle cost? 2I WHY DO THEY DO D THAT? Ameriicans on the Move M You've e probably noticced that America ans tend to movve around a gre eat deal during their lives. This T begins you ung, often right after a high schoo ol, with the first separation s from ma person n's family. It's a tradition for you ung people to move m away from their 20 FLUENT ENGLISH hometowns to go to college, often going to a college or university on the other side of the country. But even if they decide not to continue their education, young Americans usually get a job and move out of their parents' home after high school graduation. This fast separation and movement is in keeping with the independence and individuality that the American culture fosters. It's also a matter of job opportunity. Americans will often go wherever their jobs take them. This may include moving far away from extended family and friends, and could mean making several different moves from city to city or state to state. It's also common for Americans to live rather far from where they work, commuting hours by car or train to their jobs. All of this is in keeping with a tendency toward movement that many Americans demonstrate. Lesson 2: Answer Key Practice Exercise 1 1.spread, 2. begin, 3. runs, 4. bark, 5. sells, 6. takes, 7. taste, 8. shines, 9. expects, 10. want Practice Exercise 2 1. doesn't ride, 2. don't pay, 3. don't do, 4. don't like, 5. don't care, 6. doesn't get, 7. doesn't get, 8. don't bloom, 9. doesn't get, 10. don't have Practice Exercise 3 1. Does Harold like...?, 2. Does Carolyn understand...?, 3. Do mockingbirds sing...?, 4. Do you catch... ?, 5. Do I write... ?, 6. Does Tina teach... ?, 7. Does Minnie hide... ?, 8, Do the companies send... ?, 9.D0 the Smiths hear... ?, 10. Does Taka's party begin... ? Review Exercise 1 1. strolled, 2. sips, 3. panoramic, 4. cuisine, 5. dazzling, 6. beckon, 7. accommodations, 8. strive, 9. world-class, 10. legendary, 11. spacious, 12. amidst, 13. terraced, 14. savor, 15. grottos, 16. luxurious, 17. nightlife, 18. appointed, 19. pampered, 20. amenities Review Exercise 2 1. burst, 2. clings, 3. bend, 4. freeze, 5. quits, 6. sweeps,7. sticks, 8. rise Review Exercise 3 1. don't forecast, 2. doesn't grind, 3. doesn't spin, 4. doesn't wind, 5. don't spread, 6. don't mistake, 7. don't creep, 8. doesn't feed Review Exercise 4 1. Do the leaves fall... ?, 2. Do Joe and Tom split... ?, 3. Does Mrs. Warren go... ?, 4. Is Jenna... ?, 5. Does this store have... ?, 6. Do Edwina's clothes hang... ?, 7. Does Jorge sometimes leave... ?, 8. Is this bank...? Review Exercise 5 1. turns out, 2. turn off, 3. turn in, 4. turn in, 5. turn down, 6. turn around, 7. turn in, 8. turns up Listen Up! 1.8:00 P.M., 2. The park is closed, 3. $104.85, 4, A five-day pass, 5. Olympia Road, 6. free Le esso on 3 Whhat Would d You Likee To Do? ARE YOU Y READY FOR THE LESSO ON? If you''re interested in finding a job in the U.S, Lesso on 3, What Wou uld You Like To Do?, D can help. This T lesson will take you on a job interview and show you a sa ample resume. You'll also learn some s importantt vocabulary for jobs and job hu unting, and you''ll listen to a job hotline in Listen n Up! Here are a few more thing gs you will learn n in Lesson 3: • Ques stions and Nega atives in the Sim mple Past Tense e • Habittual Action in th he Past • Polite e Requests • Phras sal Verbs with work w • Idiom ms for On the Jo ob We'll finish f the lesson n by discussing handshakes—ffor example, wh hen to offer a handsshake and the proper p handshakke technique. But let's begin the lesson by pra acticing pronunciation in Say It Clearly! Read dy? 3A SAY Y IT CLEARL LY! Turn on o your CD to practice some En nglish reduction ns, which are ch hanges that you make to sounds in natural spe eech when they're combined. Reductions R are an a important parrt of natura al-sounding Eng glish. 3B ENG GLISH AT WO ORK DIALO OGUE: Would You Y Mind if I Lo ooked at Your Resume? Z was train ned as a computter programmerr in China, so sh he'd like a job in n the same Qing Zhang field here in the U.S.A A. There's a lot of o competition for f computer pro ogramming positions, but Qing iss well qualified. Let's listen to an a interview betw ween Qing and the Director of Human Resou urces at a majorr telecommunica ations companyy. Ms. Pe eterson Hello o, Ms. Zhang. I'm m Maria Peterso on. Have a seat, please. Qing Than nk you. Ms. Pe eterson Would you like sometthing to drink? Coffee? Tea? Water?... W Qing Yes, I'd like some water, please, tha ank you. Ms. Pe eterson Woulld you mind if I looked at your resume? Qing Of co ourse not. Here e it is. Ms. Pe eterson Well, now. I'd like to o know a little biit more about your y backgroun nd. How long have you been here? ? Where did you u study? You do o have a green card, c don't you? Yes, here it is. I see it here on your resume. And A what would d you like to do he ere at Collcom Communication C ns? Qing Um, I've been here e for about thre ee weeks... may ybe a little over three week ks. I used to live e in Massachus setts before I ca ame here. I was there for a year and a a half, I thin nk. And yes, I do have a green card. I studied 22 FLUENT ENGLISH Ms. Peterson Qing Ms. Peterson Quing computer programming at Beijing University. And I would like to be a computer programmer here at Collcom. Collcom is world famous, and I hear you treat your employees very well. So I'd really like to work for such a famous and wonderful company. Yes, I see you worked at Pellcorp in Massachusetts... very impressive. Your resume looks great, too. You really are well qualified. We need someone to start right away. How soon would you be able to start? I could start next week, or maybe sooner. I'd just like a few more days to get a little more settled in my apartment before I start work. But I'm flexible. All right, Qing. That sounds great. Well, I'll be in touch within the next couple of days. Thank you, and it was nice meeting you. Now take a look at Qing's resume on the next page. 3C BUILD YOUR VOCABULARY Background. Education and work experience. Can also mean family, ethnicity, religion, etc. The applicant's background was in education; she'd always worked as a teacher. Candidate. An applicant for a job or position. There are nine candidates for the office clerk position. Deadline. The date when something is due or must be finished and turned in. Daniel Dean had only one more week to meet his deadline and turn his manuscript in to the publisher. Detail oriented. Capable of paying careful attention to details. Many positions require that candidates be detail oriented. Document. To keep evidence or a written record, such as photocopies, notes, email, etc. Helen documented every instance of lateness or poor performance by her staff. Entrepreneurial spirit. Enthusiasm for business, especially one's own new business. Linda has great entrepreneurial spirit; she opened her own business and has had a great deal of success. Headhunter. An employment scout. A person who matches jobs with applicants. Debbie was a skilled computer technician, so she went to a headhunter to find a better-paying job. Inception. The beginning or start. This company has had only the finest employees since its inception. Interface. To communicate directly, to meet and interact. One of your responsibilities is to interface with other employees in the company. K. One thousand dollars. The starting salary for this position is 55K. Liaison. A person who establishes and maintains communication, a link. The U.S. Secretary of State acts as a liaison between the President and other governments. Lesson 3: What Would You Like To Do? 23 Qing Zhang 2506 Brighton Manor Road San Diego, California 92106 (619) 556-2030 firstname.lastname@example.org OBJECTIVE Position as computer programmer in a busy, productive office. QUALIFICATIONS • Experienced working in demanding office environment with heavy phone traffic • Proficient in Microsoft SQL Server, Visual Basic, Power Builder, Visual C++/MFC • Some experience in Java Script, J Script, VB Script, HTML/XML/SGML • Bilingual Mandarin Chinese (native) and English (fluent) • Strong research skills • Detail oriented EXPERIENCE • July 2002 - February 2005 • Pellcorp International, World Center for Communications, • Shrewsbury, Massachusetts • Computer Programming Assistant—Compiled code into • programs, corrected errors detected in compiling process. • • • • • • October 2000 - May 2002 Internationa] Student Services, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China Office Assistant—Prepared documents for mailing, answered phones, provided information to students, filed documents and student files, made photocopies. • • • June 1998 - August 2000 English Language Institute, Beijing, China Test Administrator—Gave tests to English as a Second Language students and assessed level, answered phones, performed administrative functions and assisted teachers in office. EDUCATION • September 1998 - June 2002 Beijng Institute of Technology, Beijing, China • Bachelor of Science in Computer Programming REFERENCES Available upon Request 24 FLUENT ENGLISH Multitasking. Working on several projects at the same time, usually of different natures. Brad is great at multitasking, often doing filing, answering the phone, and scheduling appointments for his boss at the same time. Pending. Waiting, something not yet decided Jordan has a lot of pending projects; he doesn't know if they'll be approved or not. Perseverance. The ability to persist in an undertaking. Even though Natalie isn't the least bit interested in Jack, his perseverance is amazing. He never gives up! Prioritize. To organize or accomplish according to importance, to be able to do projects in order of importance. Sometimes it helps a person's stress level if he or she prioritizes everything that needs to be done and sets aside what is less important. Proficient. Thoroughly capable in a skill. Do you feel proficient in Spanish yet, or are you still learning? Prospective. Potential or expected in the future. I'd like you to meet my prospective assistant. I'd like to know what you think of him before I decide to hire him. Recruit. A new comer to an organization. Someone persuaded or convinced to join an organization. The army is always looking for new recruits. Team player. Someone who works well with others. Most companies like to hire team players because they know that these individuals will promote a good working environment for everyone. Work ethic. Responsible moral philosophy or code of conduct at work. Elbert was fired because he didn't have a good work ethic. He always got to work late, and he didn't take his duties seriously. 3D ENGLISH UNDER THE HOOD TOPIC 1: Questions and Negatives in The Simple Past Tense You reviewed the formation and use of the simple past tense in Lesson 1, where you compared it to the present perfect tense. Now let's take a closer look at questions and negatives in the simple past tense. Just like questions and negatives in the simple present tense, questions and negatives in the past tense require a helping verb: did instead of do or does. Let's start with questions. Questions in the simple past tense use did, following the same pattern as questions in the simple present tense, did + main verb in base form + rest of sentence. John writes well. Does John write well? John wrote well. Did John write well? Notice that both writes and wrote become write, the basic form of the verb, in questions. It's up to does or did to show you whether the question is in the present or past tense. Greg sailed to Block Island. Did, Greg sail to Block Island? Federica went to work by train. Did Federica go to work by train ? They saw a great movie. Did they see a great movie? Lesson 3: What Would You Like To Do? 25 To form a negative in the simple past tense, use the auxiliary verb did before the main verb, and insert not between the two verbs. The pattern is: subject + did + not (didn't) + main verb. Again, remember that the main verb is not in the past tense, but reverts to its root or basic form just as in questions. She talked to him. I went to the store. Kenneth bought a new car. She did not talk to him. I didn't go to the store. Kenneth didn't buy a new car. PRACTICE EXERCISE 1: Change the following statements into questions. 1. Paul studied in the library all last night. 2. Yuri had a beer with his meal. 3. Marilyn left her books at home. 4. Joe and Rich ran a mile and a half to the park. 5. The Jones family lived in Kentucky before moving to Arkansas. Now make the following sentences negative. 6. We all visited Mother in the hospital last week. 7. They gave me their phone numbers. 8. Tomas withdrew his name from the contest. 9. The phone rang all day long. 10. A bee stung me after the ball game. TOPIC 2: The Past Habitual: Used to, Didn't Use to and Would Always Used to expresses something about the past that is no longer true, but was once a habit or a regular, repeated action or activity. In this case, the verb use does not mean the same as employ, but rather has a special meaning in the construction used to. I used to believe in ghosts when I was a kid. Sandy used to jog along the river every morning. I used to smoke cigarettes, but I quit three years ago. The negative of used to follows the same rules as any negative past verb. The auxiliary did comes after the subject and before the main verb and not is inserted between did and the main verb (use). Use, the main verb, will be in the root form. The formula is: subject + did (didn't) + not + use to + verb. / didn't use to live in L A. I moved when I was in my twenties. He didn't use to drink coffee, but now he does all the time. Questions with used to are formed in a similar way. Just put the auxiliary verb did in the first position, then the subject, then the basic verb use, and finally the rest of the sentence. Did you use to live in LA. before you moved to Buffalo? Did he use to drink so much coffee? 26 FLUENT ENGLISH Another way to express the past habitual is to use would (always) plus the verb. This construction means the same thing as used to, but it can only be used to express a repeated action, and not a specific situation or condition in the past. / would always sleep with the light on when I was a kid. (Because I used to be afraid of the dark.) She would go to Prospect Park every day when she lived in Brooklyn. (Because she used to live so close.) PRACTICE EXERCISE 2: Fill in the blanks with the correct form of used to or didn't use to plus the verb given. 1. (live) I ________ with my aunt. 2. (call) Marilyn _________ her boyfriend on the phone. 3. (live)Tamara _________ with her boyfriend, but now she does. 4. (be) Local elections _________ so boring, but now they're so boring that few people vote. 5. (be) The radio _________ as important as the television is today. 6. (have) A long time ago, people ________ as much free time as they have today. Now let's try using would (always.) 7. (lie) When Candy was a child, she _________ in the grass and watch the clouds. 8. (ask) I_________ for a doll for every birthday until I was about thirteen. 9. (pick up) When Jacobo was in high school, he __________his friends and drive them to school. 10. (eat) The Richardson children _________ cereal in front of the TV after school. TOPIC 3: Making Polite Requests Would is also used to make polite requests. Here are a few examples: Would you get me a cup of coffee, please? Would you please stop by my office at three tomorrow? Of course, the simple command form in English is: Get me a cup of coffee or Stop by my office at three tomorrow. But this can sound a bit abrupt or even rude to American ears, so it's common to soften commands by using a polite request construction. You can also make polite requests using could or can. These all have the same meaning, but would is the most polite. Could and can imply more familiarity than would. Finally, you can form polite requests with would you mind + verb + -ing, which is also a less formal construction. Could you get me a cup of coffee, please? Can you pass me the salt and pepper? Would you mind getting me a juice glass from the cupboard? There's another common polite expression with would you mind that asks permission rather than makes a request. Would you mind if I came with you? Lesson 3: What Would You Like To Do? 27 Would you mind if Brian borrowed your car? Notice that the verb in the if clause is in the past tense: came and borrowed. PRACTICE EXERCISE 3: Complete each of the following sentences with the correct form of the verb given in parentheses. 1. Would you mind (shut) _______ the door? 2. Would you mind if I (close) ______ the window? 3. Could you (get) ______ me an aspirin? 4. Would you mind if I (take) ______ your dictionary for a moment? 5. Would you mind if I (drive) ______ your new car? 6. Would you mind (let) _______ me sit in on the class this afternoon? 7. Can you (fix) ______ me some tea? 8. Could you (take) ______ me to the doctor's office on Tuesday? 9. Would you mind (make) ______ dinner for us? 10. Would you (get) ______ me some bananas, please? 3E PHRASAL VERBS WITH WORK; Work around. To be flexible. To make adjustments to someone's schedule or needs. Karen, don't worry about your kids. We can work around your schedule so that you'll be home when they leave school. Work at. To put a lot of effort into something. To pay attention. The only reason I speak French so well is that I work at it. It doesn't just come naturally. Work for. a) To put effort into achieving something. In the present day economy you really have to work for the job you want, because it doesn't just come to you. b) To be employed by a person or company. What company do you work for? Work in. a) To fit into a schedule, especially a busy schedule. Yes, Mr. Schmitz, it looks like we can work you in at 1:30 today for an appointment. b) To blend into or add gradually, especially using your hands. After you make the dough you have to work in the other ingredients until everything is blended. c) To add or introduce, especially a topic in a conversation. / wanted to talk about the money Dan owed me, but I couldn't work it into the conversation. Work on. To focus on something, to do something attentively. He just may be up all night working on this report. Work out. a) To work to resolve a problem, especially in cooperation with someone else. Ray and Jolene are seeing a marriage counselor to try to work out their marital problems. 28 FLUENT ENGLISH b) To exercise, especially at a gym or health club. You need to work out at least a half hour a day to maintain good health. Work toward. To make an effort to accomplish a long-term goal. Carl is working toward a degree in medicine so that he can become a doctor. Work up. To work to gain energy or courage to do something. / didn't use to be able to do any push-ups, but I've worked up to thirty at a time. 3F REAL ENGLISH Put Your Nose to the Grindstone What do you do? Has anyone ever asked you this question? It means, "what's your job or profession?" Although work can be very fulfilling, it can also be stressful, so as Monday approaches, Americans might say it's blue Monday, meaning it's a day to feel depressed because you have to go back to work. After all, on Monday you have to put your nose to the grindstone, or get down to business. You've got to stick it out for the entire week! After your coffee break, or rest time, you might say to your coworkers let's get back to work. But work also involves socializing and cooperation, so you might ask a coworker to give you a hand or help you out on a project. Then when Friday finally comes around, everyone's dressed down in casual clothes and ready for the weekend, so you might say TGIF! or "Thank Cod it's Friday!" 3G BRING IT ALL TOGETHER REVIEW EXERCISE 1: Vocabulary Fill in the blanks with the following words: background, candidates, deadlines, detail oriented, document, entrepreneurial spirit, headhunter, inception, interface, K, liaison, multitask, pending, perseverance, prioritize, proficient, prospective, recruits, team player, work ethic. 1. 3. Jill has a great ______ ; she's always on time, is never dishonest, and completes her projects flawlessly. If you have legal problems with someone, it's always a good idea to ______ everything they say or do. Nathan has never been able to make his _____ . He always turns in his projects a 4. Can you tell me a little about your _______ ? What jobs have you held? 2. few days late. 5. These concerns have existed since the _____ of this project. 6. There were so many good _____ that it's difficult to choose the best one for the job. Ralph is a real _____ . He always does his share of the work and cooperates with his colleagues. 7. Lesson 3: What Would You Like To Do? 8. A person who works with money really needs to be___________ , since making even small mistakes can cause serious problems. 9. I won't take a penny less than 350 __________ for the property! 10. High school students must take an exit exam before they graduate to demonstrate that they are __________ in English and math. 11. Do you think a __________ could help me find a job in my field? 12. Sometimes an __________ seems to be inherited. Successful business people often have parents who are also successful business people. 13. The Pope's__________ met with the Council of American Bishops to try to agree on a plan. 14. It takes a lot of __________to solve the New York Times crossword puzzle. 15. Put all the files that can wait in the" ___________ "folder until we can resolve the Nelson file. 16. Teachers usually have to do many jobs and often teach several subjects. Therefore an ability to __________ is an important asset for a teacher to have. 17. Which of the new __________ was most eager to join the organization? 18. After Glenn graduated, he had to__________ all the things he had to accomplish because there was so much to do. 19. Donna knows everyone in the company because it's her duty to ____________with all departments. 20. I have many _________ clients, but none that are definite,yet. REVIEW EXERCISE 2: Questions and Negatives in the Simple Past Tense Make the following statements negative. 1. I did the dishes last night. 2. Henry brought his books to class. 3. She exaggerated about how hard the test was. 4. Carlton showed me his homework. 5. Sonia took all of the cookies. Now change the following past statements into questions. 6. The Kelton twins remembered there was a party last Friday night. 7. Jim developed his film at the mall. 8. They drove to Chicago instead of taking the train. 9. Jerry cut his finger. 10. Murphy used all of his sick days for the entire year. REVIEW EXERCISE 3: The Past Habitual: Used to, Didn't Use to and Would Always Fill in the following sentences with used to or didn't use to. 1. Cindy ______________ drive a car, but she does now. 2. We _________________ use our imaginations a lot more when we were children. 3. The Nagles ______________ live across the street before they moved to Cincinnati. 29 30 FLUENT ENGLISH 4. I ________________ like to chew gum, but I do now. 5. Jim and Debbie ________________ be married, but now they're divorced. Fill in the following sentences with would always. 6. (sleep) We _______________ in the car when we took long trips. 7. (chase) The dog _________________ the lawn mower, but now she's too old. 8. (buy) Kent _________________ old furniture and fix it up. REVIEW EXERCISE 4: Phrasal Verbs with work Place the correct phrasal verb with work in the blank space in each sentence. 1. Even though she was busy, the dentist was able to __________ me__________ yesterday afternoon. 2. If you want to excel at anything, you really have to ___________ it. 3. Paul is trying to get in shape, so he's been eating better, running every morning, and several times a week. 4. Sharon is terribly busy because she's __________ her PhD. 5. Kika used to work here, but now she _________ a competitor. 6. Jenny goes to school and has a part-time job, and her boss is understanding enough to _________ her class schedule. 3H LISTEN UP! Listen to the recording for the Great Jobs! job line and answer the following questions. 1. How many jobs are listed? 2. Do you need experience to apply for all of the jobs? 3. What do you do to listen to the job listings again? 4. Which job would be best for a college student? 5. Which job doesn't involve working with the public? 6. Which position does the caller probably want? 3I WHY DO THEY DO THAT? Shaking Hands The handshake is very important in the American business world. When meeting with a customer or prospective client, business people will always hold out their hands for a handshake. This is often true in purely social situations as well — when two strangers are introduced through a mutual friend, for example. Americans read a lot into the quality of a handshake. If it is limp and weak, Americans may assume that the person is weak-willed, insecure, or indecisive. For this reason, it is important to make your handshake firm and strong, without being painful or aggressively firm, because this will also send the wrong message! When shaking hands, grasp the other's hand and firmly pump it up and down once or twice, and then let go. In situations where there is a closer relationship the handshake may last for several seconds longer. Some Lesson 3: What Would You Like To Do? people even clasp the other person's forearm with their free hand. For a more tender touch, the hand of one's friend may be held by both hands and gently shaken. Lesson 3: Answer Key Practice Exercise 1 1. Did Paul study... ?, 2. Did Yuri have... ?, 3. Did Marilyn leave... ?, 4. Did Joe and Rich run ... ?, 5. Did the Jones family live... ?, 6. didn't visit, 7. didn't give, 8. didn't withdraw, 9. didn't ring, 10. didn't sting Practice Exercise 2 used to live, 2. used to call, 3. didn't use to live, 4. didn't use to be, 5. used to be, 6. didn't use to have, 7. would always lie, 8. would always ask, 9. would always pick up, 10. would always eat Practice Exercise 3 1. shutting, 2. closed, 3. get,4. took, 5. drove, 6. letting, 7. fix, 8. take, 9. making, 10. get Review Exercise 1 1. work ethic, 2. document, 3. deadlines, 4. background, 5. inception, 6. candidates,7, team player, 8. detail oriented, 9. K, 10. proficient, 11. headhunter, 12. entrepreneurial spirit, 13. liaison, 14. perseverance, 15. pending, 16. multitask, 17. recruits, 18. prioritize, 19. interface, 20. prospective Review Exercise 2 1. didn't do, 2. didn't bring, 3. didn't exaggerate, 4. didn't show, 5. didn't take, 6. Did the Kelton twins remember... ? 7. Did Jim develop... ? 8. Did they drive... ? 9. Did Jerry cut... ? 10. Did Murphy use...? Review Exercise 3 1. didn't use to, 2. used to, 3. used to, 4. didn't use to, 5. used to, 6. would always sleep, 7. would always chase, 8. would always buy Review Exercise 4 1. work... in, 2. work at it, 3. working out,4. working towards, 5. works for, 6. work around Listen Up! 1.There are three jobs listed. 2. No, not for the health information clerk, 3. Press 9 to return to the main menu. 4.The health information clerk, 5. Number 3, the graphic artist, 6. Number 3. 31 Lesson 4 Laughing All the Way to the Bank! ARE YOU READY FOR THE LESSON? In Lesson 4, Laughing All the Way to the Bank, you'll read about electronic banking, and you'll listen to some information comparing banks and credit unions. You'll learn some essential banking vocabulary and phrasal verbs with pay. But there's more. You'll also learn about: • The Simple Future and the Immediate Future • The Present Continuous and Simple Present to Express the Future • The Simple Present Tense with Prepositions of Time • Idioms about Money and Finance But first, let's listen to the "y-vowel link" in Say It Clearly! Ready? 4A SAY IT CLEARLY! Just like reductions, linking is an important part of natural-sounding English. Linking means joining words or sounds together, and there are actually several different types of linking in English. In this lesson, you'll practice what's called the "y-vowel link." 4B ENGLISH AT WORK Read and listen to the following passage, which as you can guess is all about banking. Not too long ago, U.S. banks were offering incentives to entice clients into using ATM machines. No one wanted to use them though, because machines lack the warmth and personal touch of a human teller. But today, of course, nearly everyone uses ATM machines to get cash, deposit money, or transfer funds. And that's not the only banking innovation. There are other banking services that are rapidly becoming more and more useful to busy people who do not have the time to go to a bank in person and wait in line to see a teller. Banking by phone allows you as an account holder to check on your balances, make transfers, listen to transaction histories, and much more, all by using your touch-tone phone. You can of course do all of this after the bank has closed, including weekends. Online banking offers you the same services by accessing an account online. E-banking, or electronic banking, can be done without cash or checks. Your paycheck can be deposited automatically through direct deposit, and your bills can be paid by transferring funds electronically out of your account. You don't have to write a single check or mail a single statement. Managing your money is simple, too. All you have to do is check your e-statement, daily if you like. Isn't it hard to remember the time when you had to go to a bank and stand in line to do all of this? So who needs cash? You've already got your debit card! Lesson 4: 4 Laughing All the Way to the e Bank 4C BUI LD YOUR VOCABULAR V RY Acces ss Code. A code e or personal identification num mber. / can't get into i my accountt becau use I don't remem mber my access code. ATM. Automatic Telle er Machine. A machine m that dispenses money and debits a ba ank account. If you need to o get cash or ma ake a deposit, th here's an ATM ju ust down the blo ock. Assets. Property. Eve erything of value e owned by an individual or orga anization. (Asse ets can be used to t secure loans by ensuring rep payment through their sale.) My y uncle's assetss are going to be distributed d equally among g his heirs. Balance. The total am mount of moneyy in an account. The amount du ue on a bill. It's importtant to know the e balance of you ur checkbook ea ach month. Cleare ed Checks. Che ecks that have gone g through th he banking syste em and been pa aid in full. You ca an call your ban nk's phone exprress service to find fi out about yo our cleared checcks. Depos sit. To put mone ey into a bank account. Madeleine's savings ac ccount has grow wn becau use she has dep posited a lot of money m this month. Divide ends. Cash thatt is paid for the use of money. The T sharing of a profit. Money that has been divided d and disttributed. Credit unions u pay a divvidend into theirr members' che ecking and saving gs accounts. E-Stattements. Bank statements s that can be accesse ed online throug gh one's bank. Itt's a good idea to o check your e-sstatement online e at least once a month. Identitty Theft. The usse of someone else's e social seccurity number, name, n address, phone e number, etc., to t gain illegal acccess to credit. Sam was a victiim of identity the eft; someo one opened a crredit card accou unt in his name and made seve eral online purcha ases. Intere est. The charge or payment for borrowed mone ey. The new inte erest rate on myy mortga age will only be 6.725 percent. Memb ber Number. A person's account number for an a organization such s as a creditt union. Be rea ady to give yourr member numb ber when you ca all your credit un nion. Portfo olio. Securities or o evidence of ownership o of sto ock, etc., held by b an investor. Financial F planne ers always recommend that you u diversify your portfolio so that you have a va ariety of ways to t earn money for f your retireme ent. Surch harge. Additiona al cost or tax. Be prepared to payy a surcharge when w you use an ATM machiine from a bankk other than yourr own. Trans saction. A withd drawal, transfer or deposit of fun nds. Check you ur e-statement to o see which transactions ha ave occurred thiis month. Transfer. To move fu unds from one account a to anoth her. I'm transferrring $1000 from m my saving gs to my checkin ng account. Volatile Market. A sto ock market thatt changes erraticcally; an unstab ble stock markett. Investtors are worried because it's be een such a volattile market. 33 34 FLUENT ENGLISH Waive. To set aside, to choose not to apply a penalty, a right, etc. If you forget to make a payment on time, some companies will waive the penalty if it is the first occurrence. Withdraw. To take funds from an account. You can withdraw money at ATMs everywhere nowadays. 4D ENGLISH UNDER THE HOOD TOPIC 1: Simple Future vs. Immediate Future The simple future (will) and the immediate future (going to...) are the two most common forms of the future tense. We will eat later. It'll rain tomorrow. We are going to eat later. It's going to rain tomorrow. As you can see, these two tenses can be interchangeable. But in general, going to is less emphatic and more neutral than will, especially for events in the near future. I'm going to buy a new car. (I've decided to buy a new car, and I'll do it soon.) / will buy a new car. (More emphatic and insisting. A stronger intention.) When you want to make a promise or describe an intention or willingness to do something, use will + verb. Don't worry. I promise I'll call you when I get home. I'll be there, no doubt about it. Also note that will is used for events or activities in the more-distant future. Jane will retire in twenty years. Someday the sun will burn out and explode. *Note that shall is also used with verbs to indicate the future, but it's rare in American English. PRACTICE EXERCISE 1: Choose be going to or will + verb. Note that in some cases both answers are correct. 1. I promise I (come) ________________ to see you in the hospital. 2. Do you think it (rain) ___________________ ? 3. She's having a caesarian so the baby (be) ____________ on August 15th. 4. Teddy says he (study) ____________________ medicine next fall. 5. You (stand) ________________ to the right of the bride. 6. Rob said that he (pass) _______________ his test no matter what. 7. Jean (apply) __________________ to several universities. 8. I think Jerome and Cindy (get) ___________ married within a year. 9. August (be) ____________________ extremely hot this year. 10. I'm driving to town later so I (get) ________________ some oranges. Lesson 4: Laughing All the Way to the Bank 35 TOPIC 2: The Present Continuous and Simple Present to Express the Future The present continuous tense, be + verb + ing, can also be used to express the future. It is used mostly to talk about planned events. I'm going to school after work. We're studying in the library at 10:00 tomorrow. The simple present tense can be used to mean the future for scheduled or planned events as well. Notice that these sentences usually include future-time words, such as dates. Classes begin in September. We leave next Wednesday for Puerto Rico. PRACTICE EXERCISE 2: Rewrite each of the following sentences using the tense indicated in parentheses. 1. The budget committee will be in session all next week. (simple present) 2. I am going to take Spanish next semester. (present continuous) 3. Linda is going to start her new job next week. (simple present) 4. Tomorrow we will begin a new lesson. (simple present) 5. The shuttle bus will arrive at 8:45. (simple present) 6. We are going to have a party Friday night. (present continuous) 7. Jay is going to have band practice this afternoon. (simple present) 8. The bookstore will open at 10:00 tomorrow. (simple present) 9. Your favorite TV show will begin in a few minutes. (present continuous) 10.Anita will take the bus to work all next week. (present continuous) TOPIC 3: The Simple Present Tense with Prepositions of Time The simple present tense is used to express future events in clauses that begin with conjunctions such as when, as soon as, before, after, unless, or until. Note that even though these conjunctions introduce future events or action, the verbs after them are in the simple present tense. The verbs in the main clause, though, can be in a future tense. As soon as I get home, I'm going to make dinner. I'll answer the phone when it rings. PRACTICE EXERCISE 3: Use the simple future and the simple present in each sentence. 1. I (call)__________ when I (get) __________ there. 2. I (finish) __________ this report before I (fix) __________ dinner. 3. The meeting (begin) __________ after the boss (arrive) __________ . 4. She (be able) _________ not _________ to get to work unless she (take) ___________ the bus. 5. The fireworks (begin) _________ after the sun (go) __________ down. 6. Barry (do)__________ not __________ anything about it unless you (ask) __________ him to. 7. The flowers (open) _________ after the clouds (clear) __________ away. 36 FLUENT ENGLISH 8. The VCR (record) _________ only __________ a TV show after you (program) 9. The trees are so dry that they (catch) __________ on fire when lightning (strike) _________ them. 10. Your attitude (change) __________ after you (learn) __________ the truth. 4E PHRASAL VERBS WITH PAY Pay back. a) To pay someone money that is owed. Don't I always pay you back when I borrow money from you? b) To get revenge for something. Hannah finally paid her brother back for a joke he'd played on her ten years earlier. Pay down. a) To pay money in order to decrease a debt. It takes a long time to pay down the interest on credit card debt. b) To pay a portion of the total price at the time of a purchase and to agree to pay the rest in installments. (Also: put down.) We'll have to pay $1500 down on a new car and then make payments for five years. Pay off. a) To pay a debt in full. Tom paid off his student loans after 15 years. b) To bribe someone. Mr. Fallows is paying off the building inspectors so they overlook the violations they find. Pay out. To distribute money or wages. Your insurance plan will pay out if you are injured on the job. Pay up. To pay money owed, as for a bet or a bill. Ok. you lost. Pay up! 4F REAL ENGLISH In the Black During the dot.com era, stocks skyrocketed in a bull market, making a lot of people filthy rich. Money making was so easy and people had so much dough that they were laughing all the way to the bank! But a short time later, the bubble burst and the bull market became a bear market. Companies were priced right out of the market and began to go bust. Suddenly a lot of people were down on their luck because their companies went broke and couldn't afford to keep them on. It got so bad that some people could only get jobs where they were paid under the table so that their employers didn't have to pay the extra bucks in taxes. Everyone was in the red. Lesson 4: Laughing All the Way to the Bank 37 4G BRING IT ALL TOGETHER REVIEW 1: Vocabulary Place the correct vocabulary word in each space. Use each of the following words once: access code, ATM, assets, balance, cleared checks, deposits, dividends, e-statement, identity theft, interest, member number, portfolio, surcharge, transactions, transfer, volatile market, waive, withdrawal. 1. The __________ on a home loan is the largest part of a mortgage payment for many years. 2. We made a $750 _________ for our vacation from our savings account. 3. Jack was a victim of _________ ; someone else used his social security number. 4. If you want to know which checks have been cashed, go online to check your will show you all your ______________________ . 5. Joyce always forgets her __________and can't get into her account. 6. Jerry had to list his _________ when he applied for a loan. 7. Stockholders get very nervous during a __________ because things are so unpredictable and a lot of money can be lost. 8. You get a _________ when you join a credit union. 9. Could you please __________ $500 from my savings account to my son's checking account? 10. _________ paid into your account each month are often small, but they add up overtime. 11. If you need cash, let's stop at an__________ . 12. Tell me the _________ on your credit card statement. 13. Kerry never goes to the bank to cash her checks because she has automatic 14. A judge will often __________ the fine if you go to court for your first traffic ticket. 15. The bill was much more than we expected because there was a___________ . 16. I checked on my most recent _________ to see if the check had cleared. 17. Would you like to add a utility stock to your __________ ? REVIEW 2: Simple Future vs. Immediate Future Fill in the blanks with the simple future or immediate future form of the verb in parentheses. 1. Jim promises he (take) _________ you home. 2. Alex (have) _________ a dinner party this Friday. 3. You definitely (need) __________ a textbook for this class. 4. We (charge) _________ a $3.50 late fee each day. 5. Someone (get) _________ hurt if you're not careful. 6. The play (begin) _________ on time, even if you're late. .It 38 FLUENT ENGLISH 7. The bank (not cash) _________ your check if it isn't signed and endorsed. 8. Who (go) __________to the store for me? REVIEW 3: The Present Continuous and Simple Present to Express the Future Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with both the present continuous and the simple present tenses to express the future. 1. The plane (leave) _________ in ten minutes. 2. The meeting (start) __________ at 10:30. 3. The new bank branch (have) _________ its grand opening next month. 4. The movie (begin) __________ very soon. 5. Vincent's vacation (end) __________ on Friday. 6. We (go) _________ to Mexico next month. 7. The Logans (arrive) __________on March 13. 8. Jennifer and Tom (return) __________ from their honeymoon on Sunday. REVIEW 4: The Simple Present Tense with Prepositions of Time Fill in the blanks with either the simple present or future tense. 1. When you (understand) __________ it, it (be) __________ easy. 2. Katy (try on) _________ the dress tomorrow, before she (decide) __________ to buy it. 3. You (not be able) _________ to go to the movies unless you (clean) __________ your room. 4. There (be) _________ a new business here when you (come) __________ back. 5. As soon as David (arrive) _________ , we (leave) _________ . 6. It (be)__________ 5:00 before anything (get)___________ done. 7. Unless you (tell) _________ me, I (not know) __________ how you feel. 8. The birds (move)__________ as soon as you (get) _________ close. REVIEW 5: Phrasal Verbs with pay Place the correct phrasal verb with pay in the blank space in each sentence. 1. The land developers __________ a few local politicians so they would be able to build on the old farmland. 2. You can _________ your credit cards a lot faster if you double your monthly payments. 3. I'll _________ you _________ on Friday when I get paid. 4. Doug swore that he would ___________ John _________ for betraying his friendship. 5. I want the money you owe me. You'd better __________I 6. You'll save a lot of money if you __________ your car early. 7. After Jason scratched his neighbor's car with his bike, he __________ them _________ for the damages by doing work around their house. 8. When she was hurt in an accident, Natalie's insurance policy ___________ thousands of dollars. Lesson 4: Laughing All the Way to the Bank 39 4H LISTEN UP! Listen to the article on credit unions and banks, and then respond to the following statements with true, false, or / don't know. 1. Credit unions do not have checking account services. 2. You can become a member of a credit union. 3. Banks pay dividends on both checking and savings accounts. 4. It is usually cheaper to use a bank than to use a credit union. 5. Credit unions'ATMs are usually free to members. 6. A credit union member can make deposits at any ATM. 4I WHY DO THEY DO THAT? Debt If you drive down any street in a typical middle-class American neighborhood on a Saturday afternoon, you're likely to see at least two cars in every driveway. You're also likely to see people landscaping their yards, or painting, repairing, or otherwise upgrading their homes. Inside, you're likely to find two or more TVs, a phone in each bedroom, computers, video games, DVD players, sound systems, all sorts of home appliances, and many other pieces of material wealth that so many Americans seem unable to do without. All of these consumer products come with a price tag, of course, and if you have a hard time imagining how most Americans can afford so many luxury items, the answer is technically that many of them can't — many people buy on credit. Americans are very comfortable buying on credit, which means that Americans are also comfortable living with debt. Credit card payments are a large portion of many Americans' monthly expenses, but credit card debt is of course just one kind of debt. There are also mortgages, car loans, student loans... and the list can go on. For some people, debt is just an expected part of life in this country, along with all of the stress and other negative effects being in debt can cause. Lesson 4: Answer Key Practice Exercise 1 1. I'll come, 2. will rain/ is going to rain, 3. will be born,4. is going to study/will study, 5. are going to stand/will stand, 6. will pass, 7. is going to apply/will apply, 8. are going to get/will get, 9. is going to/will be to. I'll get Practice Exercise 2 1. is, 2. am taking, 3. starts, 4. begin, 5. arrives, 6. are having, 7. has 8. opens 9. is beginning, 10. is taking Practice Exercise 3 1.will call/get, 2. will finish/fix, 3. will begin/arrives, 4. will be able/takes, 5. will begin/goes, 6. will do/ask, 7. will open/clear, 8. will/record/program, 9. will catch/strikes, 10. will change/learn Review 1 1. interest, 2. withdrawal, 3. identity theft, 4. e-statement, cleared checks, 5. access code, 6. assets, 7. volatile market, 8. member number, 9. transfer, 10. dividends, 11. ATM, 12. balance, 13. deposits, 14. waive, 15. surcharge, 16. transactions, 17. portfolio Review 2 1. will take, 2. is going to have, 3. will need, 4. will charge, 5. is going to get/will get, 6. will begin, 7. won't cash, 8. is going to go Review 3 1. is leaving/leaves, 2. is starting/starts, 3. is having/has, 4. is beginning/begins, 5. is ending/ends, 6. are going/go, 7. are arriving/arrive, 8. are returning/return 40 FLUENT ENGLISH Review 4 1. understand/will be, 2. will try on/decides, 3. won't be able/clean, 4. will be/come, 5. arrives/will leave, 6. will be/gets, 7. tell/won't know, 8. will move/get Review 5 back, 1.paid off, 2. pay down/pay off, 3. pay... back, 4. pay... back, 5. pay up, 6. pay off, 7. pay... Listen Up! 1. False 2. True 3. False 4. False 5. True 6.1 don't know 8. paid out Lesson 5 The Customer's Always Right! ARE YOU READY FOR THE LESSON? In Lesson 5, The Customer's Always Right!, you'll read a dialogue about returning items to a store,