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world T HE DEFI NI T I V E V IS UA L his tor y war II world T HE DEFINIT I V E V IS UA L his tor y war II f r o m b l i t z k r i e g t o t h e at o m b o m b LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, AND DELHI DORLING KINDERSLEY Senior Art Editor Gadi Farfour Designers Amy Orsborne, Priya Kukadia, Elizabeth O’Neill, Dean Morris Managing Art Editor Karen Self Cartographers Encompass Graphics Ltd, Brighton, UK; Iorwerth Watkins; David Roberts Production Controller Louise Daly Art Director Bryn Walls Senior Editor Alison Sturgeon Project Editors Ferdie McDonald, Sam Atkinson, Tarda Davison-Aitkins Managing Editor Debra Wolter Picture Researcher Sarah Smithies CONTENTS 1 Japan on the March Growing militarism and invasion of Manchuria. Rise of the Axis 34 Hitler and Mussolini ﬂex their military muscle in the Rhineland and Abyssinia and form a powerful new pact. THE SEEDS OF WAR 1914–1938 32 Japan’s desire to be considered a world power. Weakness of the Democracies 36 The Great Depression. Attitudes of France, Britain, and the US to the threat of fascism. 10 The Spanish Civil War 38 Fascists and Socialists rehearse the greater Production Editor Maria Elia Reference Publisher Jonathan Metcalf Associate Publisher Liz Wheeler Introduction 12 conﬂict to come. Timeline 14 Japan invades China 40 The start of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937. The War to End War 16 Japanese conquests. The Great War, the bloody stalemate of trench warfare, the Russian revolutions of 1917, the Appeasing Hitler entry of the United States into the war. German rearmament and annexations: Austria 42 and Sudetenland. France and Britain unable TOUCAN BOOKS LTD Senior Designer Thomas Keenes Designers Nick Avery, Phil Fitzgerald, Leah Germann, Mark Scribbens Additional Text Donald Sommerville Managing Editor Ellen Dupont Senior Editor Alice Peebles The Flawed Peace 18 reparations. The founding of the League of Nations. The United States refuses to join. Fascism and Nazism 20 New nationalist political ; doctrines designed to Editors Natasha Kahn, Anna Southgate combat the spread of communism. Editorial Assistants Abigail Keen, Tom Pocklington O BENITO MUSSOLINI 22 Hitler Takes Power 24 First American Edition, 2009 Germany’s failure to create a workable democracy. The eﬀects of the Depression. Published in the United States by DK Publishing 375 Hudson Street New York, New York 10014 A Penguin Company Copyright © 2009 Dorling Kindersley Limited Hitler’s rise and establishment of dictatorship. The Nazi State 26 Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: 978-0-7566-4278-5 DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 or SpecialSales@dk.com. Printed and bound by Star Standard in Singapore See our complete catalogue at www.dk.com 2 EUROPE GOES TO WAR 1939 44 Introduction 46 Timeline 48 The Path to War 50 The Nazi ideology is established in Germany, with propaganda and anti-Jewish legislation playing an important role. O THE BERLIN OLYMPICS 28 Civil Wars in China 30 08 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the copyright owner. to prevent Hitler’s territorial demands. Versailles and the other peace treaties. War Europe prepares for war. Germany marches The wars that developed into a long, drawn-out into Czechoslovakia. The secret Molotov- struggle between Nationalists and Communists. Ribbentrop Pact between USSR and Germany. O RIFLES 52 Blitzkrieg 76 The German invasion of the Netherlands, Declarations of War 54 Belgium, and France. Success of the Hitler’s invasion of Poland is followed by Wehrmacht’s fast-moving mechanized declarations of war by Britain and France. divisions backed by close air support. O ADOLF HITLER 56 Poland Destroyed 58 Dunkirk 78 British Expeditionary Force trapped at Dunkirk. British and French troops evacuated by the 4 The War in the Desert under Rommel arrive to reinforce Italian army. Advances and retreats across Libya. O THE EVACUATION OF DUNKIRK 80 THE WIDENING WAR France and Britain await Hitler’s next move. The Fall of France 82 1941 100 The situation on the home front. The conquest of France. Germans enter Paris. Introduction 102 Timeline 104 Battle for control of the skies over Britain as Life under the Swastika 106 Hitler plans to invade. The importance of Life in France, the Netherlands, and other radar. The invasion is called oﬀ. conquered states. Hardships. Collaboration Despite their protests, Britain and France can do Royal Navy and ﬂotilla of small craft. nothing to save Poland from Hitler and Stalin. The Phoney War 60 Early Skirmishes 62 The Battle of Britain The Winter War 64 USSR invades Finland. Despite early defeats, the O WINSTON CHURCHILL 86 The Blitz 88 O LIFE UNDER GERMAN 134 Surprise German invasion of the Soviet 108 OCCUPATION O SIEGE OF LENINGRAD 136 Nazi Massacres 138 Occupied Soviet Union. Einsatzgruppen and executions of communists and Jews. Babi Yar. targets London and other British cities. Governments in Exile Eﬀect on the civilian population. The French, Polish, Czechs, and other peoples Moscow Saved conquered by Hitler establish governments German advance halted by Russian winter and determined Soviet resistance. O REFUGE FROM THE BLITZ 90 in exile in Britain. Britain Organizes for Total War 92 O CHARLES DE GAULLE 110 112 America on the Brink 140 142 Worsening relations between America and Japan aliens. New roles for women in the workforce. O PROPAGANDA 114 The Secret War 116 Civil defense measures. Rationing. O THE HOME FRONT IN EUROPE 132 Rapid German conquest of the Balkans. Union begins with a series of stunning victories. Evacuation of children. The internment of over China and the Japanese occupation of French Indochina. US policy hardens. 94 The intelligence war, ciphers, and code- O FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT 144 Japan Gambles on War 146 breaking. The German Enigma code and the America Backs Britain 68 Introduction 70 96 Japanese “Purple” deciphered by the Allies. Roosevelt’s support for Britain in the face of Japan’s decision to seize Southeast Asian opposition from American isolationists. The The U-Boat War Lend-Lease Act allows the US to provide Success of the German campaign against much greater material and ﬁnancial aid. shipping from new bases in France. 118 Pearl Harbor O LIFE ON A U-BOAT 120 southern France. Italy also at war with Greece Hunting the Bismarck 122 German conquest of the two countries. and with Britain in East and North Africa. Sorties by German warships to prey on British Extensive new coastline under German control. Invasion of British Somaliland and Egypt. and neutral shipping. Sinking of the Bismarck. 98 Seeing Hitler’s success, Mussolini invades 74 colonies while making pre-emptive strike against US Navy. Events leading to Pearl Harbor. 72 Italy Enters the War The Invasion of Denmark and Norway 130 Operation Barbarossa Relentless German bombing campaign 1940 Timeline Conﬂicts in the Middle East Occupation of Iran. Situation in Palestine. 84 66 GERMANY TRIUMPHANT 128 of Middle Eastern oilﬁelds. War in Iraq. and resistance. The treatment of Jews. 3 O ERWIN ROMMEL British withdrawal from Crete. Soviets eventually make small territorial gains. O JOSEPH STALIN 126 Invasion of Syria and Lebanon. The importance Vichy government under Pétain. Minor action on the Western Front. British bombing of German ports. Actions at sea. O MEDICINE IN THE FIELD The Balkans Invaded French agree to an armistice. Formation of the 124 Failure of Italian invasion of Egypt. Germans 148 Japanese surprise attack on US naval base in the Hawaiian Islands. Roosevelt declares it a “Day of infamy.” America enters the war. O ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR 150 5 O ROUNDING UP THE JEWS Malta and the Mediterranean 180 Convoys and naval battles in the Mediterranean. El Alamein losses to German wolf packs, followed by Allied successes against the U-boats. O SINKING OF MERCHANT SHIPS 206 O COMMUNICATIONS 208 The Invasion of Sicily 210 182 Fall of Tobruk. Rommel’s oﬀensive against Egypt. British victory at El Alamein. O BERNARD LAW MONTGOMERY 184 Torch Landings 186 Allied landings on Sicily. Island taken, but Axis troops escape to mainland. Fall of Mussolini. 152 Held by the Gustav Line 154 156 New Italian government seeks peace. US and British landings in Morocco and Algeria. 188 Relocation of industries to the east. The role of 7 OVERWHELMING FORCE 1944 232 Introduction 234 Timeline 236 Battles for the Marianas 238 212 Landings at Salerno. Mussolini rescued by Saving the Soviet Union Timeline 204 Repeated bombing of Malta. German and Italian surrender in Tunisia. Introduction Showdown in the Atlantic Battle of the Atlantic 1942–43. Heavy convoy THE SHIFTING BALANCE 1942 178 German paratroops. Allied progress in Italy halted by strong German defensive line. women in industry and agriculture. The Japanese Onslaught Bombing Germany by Night 158 Japanese conquest of Southeast Asia, the The German Drive to the East Dutch East Indies, and the Philippines. Oﬀensive of summer 1942 toward Caucasus 190 214 Area bombing of German cities by the RAF. Landings on Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. US Massive raids on Cologne and Hamburg. victory in battle of the Philippine Sea—the and the Baku oilﬁelds. The New Japanese Empire “Great Marianas Turkey Shoot.” Bombing Germany by Day 160 216 Japan exploits the resources and labor of Soviet Triumph at Stalingrad Bombing of German cities and factories by the Return to the Philippines conquered territories. The Burma Railway. Catastrophic defeat for Germans after ﬁercest USAAF. Heavy losses on long-distance daylight US landings on the island of Leyte. Vast naval ﬁghting of the war. German Sixth Army raids without ﬁghter escorts. battle of Leyte Gulf. First systematic use of Coral Sea and Midway 162 192 encircled by Soviet armies. kamikaze attacks. Japanese are checked at Coral Sea, then suﬀer O STALINGRAD serious losses to their carrier ﬂeet at Midway. Guadalcanal 164 Fierce battles for the island on land and at sea. Defending Australia 166 US troops make Australia their base. The bombing of Darwin. Fighting in New Guinea. America Organizes for Victory 168 Galvanization of American industry. Social and economic changes. Women in the labor force. O WOMEN IN INDUSTRY Secret Armies 170 172 British SOE and American OSS, promoting 174 The Holocaust 176 6 218 The German War Industry 220 Despite the bombing raids on factories, O LANDING IN THE PHILIPPINES 242 O DOUGLAS MACARTHUR 244 Suffering China 246 Germany increases its war production using slave and forced labor. Role of Albert Speer. Failings of Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists. The French Resistance 222 Japanese 1944 oﬀensive into southern China. Spread of resistance after German occupation of Turning Point in Burma Vichy zone. Reprisals against local populations. 248 Allies halt Japanese on the Indian border. Prisoners of War in Europe 224 The fate of Allied and Axis POWs. The Red THE ALLIES TURN THE TIDE Operations by Chindits and Stilwell’s Chinese. Recapture of Mandalay and Rangoon. Cross. Escapes and punishments. O JUNGLE WARFARE IN BURMA 250 The failure of German Operation Citadel to The Fall of Rome 252 eliminate the Kursk salient. Soviet victory in Anzio landings. The long battle for Monte vast tank battle in summer 1943. Cassino. US forces enter Rome. Germans The Battle of Kursk 1943 196 Introduction 198 Timeline O USAAF RAID ON SCHWEINFURT 194 resistance movements in Europe and Asia. O ESPIONAGE 240 226 withdraw to new defensive lines in the north. O GEORGY ZHUKOV 228 Island-Hopping in the Paciﬁc 230 Preparing for D-Day 200 German policy of comprehensive genocide of Allied Leaders Plan for Victory the Jews, the “Final Solution.” The building of Conferences at Casablanca, Quebec, Cairo, and Solomons bypass heavily defended Japanese Auschwitz and other death camps. Tehran. Decisions taken on invasion of Europe. positions. Landings on the Gilbert Islands. 202 US advances in New Guinea and on the 254 Planning and training for the invasion of France. Germans strengthen the Atlantic Wall. O DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER 256 D-Day Landings 258 Battle of the Bulge 284 The Battle for Iwo Jima Airdrops followed by landings on ﬁve beaches. German counter-oﬀensive in the Ardennes. Japanese mount ﬁerce defense of the small US troops met by heavy ﬁre on Omaha Beach. US troops encircled in Bastogne. island from a network of tunnels and bunkers. 310 O GEORGE S. PATTON O OMAHA BEACH LANDING 260 Breakout from Normandy 262 Fierce German resistance around Caen, St. Lô, and Falaise before Allies can break out from Normandy and advance toward Paris. Hitler Bomb Plot 264 266 Discontent in Germany. Failed attempt by a 286 at his headquarters in Rastenburg. 8 1945 268 Introduction Timeline Further progress into Germany and the 338 312 Nuremberg trials and war trials in Japan. Destruction of Germany’s cities cities. At Yalta, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin oﬀensives reach Poland and the Balkans. discuss postwar political settlement. The Iron Curtain attacks from kamikaze planes. Churchill’s prophetic speech. The Marshall Plan. 314 Rebirth of Japan and West Germany 342 and submarine campaign against shipping. US aid to the two conquered nations brings democracy and economic recovery. 316 Japanese home front. Determination to ﬁght on The End of Empires despite bombing and desperate food shortages. Independence for India and Indonesia, followed 288 318 Conference in occupied Germany. Demand for Red China unconditional surrender of Japan. Mao’s triumph over the Nationalists in China. 290 294 320 Hiroshima and Nagasaki 322 The Cold War Soviet attack in Manchuria. Atomic bombs stockpiles of ever more sophisticated nuclear dropped on two Japanese cities. weapons. The threat of mutual destruction prevents either side from using them. Polish underground army. Soviets fail to come The Allies Invade the Reich 298 O HIROSHIMA 324 Japan Surrenders 326 to their aid. Americans, British, and French cross the Japanese reluctantly accept defeat after hearing Unsuccessful uprising against the Germans by Rhine. Soviet advances in the East. Desperate last-ditch resistance by the Germans. 274 Italian withdrawal. Fighting between resistance Liberating the Nazi Death Camps groups, EDES, and communist-backed ELAS. Discovery of the death camps and the 300 realization of the full extent of the atrocities Balkan Snakepit 276 committed by the Nazis. Two main factions of partisans: royalist Četniks and Tito’s communists. Latter unite with the O DISCOVERY OF BELSEN 302 Final Offensives in Europe 304 Red Army to liberate Yugoslavia. German Secret Weapons 278 Soviets and Americans meet on the Elbe. Retaliation against Britain through V-weapons: Distrust between the Allies. After desperate ﬂying bombs and rockets. house-to-house ﬁghting Soviets take Berlin. Operation Market Garden 280 Deaths of the Dictators Failure of Allied airdrop to capture bridge over Hitler’s suicide in his Berlin bunker. Admiral the Lower Rhine at Arnhem. Dönitz takes over as head of government. GUNS 282 commemorations of the war. 9 AFTERMATH 1946–1950 328 Introduction 330 Timeline 332 Counting the Cost 334 The horriﬁc death toll. Refugees, displaced O VE DAY 308 350 Memorials to the dead, movies, and other speech by Emperor Hirohito. 306 The killing of Mussolini by Italian partisans. O MACHINE AND SUBMACHINE 348 The US and the Soviet Union start to build vast The War Remembered Resistance and Civil War in Greece 346 The foundation of a new communist state. O MEDALS 292 296 272 344 by other European colonies. Creation of Israel. Potsdam Conference O THE BOMBING OF DRESDEN Warsaw Uprising 340 Bombing of Japan. Mining of Japanese waters Subjects of the Emperor Fire-bombing of Dresden and other German Operation Bagration. Soviet summer island, while their ships come under repeated Berlin blockade. Permanently divided Germany. Netherlands delayed by lack of fuel. 270 Okinawa Japan under Siege Liberation of Paris, eastern France, and Belgium. Red Army Offensive The Fate of the Defeated US troops ﬁght a series of grim battles for the ENDGAME group of German oﬃcers to assassinate Hitler Liberation of France and Belgium 336 The occupation of Japan and Germany. Beachheads established by end of the day. O PERSONAL GEAR O POSTWAR REFUGEES persons, and prisoners of war. Index 352 Acknowledgments 359 Foreword W orld War II was the largest and most destructive war in history. It shaped the world my generation grew up in, and only now are its long shadows receding. Like any hugely complex historical event, World War II is hard to describe in print. Some brilliant scholars have managed, using impressionistic strokes, to sketch out its major features in relatively few pages, although, perhaps inevitably, their purposeful lines obscure its ﬁner detail. Others have concentrated on speciﬁc aspects: shelves groan beneath books on, say, Normandy or the ﬁghting in North Africa. Many Western authors, writing in the chill of the Cold War, failed to recognize the pivotal importance of the Eastern Front, just as Russian historians, preoccupied with their own “Great Patriotic War,” did not do justice to the Western Allies’ efforts. In short, although there is now almost no aspect of the war that is not explored, it remains difﬁcult to ﬁnd an over-arching history of the conﬂict, unconstrained by national horizon or the rigid limitations of size and space, aimed at the general reader and properly supported, as such a history must be, by maps and illustrations. I warmly commend this book because it provides exactly that accessible survey that has long been missing. It recognizes that this war ﬂared up out of the embers of the previous one, and does not simply pay proper attention to the dangerous legacy of World War I in Europe, but assesses the effect of Japan’s dissatisfaction with the fruits of its own participation. For instance events in China, too often neglected, are properly considered here. Both the war’s causes, at one end, and its consequences, at the other, are viewed in the round, embedding the conﬂict in its broader context. The events of the war were inter-related by long and complex threads, and it is misleading to consider any single episode, no matter how signiﬁcant, in isolation. One of the many virtues of this book is that it tells, on the one hand, the stories of speciﬁc battles and campaigns but, on the other, its layout enables the reader to see how these relate to previous and subsequent events. It recognizes the role played by the machinery of war, but at the same time allows many participants to speak at length about their own experiences. The book’s coverage is global. It encompasses events on land, at sea, and in the air, and includes not simply the actions of great men but also the achievements and endurance of the countless thousands of men and women who participated, in a myriad of ways, in this most titanic of all struggles. RICHARD HOLMES, 2009 1 THE SEEDS OF WAR 1914 —1938 The treaties that ended World War I left many countries bitter and resentful and failed to establish a lasting peace. In the political and economic uncertainties of the time, right-wing Nationalist parties had a strong appeal, most ominously Hitler’s Nazis in Germany. T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 THE SEEDS OF WAR The revolution of 1917 threw the old Russian empire into chaos, but under Lenin’s leadership the Bolsheviks managed to establish a new empire in its place: the USSR, the world’s first communist state. Germany’s annexation of Adolf Hitler’s rise to power gained momentum as popular support for the Nazi Party grew in the early 1930s. Here Hitler addresses brown-shirted paramilitary supporters at a rally in 1933, the year he took office as chancellor of Germany. NO EN EN Se (to France) LIBYA (to Italy) DODECANESE (to Italy) TOGO (British mandate) NIGERIA GOLD COAST ANGLOEGYPTIAN SUDAN TA IS (autonomous) NEPAL I N D I A S FRENCH SOMALILAND BRITISH SOMALILAND SOMALILAND AN UG KENYA CAMEROONS (French mandate) TIBET ADEN PROTECTORATE CEYLON TANGANYIKA (British mandate) NYASALAND NORTHERN RHODESIA ANGOLA SOUTHERN RHODESIA PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA EGYPT AN GH AF TRUCIAL OMAN OMAN HADHRAMAUT FRENCH ERITREA A BY S S I N I A EQUATORIAL ITALIAN AFRICA BELGIAN CONGO IRAQ (Saudi) ASIR YEMEN (British mandate) SYRIA CYPRUS S e a CAMEROONS (British mandate) TOGO (French mandate) SIERRA LEONE LIBERIA G R E EC E T U R K E Y PERSIA KUWAIT TRANSJORDAN BAHRAIN QATAR (British mandate) EGYPT C N a Black Sea ALB. M e d i t e r r a n e ALGERIA TUNISIA a n (to France) (to France) IRAQ DA L PORTUGA GAMBIA PORTUGUESE GUINEA A AL Y SYRIA (French mandate) (British mandate) NEJD FRENCH WEST AFRICA ROMANIA GO SL AV I BULGARIA L I B YA Sea AUSTRIAHUNGARY IT MOROCCO MOROCCO CYPRUS PALESTINE (British mandate) RIO DE ORO CZECHOSLOVAKIA YU TURKEY SPANISH MOROCCO ALGER IA POLAND SWITZ. an F R ANCE Y spi (League of Nations Administration) S PA I N U S S R Administration) BEL. LUX. Black Sea S PA I N GERMANY SAAR AL S NETH. M IT TU N I B R I TA I N O C E A N LATVIA USSR FRANCE ESTONIA lt B a LITHUANIA DANZIG GER. (League of Nations DENMARK Sea IRISH FREE STATE GERMANY POLAND AT L A N T I C Ca North FINLAND BRITAIN FINLAND ic NO FAEROE ISLANDS (to Denmark) SWED RW AY ICELAND SW EUROPE ED RW AY Austria in 1938 was an indication of Hitler’s territorial ambitions, but was achieved without force and welcomed by most Austrians. MADAGASCAR I N D I A N O C E A N SOUTH BECHUANAWEST LAND AFRICA UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA The Spanish Civil War (1936–39) was a grim struggle between Right and Left. Germany and Italy lent greater support to Franco’s Nationalists than the USSR provided for the Republicans. T 12 Benito Mussolini, founder of the Italian Fascist movement, forced his way to power in 1922. His style of dictatorship revolved around a strong personality cult and dreams of reviving the glory of the Roman Empire. Italy’s conquest of Abyssinia in 1935–36 pitted modern European weaponry against a traditional African state. Here, Emperor Haile Selassie inspects Italian unexploded bombs. he peace treaties that formally brought World War I to an end world power had not been properly recognized. Finally, there was contained many of the seeds of the wider conflict of 1939–45. Russia. The 1917 Bolshevik revolution led to its leaving the war, Germany lost its empire, had East Prussia cut off by the Polish Corridor, but it was then wracked by civil war. After a brief attempt to spread and was forced to pay the Allies huge financial reparations. The old communism into Europe, the USSR largely turned in on itself. Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were broken up into smaller Weak governments and economic instability began to polarize states. Among the Allies, Italy was disappointed not to have received political opinion to the Left and Right in a number of countries. It was greater territorial rewards, while Japan felt that its emergence as a the Right that won out in Italy, Germany, and Japan. By the early T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 1914 —1938 Japan’s conquests began in 1931. Taking advantage of the Chinese Civil War, its troops overran the northern province of Manchuria, where they established the puppet state of Manchukuo. C A N A D A The Wall Street Crash, NEWFOUNDLAND Great Lakes MONGOLIA J A PA N E S E EMPIRE Mariana Islands (Japanese mandate) Hawaiian Islands OF AMERICA BRITISH HONDURAS P A C I F I C O C E A N GUAM Marshall Islands (Japanese mandate) BRITISH NORTH BORNEO BRUNEI SARAWAK Caroline Islands (Japanese mandate) PAPUA HONDURAS NICARAGUA WINDWARD ISLANDS BARBADOS TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO O C E A N BRITISH GUIANA DUTCH GUIANA FRENCH GUIANA Cook Islands Ellice Islands New Hebrides WESTERN SAMOA Fiji Tonga B R A Z I L AMERICAN SAMOA French Polynesia BOLIVIA PAR New Caledonia The Great Depression The Chinese Civil War lasted from the 1920s to 1949. In 1935–36 the eventual victors, the Communists, undertook the “Long March” to escape the danger of encirclement by their enemies, the Kuomintang. began in the US in the wake of the Wall Street Crash. As banks and businesses failed, more than 13 million men became unemployed. The economic slowdown soon affected all the world’s capitalist economies and lasted until World War II. AG Y UA A U S T R A L I A GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR A T L A N T I C U PORTUGUESE TIMOR HAITI ECUADOR Nauru Solomon Islands DOMINICAN REPUBLIC VIRGIN ISLANDS LEEWARD ISLANDS CUBA R P E D U TC H E A S T I N D I E S TERRITORY OF NEW GUINEA MEXICO COSTA RICA VENEZUELA PANAMA CANAL COLOMBIA ZONE Christmas Island Gilbert Islands MALAYA S TAT E S C H I L E PHILIPPINE ISLANDS FRENCH INDOCHINA UNITED China suffered a second onslaught by the Japanese in 1937. Here Chinese troops take up positions along the Great Wall in a vain attempt to hold back the invaders. C H I N A SIAM which began in October 1929, wiped $30 billion off the value of the New York stock market in one week, causing unprecedented panic in the financial world. URUGUAY ARGENTINA FALKLAND ISLANDS THE WORLD 1918–1938 Frontiers 1925 1930s Mussolini, Hitler, and the Japanese military were bent on means to enforce peace, as its failure to halt Japanese and Italian territorial expansion. Japan seized Manchuria and went on to invade aggression showed. Economic depression precipitated by the 1929 China. Italy overran Abyssinia and, after bringing Austria into the Wall Street Crash also played its part in the failure. Mutual suspicion German fold, Hitler set about dismembering Czechoslovakia. eventually proved the stumbling block to disarmament. Britain and The Western democracies pinned their hopes for peace on the France were forced to rearm, but they still hoped that appeasing the League of Nations and disarmament. The former proved to be dictators might avert major war, especially since the Spanish Civil deeply flawed. The United States did not join it and it lacked the War revealed the horrors of modern warfare only too graphically. 13 T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 TIMELINE 1914–1938 Treaty of Versailles ■ League of Nations ■ Mussolini takes power ■ Wall Street Crash ■ Great Depression ■ Japanese invade Manchuria ■ Rise of Hitler ■ Spanish Civil War ■ Anschluss ■ Sino–Japanese War ■ Italians invade Abyssinia ■ Munich Crisis 1914 – 1916 1917 – 1918 1919 – 1920 1921 – 1922 1923 – 1924 OCTOBER 1925 Treaties of Locarno. France, Germany, and Belgium recognize as permanent the borders agreed at Versailles. Germany promises not to send troops into the Rhineland. JANUARY 1919 Communist uprising in Berlin, led by the Spartacists. FEBRUARY 1919 Start of Polish-Soviet War. Poles retain their independence. AUGUST 1914 Outbreak of World War I; Germany invades France. 1915 Stalemate in the trenches on the Western Front. Trench Warfare APRIL 1917 US declares war on Germany. JUNE 28 1919 Treaty of Versailles signed. Germany accepts guilt for the war, loses all its colonies as well as territories in Europe, and agrees to pay crippling war reparations. 1925 – 1926 OCTOBER 1922 Mussolini and about 30,000 supporters take part in the March on Rome. Mussolini forms Fascist government. German Maxim 08/15 machine-gun FEBRUARY 1916 Germans launch attack on Verdun that develops into six-month bloodbath. JULY 1916 Battle of the Somme. Attempt to break through German lines is a costly failure. 19,240 British soldiers killed on first day. The March on Rome JULY 1917 Beginning of Third Battle of Ypres. 1923 Hyperinflation in Germany reaches its peak. NOVEMBER 1917 Second Russian revolution. Bolsheviks seize power. JANUARY 1923 French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr to force Germany to keep up reparation payments. MARCH 1926 Death of Chinese leader Sun Yat-Sen. He is succeeded as leader of the Kuomintang by Chiang Kai-shek. MAY 1926 General strike in Britain in support of coal miners called off after nine days. The Treaty of Versailles OCTOBER 1922 Red Army takes Vladivostok, the last major action in the Russian Civil War. DECEMBER 1922 Creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. MARCH 1918 Russia and Germany sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. 1920 Germany begins to suffer from spiraling inflation. NOVEMBER 8, 1923 Munich Putsch. Hitler leads failed attempt to overthrow Bavarian government. NOVEMBER 11, 1918 War ends with signing of the Armistice in a railway car at Compiègne, France. Signing of the Armistice 14 1924 Hitler spends eight months in prison, where he writes Mein Kampf. Five million mark note The Munich Putsch JULY 1926 Kuomintang begins a campaign in northern China in an attempt to reunify the country. TIMELINE 1914–1938 “ Do we wish to restore Germany to freedom and power? … Men must not sleep; they ought to know that a thunderstorm is coming up.” ADOLF HITLER AT A SPEECH IN MUNICH, APRIL 20,1933 1927 – 1928 1929 – 1930 1931 – 1932 JANUARY 1927 Inter-Allied Disarmament Commission withdrawn from Germany. German production of artillery and armor is increased. 1933 – 1934 JANUARY 1933 Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany. FEBRUARY 1933 Reichstag fire blamed on Communists. MARCH 1933 Roosevelt starts first term as US president. 1935 – 1936 1937 – 1938 1935–1936 Italy conquers Abyssinia; Mussolini announces annexation of the country in May 1936. OCTOBER 1935 Chinese Communists reach safety at the end of Long March to Shaanxi province. Nazi armband MAY 1928 Nazi Party contests elections in Germany for the first time, a year after the ban on Hitler participating in politics is lifted, and wins just 12 seats in the Reichstag. 1929 Wall Street Crash. The American stock market collapses, throwing the United States into a deep recession and causing a worldwide economic downturn. MARCH 1936 German troops reoccupy demilitarized Rhineland. APRIL 1931 Monarchy in Spain is dissolved and King Alfonso XIII leaves the country as Spain is declared a republic. MAY 1936 The Popular Front, an alliance of Communists and socialists, wins election in France. Germans scavenge for coal during the Depression Nazi election poster SEPTEMBER 1931 Mukden incident—a section of Japanese railway in Manchuria is blown up. Japan begins conquest of Manchuria. Japan invades China JUNE 1934 Night of the Long Knives: many of Hitler’s enemies and rivals arrested and executed. JULY 1936 Start of Spanish Civil War between the Republican government and General Franco’s “nationalists.” APRIL 1937 Deliberate bombing of civilian population in Basque city of Guernica. SEPTEMBER 1934 Hitler proclaims start of 1,000-year Reich. AUGUST 1936 Hitler uses Berlin Olympics as showcase for Nazi ideals. JULY 1937 Marco Polo Bridge incident gives the Japanese an excuse to invade China. Nazi parade at Buckeburg in Germany AUGUST 1928 Through the KelloggBriand Pact more than 60 nations sign a pledge to outlaw war. APRIL 1930 London Naval Treaty. The major powers agree to restrict the size of their navies. The Japanese sign reluctantly—this is the last such treaty they are prepared to sign. FEBRUARY 1932 Japan sets up puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria. JULY 1932 Nazis win most seats in German elections to the Reichstag. Japanese naval ensign The Munich Agreement MARCH 1938 Anschluss: Hitler annexes Austria. SEPTEMBER 1938 Munich crisis. Britain and France accede to Hitler’s demand to annex the Sudetenland, the German-speaking regions of Czechoslovakia. 15 T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 B E F O R E During the late 19th and early 20th centuries Europe was dominated by two alliances, the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, and the Triple Entente of France, Russia, and Britain. SETTLING OLD SCORES France wanted to reclaim its former eastern provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, which had been taken by Germany after the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War. Germany was casting envious eyes over the British Empire and saw creating a navy as powerful as the Royal Navy as key to enlarging its own overseas possessions, while Italy was in dispute with Austria-Hungary over territory in the Alps. In the Balkans there was opposition from Serbia to Austria-Hungary’s annexation of Bosnia and Hercegovina, which contained large Serbian minorities. Russia, keen to encourage fellow Slavs, supported Serbia. THE CATALYST TO WAR It was the Balkans that provided the spark that led to war. The Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip murdered the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, when he was visiting Bosnia in late June 1914. The Austrians mobilized against Serbia, the Russians gave support to the Serbs, the Germans came in on the side of their Austrian ally, and the French then mobilized against Germany. NEW WEAPONS OF WORLD WAR I New technology—in particular, quick-ﬁring machine-guns, allied to increasingly powerful heavy artillery—led to the unprecedented slaughter on both sides. GERMAN MG08/15 MACHINE-GUN Vladimir Ilyich Lenin Having inspired the October Revolution in 1917, Lenin was elected head of state in November of that year. This poster shows Lenin encouraging the workers to take control of the factories, and to seize and redistribute wealth. 16 The War to End War The war of 1914–18 was the culmination of growing tension in Europe, but it spread to many parts of the globe. It was marked by slaughter and the increasing application of technology on the main fronts, and by the end of the conflict empires had been lost, and the map of Europe was about to be redrawn. I t was widely believed by both sides that the war would be over by Christmas, but the opposing war plans did not work as expected. By the end of that year the war on the Western Front had become virtually static, with rapid-ﬁre weapons causing defense to become stronger than attack. Meanwhile, other theatres of war had opened outside of Europe. There were campaigns in Africa to seize German colonies; Turkey, which had been under German inﬂuence, joined the war on its side in October 1914; and troops from India landed at Basra and opened a front against the Turks in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). Likewise, the Caucasus, in sourthern Russia, became a battleground between the Russians and Turks. During 1915 Italy sided with France and Britain and became involved in a prolonged ﬁght against the Austrians along their common border. On the Western Front the years 1915–17 were marked by bloody deadlock. Allied offensives during 1915 failed to drive the Germans back. The Germans attempted to drain the French Army of resources and morale at Verdun during 1916, while both sides lost heavily during the primarily British offensive on the Somme that summer. Spring 1917 saw further Anglo-French attacks result in little gain and also mutinies in the French Army, which forced it onto the defensive. This left the British to carry out the main summer offensive, which took place in the Ypres sector and eventually became literally bogged down in the mud. The war at sea At sea, the Royal Navy had imposed a blockade of Germany and had only skirmished with elements of the German High Seas Fleet in the North Sea during the early part of the war. But in May 1916 they clashed at Jutland, off the coast of Denmark, after which the German High Seas Fleet withdrew back to port, not to One major development of the war was in airpower. At the outset aircraft were used merely for reconnaissance, but soon came the fighter and the bomber. venture out again. Instead the Germans concentrated on trying to throttle Britain’s maritime supply lines with their submarines. This angered the United States, although President Woodrow Wilson was determined to stay outside the conﬂict, but “ Please to God it may soon be over and that He will protect dear Bertie’s life.” GEORGE V DECLARING WAR ON GERMANY (BERTIE, HIS SON, BECAME GEORGE VI) T H E W A R TO E N D W A R AF TER Under the terms of the Armistice, German forces in the West withdrew across the Rhine. Allied troops followed them and occupied the east bank of the river. END OF EMPIRE The war itself had resulted in the breakup of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires. Three of Europe’s principal monarchies came to an end, with the former tsar of Russia being murdered. Indeed, Russia itself was now gripped by civil war, as the so-called Whites, aided by contingents from the wartime Allies, struggled to overthrow the Bolsheviks. Austria-Hungary and Germany suffered the threat of revolution 18ggin the aftermath of the ﬁghting. BATTLE FATIGUE Many of the Allies were also exhausted. France had suﬀered massive losses and much of its northern regions were ravaged by war. Italy, too, was drained, while Britain was economically weak and was faced with having to police former Turkish territory in the Middle East. French troops attack at Verdun, 1916 The battle lasted from February until December and cost the French 540,000 and the Germans 435,000 casualties. It was the longest battle of the war. intelligence that the Germans were proposing an alliance with Mexico led the president to ask for a declaration of war in April 1917. The war in the East On the Russian front it was the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary) who enjoyed victory. In spite of an initially successful offensive in 1916, not just the Russian war machine, but the state as a whole was beginning to disintegrate. In March 1917 the tsar was deposed, although the country remained in the war. More sinister forces were at work, however. Left-wing elements were stirring up discontent within the army and there were increasing incidents of units refusing to ﬁght. Then the Germans allowed Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the exiled Bolshevik leader, to travel by train from Switzerland to 14 KEY Troops mobilized Military deaths Troops mobilized Military deaths 13 12 11 24 MILLION people died in the influenza pandemic that swept through Europe and many other parts of the world during 1918 and 1919. Sweden from where he reached Russia and in October fomented a revolution that overthrew the government and took Russia out of the war. With US troops beginning to arrive in France in ever-increasing numbers, the Germans realized that they would soon face overwhelming superiority on the Western Front. Consequently, during spring and early summer 1918 they launched a series of offensives against NEW WORLD ORDER The victorious Allies now gathered to work out peace terms designed to ensure that Europe would never again suﬀer as it had done during 1914–18. At the same time they established the League of Nations 18gg, a global structure designed to prevent future war. the British and the French to snatch victory before the Americans arrived in strength. They failed to break through the Allied lines and were forced onto the defensive. In August the Allies launched a series of successful attacks, and began to drive the Germans steadily back. By fall, the Allied naval blockade, pressure on the Western Front, and rising political unrest at home, forced Germany to seek an armistice at the beginning of November. Signing the Armistice The German delegation arrives in the early hours of November 11, 1918, to sign the Armistice, which brought the fighting to an end on the Western Front. 10 1 0 Allied Powers Central Powers Bulgaria 2 Turkey Others 3 USA 4 Italy 5 France 6 British Empire 7 Austria-Hungary Germany 8 Russia Troops in millions 9 Mobilization and casualty figures The human cost to both sides was horrific. These figures do not take account of the estimated 20 million wounded. 17 T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 The Flawed Peace The end of the war in November 1918 brought turmoil to many of the defeated nations as various groups struggled for power. The wartime Allies gathered to draw up peace treaties to ensure that never again would Europe experience the horrors that it had just lived through. I n January 1918 President Woodrow Wilson had published his so-called Fourteen Points that were to form the basis of peace in Europe. He called for the return of all territory that had been seized by the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria) in the war, and for ethnic groupings within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, together with Poland, to be allowed selfdetermination. Wilson advocated the establishment of a “general association of nations” throughout the world to ensure future peace. There was also general agreement that the armed forces of the defeated nations should be restricted in size so that they could not pose a threat. In addition, France and Britain wanted Germany and its allies to make ﬁnancial reparation for the physical damage they had caused. Negotiating the peace It took a number of months to sort out the details and in the meantime there had been some major developments in Germany. Just before the Paris Peace “Six million men lie in graves, and four old men sit in Paris partitioning the earth.” “NEW YORK NATION”, JUNE 1919 B E F O R E The German forces retreated across the Rhine in good order after the Armistice had been signed. They returned to a Germany seething with unrest. THE END OF MONARCHY Kaiser Wilhelm had been persuaded to abdicate on November 8 and the new Social Democrat government found itself facing a communistinspired insurrection, with Bavaria declaring itself an independent socialist state. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy had also ended and the disparate parts that had made up its empire began to go their separate ways. The Bolshevik government in Russia, which was doing much to foment this unrest, was now deeply embroiled in civil war with anti-communist elements attempting to depose it. Contingents from the Allies were supporting the Whites, as the latter were called, in the extreme north of the country, the south, and in the extreme east. But the Whites lacked a central command and the ideological ﬁre of the Reds. A NEW HOPE It was in this climate that the peacemakers gathered in Paris in January 1919 to deliberate over treaties with the vanquished states that would formally bring World War I to an end ff16 and ensure that there would be no major war in the future. 18 Victorious leaders French prime minister, Georges Clemenceau (left), and British prime minister, David Lloyd George, arrive for a session of the Paris Peace Conference. Conference, a communist attempt to seize power in Berlin was put down with great severity by the so-called Freikorps—organized groups of anti-communists. A general election brought a socialist government into power, but fearing for its safety, it established itself at Weimar, 150 miles (240 km) southwest of Berlin, and was known as the Weimar government. In May 1919 the unforgiving Allies presented Germany with the terms on which they were prepared to make peace. The Germans were aghast at their severity and tried to get them watered down. The Allies were adamant and on June 28 Germany reluctantly signed the Treaty of Versailles. The country lost all its colonies and, through the granting of independence to Poland, East Prussia was isolated geographically from the rest of Germany by the so-called Polish TH E F L AWED P EACE US PRESIDENT (1856–1924) WOODROW WILSON Corridor, which gave the Poles access to the Baltic through the port of Danzig (present-day Gdansk). The Rhineland was demilitarized, with Allied troops remaining in occupation, and France attaining control of the coal-rich Saarland. Germany was to be allowed no arms industry or offensive weapons like tanks and aircraft. The German army was to be reduced to a 100,000-man service force and the navy also drastically restricted. Further, Germany was also required to pay the 44 countries were represented at the first session of the League of Nations Assembly held in Geneva, Switzerland, in November 1920. Allies $33 billion (some $400 billion today) within two years, an impossibility given the state of the country. The other Axis powers also suffered. Hungary was given independence and the new states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia formed, leaving an Austria much reduced in size and forbidden to form any sort of union with Germany. Turkey lost all its territories in the Middle East. These became mandates of Britain and France, while the Greeks were allowed to occupy land on both sides of the Bosphorus. Apart from the peace treaties, the Paris Peace Conference also produced the League of Nations. It was to be a Revolution in Berlin Soldiers loyal to the socialist Weimar government engaging communist insurgents (known as Spartacists) on the streets of Berlin, January 1919. The Versailles Treaty This page of the treaty bears the seals and signatures of the major delegates to the peace conference, including President Wilson and Lloyd George. free association of states, rather than a military alliance, whose purpose would be to maintain peace throughout the world through disarmament and to provide the machinery to resolve disputes peacefully. It was to be based in Geneva, Switzerland. The toothless enforcer The League suffered from ﬂaws at the outset. Most serious was that the United States, whose president had been its architect, declined to become a member. The US Senate refused to ratify it, Germany’s private armies The badge of the Marine Brigade Ehrhardt, which fought the Communists for the government. An academic and a lawyer, Woodrow Wilson did not seriously take up politics until 1910, when he was elected Governor of New Jersey as a Democrat. Two years later he became US President and was successful in keeping the United States out of the European war during his ﬁrst term; he was re-elected in 1916 largely on this policy. When his country entered the conﬂict Wilson concerned himself more with shaping the postwar world than with the conduct of the war itself. His Fourteen Points were to be the blueprint for this and he was the ﬁrst president to travel abroad while in oﬃce, when he attended the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Prone to ill health, his eﬀorts to establish the League of Nations resulted in him suﬀering a stroke, while the refusal of Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles also aﬀected his health. reﬂecting the fact that the majority of Americans no longer wanted to be embroiled in European affairs and desired a return to traditional isolationism. In addition, none of the defeated nations, nor Russia, were invited to join, and the League had no authority to enforce peace. Even before the League of Nations Assembly had met for its ﬁrst session, war broke out in Europe. Newly independent Poland was dissatisﬁed with its border with Russia and had during 1919 swallowed up much of western Ukraine. In April 1920 the Poles made a further advance, but were ﬂung back by the Bolsheviks, who had all but been victorious in the civil war. A subsequent peace treaty left Poland with most of what it had gained in 1919. All this had taken place without any League of Nations involvement. AF TER The reparations that Germany had been forced to pay under the Treaty of Versailles soon brought about galloping inﬂation. A weak central government was unable to improve economic conditions, and German political opinion became polarized between the extreme Left and the 5 MILLION extreme Right. MARK NOTE VERSAILLES REVERSED Turkey, too, was dissatisﬁed by the Treaty of Sèvres, which brought it peace. In 1922 Turkish troops drove the Greeks from mainland Turkey and forced the British to evacuate their garrison at Chanak. Subsequently the Allies dropped all claims to territory on the Asian side of the Bosphorus. FUTURE PROBLEMS Yet two of the victors were also dissatisﬁed. Italy had gained territory from Austria, including the port of Trieste, but was disappointed not to be given any of Germany’s African colonies. A series of weak governments served to increase discontent and political instability in Italy. This would result in Mussolini seizing power 20gg. Japan had gained German concessions in China and some minor Paciﬁc islands, but did not feel that it was being treated as a major world power. Rapid population growth and a lack of natural resources would result in Japan’s invasion of Manchuria 32gg. 19 T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 B E F O R E Fascism and Nazism were characterized by extreme nationalism and militarism, as well as rabid anti-Communism. UNREST IN ITALY Economically weak before the war, 1914–18 merely served to weaken Italy further. The Russian Revolution inspired a wave of industrial strikes, as well as land seizures by peasants, which the Italian government was powerless to prevent. There was also much disappointment at the outcome of the peace treaties ff18. This ﬁrst manifested itself in September 1919, when a group of nationalists seized the former Austrian port of Fiume, which was now part of the new state of Yugoslavia, and held it for 15 months before being evicted. By this time another, much larger, nationalist movement had materialized in northern Italy. GERMANY FRUSTRATED Two major factors served to fan the ﬂames of right wing extremism in Germany. The ﬁrst was disgust in some quarters that the Weimar government had accepted the harsh Allied peace terms without more of a ﬁght. There was also a body of opinion that argued that the German Army had not been defeated in the ﬁeld and that the politicians had stabbed it in the back by signing the November 1918 Armistice agreement ff16. A new political group was about to be created that would reﬂect these views and more. KEY MOMENT THE MARCH ON ROME On 27 October 1922 Fascist-instigated riots broke out in several Italian towns and its leadership called on the Italian prime minister to resign. Next morning four columns of Blackshirts set out from the north of the country for Rome. The government wanted to declare martial law, but King Victor Emmanuel refused, and while Mussolini was in Milan the king summoned him to Rome to form a government. The following day he accepted the King’s oﬀer in person. His men were still some way from Rome, and the king agreed that they could come by special train to the capital and parade. Mussolini’s government featured Social Democrats, Catholics, Liberals, and only four Fascists. This would change. Fascism and Nazism The rise of Communism in Europe, encouraged by the October 1917 Russian Revolution, helped to trigger the creation of extreme right wing movements—Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany. Weak central government and general domestic discontent also encouraged this polariziation. B enito Mussolini was a teacher turned journalist, who had fought in World War I. Disillusioned with the Italian Socialist government,in March 1919 he and a small group of men with mixed political persuasions formed the Fascio di Combattimento (literally, Fighting Band) in Milan. While the group was essentially nationalist, its policies were incoherent and as a result, it gained few votes in the October 1919 elections. Shortly after this Mussolini was arrested for plotting to overthrow the government by force, but he was released without charge, as the Fascist movement was not considered Italian parliament. He to be a threat. advocated an alliance Successive with the Socialists in ineffectual order to broaden his governments political base, but his attempted to followers objected. placate both the Finally, in August Left and the Right 1922 a general in Italy, but strike was called, without success, at which point and as 1920 wore Mussolini declared on political unrest that if the government increased. Mussolini failed to prevent it, the seized on the instability Fascists would. To of the time to change reinforce the point they Fascist badge his essentially Socialist burned Socialist buildings The Fasces is an ancient Roman symbol platform for a of authority. The bundle of reeds indicates in several cities in the virulently antinorth. Two months later collective strength and the ax, power. Communist one. Mussolini decided that the moment had come to march on the seat of government in Rome and seize Fascist law and order power for himself (see left). Mussolini’s supporters wore black shirts, giving them their nickname, and frequently clashed with the The great dictator Communists. They also worked to Once appointed prime minister, remove Communist-dominated town Mussolini obtained full powers for councils in northern Italy. Soon an a year from parliament to carry out increasing number of Italians began to essential reforms. He also personally view the Fascists as a bulwark of order took over the key ministries, even in an otherwise fractured society. In though his Fascists were merely a May 1921 Mussolini and 34 of his minority in what was a coalition followers were elected to seats in the government. During the next three “Either the Government will be given to us or we shall seize it by marching on Rome.” MUSSOLINI, TO HIS FOLLOWERS, OCTOBER 1922 20 Fighting the Communists Blackshirts manning a barricade outside the Fascist HQ in Milan just prior to the March on Rome. Their main aim was to oust the Communists from town councils. years Mussolini gradually assumed dictatorial powers. This culminated in a law, passed on Christmas Eve 1925, which made him no longer accountable to parliament. By now he had become known as “Il Duce” (The Leader) and three years later all political parties, other than the Fascists, were banned. In the case of Germany the path to power for the Nazis proved to be a much longer one. Like Mussolini, Adolf The Beer Hall Putsch Hitler makes a speech in 1940 during the annual commemoration of the “Beer Hall Putsch.” The coup attempt was launched during a rally in the same hall. FA S C I S M A N D N A Z I S M Hitler had been a combat soldier, but he was not the founder of what became the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi Party. This had been formed in Munich as the German Workers’ Party by a small group of nationalists in the immediate aftermath “There is no such thing as treason against the traitors of 1918.” HITLER, AT HIS TRIAL AFTER THE FAILED MUNICH PUTSCH, APRIL 1924 of the 1919 civil war in Bavaria. Hitler was still in the army and was sent to Bavaria to investigate nationalist groups and promptly joined this party. Within two years he had become chairman and had changed its name. The Nazi philosophy Hitler was determined to break the shackles of the treaty of Versailles and to make Germany a great nation again. Race issues were also at the forefront of his political manifesto. Hitler believed the Aryan race to be superior to all others, and that the Jews were as great an evil to the world as communism. Like Mussolini, he believed in strongarm tactics to maintain order and created the Sturmabteilungen (SA) as his storm troops and the Schutzstaffel (SS) as his personal bodyguards. By 1923 Germany was in a desperate economic situation. It was unable to meet the reparations payments, so French troops occupied the industrial Ruhr region. Hitler believed the Weimar government was near to collapse and staged a coup in Munich. It misﬁred and he was imprisoned for nine months, during which time he wrote his political testimony, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). Hitler was thereafter banned from speaking in public. In 1924 the Allies relaxed their demands on the reparations payments and Germany’s economic situation began to improve. Nazi armband The swastika is an ancient symbol from South Asia that was often regarded as a good luck charm. The Nazis saw it as representing the ancient Aryan race. This red cotton armband with an oak leaf border would have been worn by a high-ranking Nazi Party official. AF TER Hitler’s attack on Munich Nazi storm troopers are trucked into Munich for Hitler’s unsuccessful 1923 coup. The uprising in November also had the support of Erich von Ludendorff, the wartime chief of staff of the German Army. Extreme nationalism had taken hold of Italy, but in Germany Hitler had completely misjudged the mood of the country. The economy had strengthened, and people were optimistic about their future. IL DUCE The Italy that Mussolini created was certainly more eﬃcient and stable than that which had gone before it. Much of the rest of Europe, as well as the US, was impressed by what he had been able to achieve; as it was said, Mussolini “made the trains run on time.” But behind it all, Mussolini had another agenda with two principal aims: the Mediterranean was to be an Italian sea and he was determined to expand Italy’s African empire 34gg. FREEDOM TO SPEAK The ban on Hitler’s political activity was lifted in 1927. By this time, thanks to the relaxation of the conditions on the reparations payments, life for the average German had improved considerably, with Berlin having taken over from Paris as the most vibrant capital in Europe. Germany had also been admitted to the League of Nations and was regaining its self-respect. With support for the Nazis waning, Hitler now decided that the only way to gain power was to take control of the country through its parliament 24gg. 21 T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 ITALIAN DICTATOR Born 1883 Died 1945 Benito Mussolini “I want to make Italy great, respected, and feared.” BENITO MUSSOLINI, 1925 E leven years before Adolf Hitler came to power as the leader of Nazi Germany, Mussolini was already turning Italy into Europe’s ﬁrst centralized fascist state. The ﬁrst fascist dictator in Europe, he coined the term “Fascism” and developed its associated ideology. He went on to rule Italy as a dictator for the next 20 years; it was his disastrous involvement in World War II that ultimately led to his downfall. Rise to power Mussolini began his political life as a socialist but, always prone to dramatic changes of mind, he abandoned the tenets of socialism in favor of an extreme form of nationalism that he dubbed “Fascism.” In 1919 he launched the Fasci di Combattimento, local-based fascist groups mainly attracting young patriotic war veterans. In 1921 these groups were brought The Battle for Grain In 1925 Mussolini launched a “Battle for Grain,” in which thousands of new farms were built on land reclaimed by draining the Pontine Marshes in central Italy. Grain output was increased, but at the expense of other crops. together at a congress to found the Fascist Party, which had a strong right-wing nationalist, anti-liberal, and anti-socialist program. Postwar Italy was in economic, social, and political turmoil, and Mussolini, a vain and egotistical man, presented himself to his nation as the only individual capable of restoring order. His emphasis on nationalism and the need to rid Italy of socialists won increasing support, particularly from the lower middle classes, industrialists, and wealthy agriculturalists. In 1921 Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, and his Fascist Party gained 35 seats in the Italian parliament. In 1922, as Italy’s political crisis worsened, King Victor Emmanuel III was forced to invite Mussolini to form a government. The “Il Duce” In reality a short man, Mussolini required photos and other depictions of himself to project the sense of a powerful and commanding physical presence. B E N I TO M U S S O L I N I following year the Fascist Party gained more than 60 percent of the vote and Mussolini’s hold on power was assured. Over the next few years, using a skilfull mix of propaganda and force, Mussolini centralized control into his own hands. He suppressed political opposition, took over the press, and dismantled the parliamentary process. By 1928 he had turned Italy into a totalitarian state. Addressing his followers TIMELINE An emotional orator and skilled propagandist, Mussolini addressed mass crowds in his drive to promote a cult of personality around himself. The Italian public were constantly told that Mussolini was always right. O July 29, 1883 Mussolini is born in the rural town of Predappio, near Forlì, Romagna. His mother is a teacher; his father a blacksmith and socialist. O 1910 Becomes secretary of the Forlì socialist party; a committed pacifist, he describes himself as an “anti-patriot.” Marries Rachel Guidi. O 1911 Opposes the war between Italy and Turkey and is imprisoned for pacifist propaganda. Moves to Milan and takes up editorship of the socialist newspaper Avanti! (Forward!). Dictatorial powers As dictator, Mussolini personally headed the Fascist Party and militia and controlled many government ministries. At one point he was personally responsible for eight key ministries, ranging from public works through to foreign policy. He spent much of his time promoting himself as supreme leader and indoctrinating the population with the ideology of Fascism, which he described as the essential doctrine of the 20th century. He also increasingly brought industry and agriculture under state control. Free trade unions were banned and a O 1914 Abandons socialism after the outbreak of World War I, and founds a pro-war group, Fasci d‘Azione Rivoluzionaria, a prototype fascist organization. Called up for military service and is wounded in an undistinguished military career. O March 1919 Launches the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, a fascist organization that attracts many unemployed war veterans. Roman emperor Mussolini made much of his “Roman” features; in this propaganda painting he is even superimposed over an image of Rome. Yet Mussolini invaded Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia) that same year, bringing condemnation from the League of Nations, and from 1936 he provided massive military support to General “The alliance between Italy and Germany is not only between two states or two armies … but between two peoples.” BENITO MUSSOLINI, SPEECH DELIVERED IN ROME, FEBRUARY 23, 1941 “corporative state” developed, dividing the economy into different sectors and organizing employers and workers into party-controlled groups. In practice, Mussolini’s new state was unwieldy, corrupt, and inefﬁcient. Only party bureaucrats and the wealthier classes received much beneﬁt from his policies. Imperial dreams and defeat Mussolini dreamed of establishing Italy as a signiﬁcant European power, and saw himself as a great statesman. He wished to expand Italian inﬂuence in the Mediterranean and Africa, and sought to achieve this by diplomatic manoeuvring. He signed the Locarno Pact guaranteeing the borders of Belgium, France, and Germany, and by 1929 he was seen by Winston Churchill as a “Roman genius.” From the mid-1930s, however, he took a more aggressive attitude. He was opposed to German designs on Austria, and in 1935 joined with Britain and France to form an anti-Hitler front. Franco in the Spanish Civil War. Both actions alienated France and Britain and moved Italy closer to Nazi Germany. In 1938 Mussolini posed as a mediator at the Munich Conference but went on to sign a Pact of Steel with Germany, committing both their countries to mutual support in the event of war. When war began, Mussolini initially kept Italy neutral, waiting to see how events progressed. After Germany’s successful invasion of France, Mussolini eventually sided with Germany and declared war on France and Britain. Despite Mussolini’s talk of An ignominious death The bodies of Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci, were displayed at a gas station in Milan. Passers-by mutilated the bodies in a humiliating end for Il Duce. Italy’s war aims and victory, his nation was not ready for war. He sent troops into Greece, but they were ill-prepared and German troops had to be sent to help. In 1941 Mussolini followed Hitler’s lead by declaring war on the United States. His obvious dependence on Hitler, and the introduction of anti-Jewish laws in Italy, lost him much support. So, too, did the constant military defeats. By 1943 Italy had lost prized possessions in Africa and suffered defeat on all fronts. Mussolini’s colleagues turned against him, and he was removed from ofﬁce and imprisoned. Rescued by German paratroopers, he was taken to northern Italy, where under Hitler’s instructions he set up a puppet government. In 1945, as Allied troops advanced through Italy, Mussolini was captured trying to escape to Switzerland, and was executed by Italian partisans. O 1921 Launches the National Fascist Party in Rome and is elected to the Chamber of Deputies. His armed squads, or Blackshirts, terrorize his former socialist colleagues. O October 28, 1922 Rome slips into political chaos. Mussolini and his followers threaten to march on Rome. King Victor Emmanuel III invites Mussolini to Rome to form a government. O 1925 Mussolini assumes dictatorial powers. He adopts the title “Il Duce,” takes over government ministries, and sets out to establish Italy as a great power. “THE DOCTRINE O October– OF FASCISM” BY November 1925 MUSSOLINI Signs the Locarno Pact with Britain, France, Belgium, and Germany, which guarantees Germany’s existing frontiers. O 1935 Invades Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia) in defiance of the League of Nations. His actions alienate Britain and France. O 1936–39 Sends troops and equipment to Spain to support nationalist General Franco. His actions bring him closer to Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany. O October 1936 Signs a friendship treaty with Germany. At a speech in Milan in November, he describes their relationship as an “axis” around which European countries would revolve, a term subsequently used to describe the Axis powers. O 1938 Attends the Munich Conference, ostensibly as a moderate working for peace. O June 1940 Declares war on Britain and France. Having already annexed Albania in 1939, Mussolini now invades Greece. O 1943 Allied troops land in Sicily and rout Italian forces. Mussolini is overthrown and imprisoned, but rescued by German forces. O April 28, 1945 As Allies advance through northern Italy, Mussolini is captured and shot. 23 T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 B E F O R E During the mid-1920s Germany began to recover economically and support for the political extremes was reduced. 1928 ELECTIONS The failure of Hitler’s Munich putsch ff20–21 caused him to change his strategy. He would now pursue power through the ballot box. His ﬁrst opportunity came with the elections to the Reichstag, the German parliament, in May 1928. He himself could not run since he was still technically an Austrian citizen. The elections proved a disappointment, with the Nazis gaining a mere 12 seats out of 491. A further boost to the German economy came the following year when the wartime Allies eased the reparations payments ff18–19 still further, extending them until 1988. WALL STREET CRASH In October 1929 the US stock market collapsed. Economies all round the world suﬀered, especially that of Germany, which was still more fragile than most. This led to increasing unrest and presented Hitler with a new opportunity. Hitler Takes Power Unlike Mussolini, Hitler gained power through democratic means. It was only after he became chancellor of Germany that he showed his true colors, and in the space of a few weeks established an authoritarian regime that would brook no political opposition. I n March 1930 Germany’s coalition government, led by the Social Democrats, resigned, unable to agree a coherent policy for dealing with the country’s worsening economic situation. The president, the venerable wartime hero, Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, appointed the conservative ﬁnancial expert, Heinrich Brüning, as chancellor. This was in response “ We have become once more true Germans …” ADOLF HITLER, MARCH 1933 The bad old days Under Nazi rule, scenes like this one showing men, women, and children scavenging for coal in the 1920s would become a thing of the past. to political lobbying by the army. Brüning’s government did not enjoy a majority in the Reichstag and could not get a bill to reform the national ﬁnances passed. Brüning therefore had it enacted as an emergency decree, which was allowed by the Constitution, but the Reichstag still blocked it and Brüning felt forced to go to the country. Changed political climate The situation in Germany was now very different from what it had been in 1928. Both Communists and Nazis were vociferous in their efforts to drum up popular support and there were H I T L E R TA K E S P O W E R Nazi election poster The party’s slogan for the May 1928 elections was aimed clearly at the unemployed, promising “Work, freedom, and bread.” frequent street ﬁghts between the two. The upshot was that the two extremist parties radically increased their share of the votes, with the Communists gaining 77 seats and the Nazis 107. This meant that the more moderate parties were no longer able to form a parliamentary majority and Brüning increasingly had to rule by decree. His severe ﬁnancial measures, which included drastically cutting public expenditure, made him increasingly unpopular. True, in 1932 at the Lausanne Conference, he did manage to negotiate an end to the reparations payments and also tried to establish an economic union with Austria—although the International Court at The Hague ruled that this was against the Versailles Treaty—but it was all too late to raise his popularity. In the spring of 1932 Hindenburg’s term as president came to an end. Brüning saw the Field Marshal as his best protection against the Nazis and other extremists and wanted him to remain in ofﬁce. The Nazis and other nationalists objected and so Hindenburg had to stand for reelection. This time Hitler—who had Nazi headquarters from 1931 to 1933 was the Brown House, a palatial former private residence on Briennerstrasse, Munich. ﬁnally gained German citizenship—and the Communist leader, Ernst Thälmann, stood against him. After a re-run Hindenburg was re-elected, winning 53 percent of the vote, with Hitler runner-up after gaining over one third. His star was clearly rising. Jockeying for power Hindenburg wanted Brüning to form a more right-wing cabinet to reﬂect the changing political face of Germany, but the latter refused and resigned. He was succeeded by Franz von Papen, who was rejected by all shades of “The star of Germany will rise and yours will sink … I do not want your vote. Germany will be free, but not through you!” HITLER, TO THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS IN THE ENABLING ACT DEBATE, MARCH 23, 1933 KEY MOMENT THE REICHSTAG FIRE On the evening of February 27, 1933, a ﬁre suddenly broke out in the Reichstag, the German parliament building in Berlin. Hermann Goering, Hitler’s Minister of the Interior, was quickly on the scene. A feeble-minded Dutchman, Marinus van der Lubbe, was arrested on the spot and publicly accused by Goering of being a communist agent. The next day Hitler informed Hindenburg of the existence of a communist plot to subvert the state and persuaded him to sign an Emergency Decree for the Defense of People and State. This not only provided the government with emergency powers, it suspended basic civil liberties such as freedom of the press and freedom of assembly. Some 4,000 people were arrested in connection with the ﬁre, but only ﬁve, including the leader of the Communist Party in parliament, appeared in court at Leipzig that September. Van der Lubbe alone was found guilty and executed. Whether he was actually responsible for the ﬁre or whether it was started by the Nazis themselves has never been suﬃciently proved either way. political opinion. And so, in July 1932 another general election was called. Street brawls were even more widespread than in 1930. The Nazis, with 209 seats, became the largest party in the Reichstag, but Hitler refused to join in any coalition and so another election was held that November. The Nazis won slightly fewer seats, partly because Papen had been taking a tough stand at the International Disarmament Conference and also because the economic situation had improved. This was not enough to save Papen, however. The army refused to support him, so to counter this Hindenburg made its spokesman, General Kurt von Schleicher, chancellor. This was not what Hitler wanted at all. He moved to isolate Schleicher by allying himself to Papen, thus preventing the general from forming a government. Accepting the inevitable, on January 30, 1933, Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor, with Papen as vice-chancellor. With only two other Nazis in the cabinet, Papen believed that Hitler could be controlled, but he was soon proved wrong. Hitler’s ﬁrst step was to call another general election for March 5. Then, on February 27 there was a ﬁre at the Reichstag (see left). In the election that followed the Nazis gained only 44 percent of the vote, but it was enough. Building on the restrictions he had persuaded Hindenburg to put in place 17,277,180 Germans voted for the Nazi Party in the democratic elections of March 1933, the last to be held in the country until after 1945. after the Reichstag ﬁre, Hitler succeeded in getting his Enabling Act into the statute book on March 23. This gave him the right to rule by decree and effectively banned all political parties other than the Nazis. Within The new chancellor and the old president In 1933, the first year of his chancellorship, Hitler sits next to Hindenburg at the annual commemoration of the German defeat of the Russians at Tannenberg in August 1914. On the right is Hermann Goering. weeks overt opposition to Hitler had been crushed. Germany was now a dictatorship in all but name. The ﬁnal end to democratic Germany came with Hindenburg’s death on August 2, 1934. Hitler was now head of state and free to realize his dreams of a new Greater Germany. AF TER The new Germany soon found itself subject to unprecedented levels of state control. The Nazis instilled a sense of discipline in the German people that would contribute to their early successes in World War II. NAZISM’S APPARENT SUCCESS The German economy quickly recovered 26–27gg largely due to measures conceived under the Weimar republic, and accelerated rearmament. There were dramatic technological developments, some again already in existence as concepts, but implemented by the Nazis, ranging from aircraft to the highways. The organizational ability of the Nazi regime was demonstrated at the 1936 Olympic Games 28–29ggand annual Nuremberg rallies. Many outside observers were impressed and approved of the new order. THE DARK SIDE As well as banning political dissent, Hitler could now concentrate on creating a racially pure country 26–27gg. At the same time he was intent on breaking the shackles of Versailles, even to the extent of redrawing the map of Europe 34–35gg. The Western democracies had their own problems and were slow to realize that Hitler’s policies were a threat to peace 36–37ggand that he needed to be confronted. 25 T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 B E F O R E Even before Hitler came to power in March 1933, he had the backing of his own powerful paramilitary forces, established in the early years of the Nazi Party. THE SA, SS, AND HITLER YOUTH The SA (Sturmabteilungen) took its name from the small units of storm troops used in German oﬀensives toward the end of World War I ff 16–17. Established in 1920 to protect Nazi Party meetings against attacks from left-wing opponents, the SA were known as the Brown Shirts to distinguish them from HITLER YOUTH the black-shirted members of DAGGER the SS (Schutzstaffel) ff 20-21. The latter was a more sinister force, personally loyal to Hitler and steeped in his anti-Semitic ideology. The Hitlerjugend (Hitler Youth) was established in 1926 to train future members of these forces. Following the failure of the 1923 Putsch ff20–21 the SA and the SS were disbanded, but were reestablished by 1926. NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES The SA were half a million strong when Hitler came to power. Ernst Röhm, their leader, argued that they were the true national defense force and should take over this role from the army, the Heir. Hitler saw Röhm as a potential rival and in June 1934 ordered the whole of the SA on a month’s leave. On the night of June 30 Hitler sent in his SS, and murdered many leading SA members, including Röhm. A number of other people whom Hitler thought of as a threat also lost their lives in the “Night of the Long Knives.” The Nazi State Hitler’s Germany was designed to prove that National Socialism could deliver the country from the misery of the postwar years. At the same time Nazism was a brutal ideology and a threat to peace. T o reinforce his place at the head of the German nation, Hitler was known as the Führer, or Leader. His aim was to reshape the German people through the elimination of divisions of class, religion, and ideology, and by purifying the race. Hence the introduction of concentration camps to remove “undesirables.” The Nazis began to establish special camps in March 1933, almost as soon as they had come to power. The ﬁrst inmates were Communists, rounded up in the aftermath of the Reichstag Fire (see p.25). The camps came to be run by the SS and soon contained a wide variety of prisoners. These ranged from Nazis on parade The choreography of Nazi rallies presented a picture of a highly motivated and disciplined mass, aided by stirring music and immaculate drill, as demonstrated here at the Harvest Thanksgiving festival at Buckeberg in 1937. Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD) badge The RAD (State Labor Service) was formed in July 1934 as a means of reducing unemployment. Its members worked on various construction projects. liberal politicians and trades unionists to freemasons, homosexuals, and gypsies. It was, however, the Jews, whom Hitler hated above all else, who came to predominate. Anti-Jewish legislation Hitler’s ﬁrst action against the Jews was to proclaim a boycott of Jewish shops in April 1933. By the end of the year Jews were banned from holding public ofﬁce, from teaching and farming, and from the arts. Then, in September 1935 came the Nuremberg Laws. Through these the Jews lost their citizenship and were prohibited from marrying Aryans. Later they were outlawed from the legal and medical professions. Unsurprisingly, large numbers of Jews left the country—over half the 600,000 Jews in Germany in 1933 emigrated over the next six years. Among those who ﬂed the Nazi regime were physicist Albert Einstein and novelist Thomas Mann—not Jewish himself, but his wife was Jewish—who both went to the US, as did many other prominent ﬁgures in the arts and sciences. Propaganda and prosperity There was little overt objection by the German people as a whole to this persecution and for a number of reasons. In the ﬁrst place the Nazi propaganda machine under Josef T H E N A Z I S TAT E 12 3 9 2 6 1 3 0 0 1938 4 2,500 1937 15 1936 5 3,000 The tables demonstrate how rapidly Hitler reduced unemployment and increased military spending. The Luftwaffe quickly became the largest air force in Europe. THE ARMED FORCES Because they were banned from building tanks and aircraft, German ofﬁcers secretly went to Russia to experiment with forbidden weapons in exchange for training the Russian armed forces. This meant that the groundwork for expanding and modernizing the German armed forces was already in place when Hitler came to power. One of his ﬁrst acts was to put this into eﬀect, including creating an air force from scratch. He understood that without powerful armed forces he could not realize his territorial ambitions. Night of the Long Knives (see BEFORE) to keep them in check. He brought the armed forces ﬁrmly under control by making them swear an oath of personal loyalty to him in return for conﬁrming their position as defenders of the state. After the February 1933 ﬁre the Reichstag moved to the Kroll Opera House in Berlin. Hitler made many of his most famous speeches there, but the parliament itself became a mere rubber stamp to endorse Hitler’s policies. GREATER GERMANY Hitler’s short-term aims were to reoccupy the demilitarized Rhineland and then to reclaim the Saarland 34–35gg. Beyond this he looked to form a union with Austria, removing the hated Polish Corridor, and dismantling what he saw as the artiﬁcial state of Czechoslovakia. All these plans ran counter to the Treaty of Versailles, and it was to be largely dependent on the reactions of Britain and France 34–37ggas to whether Hitler could reverse what had been agreed in 1919. 1,500 1,000 500 0 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 KEY German unemployment German military investment cheap motoring in much the same way as Henry Ford had done in the US with his Model T. Hitler as ruler When it came to running the country Hitler showed little interest in the routine work of government. He was content merely to spell out the overall policy to be followed and delegate the details to his subordinates. If any of his lieutenants became overly ambitious, there was always the memory of the In parallel with his domestic overhaul, Hitler planned to restore Germany’s prewar borders in order to give his people more Lebensraum (living space). 2,000 1935 18 1934 6 3,500 1933 21 Annual production of military aircraft 7 Annual military investment (in billions of Marks) Unemployed (in millions) AF TER Goebbels was highly effective. Its primary aim was restore German pride and ranged from the Nazi banners that bedecked public buildings in every town and city to the massive parades at the annual Nuremberg Rally and the electrifying speeches by Hitler and his lieutenants. The success of the 1936 Berlin Olympics (see p.28) was also a great boost to national morale, besides impressing the rest of the world. Education was another key Nazi weapon. Pupils were taught according to National Socialist principles. Textbooks were hastily rewritten and all teachers had to take an oath of loyalty to Hitler himself. Much emphasis was placed on physical ﬁtness and boys were expected to join the Hitler Youth. Hitler also brought full employment by revitalizing industry and encouraging new technology, especially in the ﬁeld of armaments. There were also massive public works programs directed by the State Labour Service, the RAD. German males aged 19–25 were conscripted for six months’ service in agriculture or public works, such as constructing Germany’s impressive new network of Autobahnen (highways). As a means of raising the standard of living Hitler encouraged the development of the Volkswagen (“People’s Car”) to provide German economic recovery GERMAN POLITICIAN (1897–1945) JOSEF GOEBBELS Goebbels came from a Rhineland working-class Catholic family and received a university education. Unﬁt for military service in World War I, he developed nationalist and racist views and joined the Nazi Party in 1922. His intelligence and opportunist ﬂair soon impressed, but not until 1926 did he ally himself with Hitler, who made him his propaganda chief three years later. Goebbels proved highly skilled in this role and remained close to Hitler until the end, dying with him in the Berlin Bunker. EYEWITNESS August 1, 1936 The Berlin Olympics For Adolf Hitler the 1936 Berlin Olympics was to be a showcase for Nazi achievement. The Games, which opened on August 1, 1936, was a spectacular event and Germany won 33 gold medals, more than any other country. But Hitler’s dreams of demonstrating Aryan athletic supremacy were smashed by the achievements of black American Jesse Owens, who won four gold medals. ceremony of the eleventh Olympic Games took place “hereThethisopening afternoon in the Stadium at the Reich Sports Field … It was probably the longest ritual that has ever heralded the opening of these Games … On top of the towers which flank the Marathon gate, a steel-helmeted military band was posted, the gestures of the conductor clear and tiny against the western sky and it was a sudden burst of music from them which announced the arrival of Herr Hitler. Amid a continuous thunder of cheering he appeared through the Marathon gate, followed by members of the International Olympic Committee in frock coats and chains of office. They slowly descended the steps and walked along the track to their places in the stand, after which the whole great audience joined in singing ‘Deutschland über Alles’ and the ‘Horst Wesel’ song with a tremendous-voiced fervour … then a sudden ‘Achtung’ from the announcer, followed by the command ‘Raise colours’ … The flags of the competing nations were hoisted … the Olympic bell was tolled … The Games were open. ” THE “MANCHESTER GUARDIAN” CORRESPONDENT, E.A. MONTAGUE, DESCRIBING THE OPENING OF THE GAMES In Berlin we Greeks were especially honored coming from the “mother country of the Olympics, but this did not make us blind to the fascist regime and the many showy majestic festivities which tried to show the world Germany’s strength! I will never forget the athletic parade in the Berlin Stadium where the Greek team—as always—entered first and was saluted with great enthusiasm, and the coming into the stadium of the last torch-bearer with the Olympic flame. I will never forget my emotion and pride at that moment, but I wished that it was not Hitler and his regime that had the inspiration of the Olympic torch relay! ” GREEK ATHLETE DOMNITSA LANITIS DESCRIBING THE OPENING CEREMONY Running the last leg The opening ceremony of the 1936 Olympic Games saw the introduction of the torch relay, and the lighted torch was carried through seven countries—Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Germany. Fritz Schilgen of Germany was the final touch bearer. 28 The cost of change The impact of the civil wars on the ordinary Chinese people was often dire, with homelessness and starvation becoming common. B E F O R E At the turn of the 20th century China was under the feudal rule of the emperors and was being economically exploited by Western powers. SUN YAT-SEN Among those who wanted to right injustices and modernize China was Sun Yat-sen, who had been partially educated in Hawaii and had qualiﬁed as a doctor. Labeled a revolutionary, he spent many years in exile in Europe and the United States, and was very impressed by the American system of government. In 1911, while Sun Yat-sen was still in exile, there was a successful military uprising by the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) in Wuchang, 400 miles (644 km) west of Shanghai. Its leaders immediately summoned Sun Yat-sen and proclaimed him head of state. THE NEW REPUBLIC Sun Yat-sen created a national assembly and the Republic of China came into being on New Year’s Day 1912. But only the southern half of the country recognized him as their leader. 30 Civil Wars in China China became a republic in 1912, ending 2,000 years of Imperial rule, but much of the country did not recognize the new regime. The result was civil strife as the government tussled with the warlords and then with the Communists for control of the country. The situation was not resolved until 1949. H aving become head of state, Sun Yat-sen’s ﬁrst priority was to win over the commander of the army in northern China, Yuan Shikai. He promised Yuan the presidency of the new republic in return for his support of the revolution. Yuan obliged, but after the emperor abdicated Yuan became drunk with power, proclaiming 50,000 The number of troops massed for Chiang Kai-shek’s fifth and final drive against the Communists in southern China. himself emperor, and when Sun Yat-sen mounted an unsuccessful revolt against him Sun was exiled again. After Yuan’s death in 1916 northern China became dominated by warlords. In 1917 Sun Yat-sen returned to China where he established a government in Guangzhou province. He prepared to take on the northern warlords by establishing the Whampoa Promoting unity A Kuomintang poster proclaims the Northern Expedition will unify the country and remove the foreign trade settlements. Military Academy, placing his protégé, Chiang Kai-shek, in charge. He then levied heavy taxes in order to pay for the war that was to come, but this made him unpopular with the people. He also allied his Kuomintang party with the Communists in Russia and obtained a large amount of military aid and money from Moscow. Attack on Shanghai Sun Yat-sen died in 1925 so it was left to Chiang Kai-shek to mount the Northern Expedition. Its aims were to crush the power of the warlords and to remove the foreign trade settlements. He set out for Shanghai, China’s principal treaty port, which contained the main foreign settlements, in 1926. Defeating a number of warlords en route, he made rapid progress. The C I V I L WA R S I N C H I N A Mountains in the south. Beginning in 1930, Chiang mounted a series of offensives, known as drives, to dislodge them. During the third drive he forced the Communists to withdraw further south, but they were not defeated. 100 5 THOUSAND men and women originally set out on Mao Zedong’s Long March. THOUSAND of those who marched survived, having covered 6,000km (3,700 miles). Finally, in November 1933, and now with a German general as his principal adviser, Chiang Kai-shek launched his ﬁfth drive. Using aircraft and a considerable amount of artillery, he isolated the Communists from the local communities that had been sustaining them. Hemmed in by rings of blockhouses, which the Nationalists had built to prevent their escape, the Communists faced total destruction. The beginning of the March Western powers sent troops to reinforce their garrisons in Shanghai, but on the outskirts of the city Chiang halted. Rifts had been growing between his Kuomintang and the Communists, who wanted to remove not just the foreigners, but China’s landlord class as well. Chiang, however, realized that to unify the country he needed funding and that this could only come from the landlords and foreign trade. As a result, in April 1927 he turned against the Communists, arresting some of their leaders and expelling his Soviet advisers. This marked the beginning of a new civil war in China. The Communists in the cities were quickly routed out, “Internal paciﬁcation, then external resistance.” SLOGAN USED BY CHIANG KAI-SHEK including in Beijing, which Chiang secured in 1928. The remainder withdrew to the hinterland, the main group taking refuge in the Jing Gang Marching to salvation Mao Zedong’s soldiers on the Long March in October 1934. It was his leadership and their discipline and self-belief that drove them on. It helped ensure that the Communists were eventually triumphant. Surrender was out of the question and so the Communists decided to break out. In June 1934 the ﬁrst group moved out. This was a diversion and it was largely destroyed. Four months later the main body began its break out. It suffered heavy casualties, but the survivors pressed on westward. It was at this time that Mao Zedong took over the military leadership. Having been constantly harassed by Nationalist forces, as well as by hostile locals, the Communist army reached the Tibetan border before turning north. Eventually, after crossing numerous mountain ranges and rivers, and having suffered great losses along the way, Zedong’s army reached the CHINESE GENERAL AND POLITICIAN (1887–1975) CHIANG KAI-SHEK Born in 1887 of middle-class parents Chiang attended a military academy in China before furthering his military education in Japan. While there, he became imbued with republican ideas and, after service with the Japanese Army, returned to China when the Wuchang Uprising took place in 1911. On becoming leader of the Kuomintang in 1925, he made great eﬀorts to modernize China, attempting to enthuse the people with Confucian moral values and self-discipline, but was constantly diverted by waging war. His conﬂicts with the Communists intensiﬁed after 1945, leading to a ﬁnal defeat in 1949. He and his followers then withdrew to Formosa (present-day Taiwan), where he remained as head of state until his death. “ The Long March … has announced to 200 million people that the road of the Red Army is their only road to liberation.” MAO ZEDONG, 1935 relative safety of Shaanxi province in the extreme northwest of the country. Here they joined up with the remnants of two other Communist armies. The Long March was a feat of epic endurance. While the military strength of the Communists had been severely reduced, the experience provided Mao Zedong with a framework on which he and his party could build a strategy to remove the Kuomintang from power. AF TER By the end of the Long March it appeared that Chiang Kai-shek had China under total control. But he would continually struggle to enforce his rule. THE COMMUNISTS Shaanxi province provided the Communists with a relatively safe haven. They attracted local inhabitants A STAMP HONOURING to their ranks, THE LONG MARCH largely because of Mao Zedong’s insistence on fostering good relations with them. Mao Zedong was thus able to rebuild his forces and develop his strategy of revolutionary warfare. This was built around cadres of Communists who would go out into the countryside, establish bases, and recruit, train, and indoctrinate the local people. Eventually the Communists would be strong enough, and have enough popular support, to force the collapse of the Nationalist government and take control of the entire country. THE JAPANESE THREAT The Japanese, desperate for more living space, had been casting covetous eyes on China. They had already made their ﬁrst move by invading Manchuria ff32–33 in 1931. 31 T H E S E E D S O F WA R 1 9 1 4 – 1 9 3 8 Japan on the March While it had all the trappings of a modern power, Japan in 1919 still operated under a feudal system. Forced to import raw materials, because of its lack of natural resources, and suffering a population explosion, which was causing severe unemployment, the country had become a powder keg. U 800 km S 800 miles T R Amur ri Us 0 S su 0 South Sakhalin ( Ka r a f u t o ) HEILUNGKIANG MANCHURIA Harbin Vladivostok Liao Ho JEHOL FENGTIEN Mukden Sea of Ri ve r Yellow C H I N A Yangt ze Chungking Seoul Tokyo KOREA Kaifeng Kyoto Ye l l ow Sea Nanking Hankow Shikoku hui- Macao (to Portugal) Natural resources N East Taihoku ho A Ky u s h u Sea ngs J Shanghai China Hu nsh Tientsin u Japan Peiping P O R M Hokkaido KIRIN Ho INNE O NG A LI A N MONGOLIA Canton Fo r m o s a Okinawa (to Japan) PACIFIC OCEAN KEY Japanese empire 1930 Japanese sphere of inﬂuence 1930 Japanese conquests 1931–33 Hong Kong (to Britain) Hainan B E F O R E Japan’s empire After its dazzling victory over the Russians in 1905 Japan was determined to become a world power and take its place at the top table of nations. WORLD WAR I Through a treaty it had made with Britain, Japan joined the Allies in 1914, capturing German concessions in China and occupying islands owned by the Germans in the Paciﬁc. Otherwise it contributed little, apart from sending a small naval force to help counter the submarine threat in the Mediterranean. The Japanese were rewarded with some Paciﬁc islands and former German concessions in China. NAVAL DISARMAMENT To reduce the threat to its interests, the US held a naval disarmament conference during 1921–22. Restrictions on the size of ships were agreed and Japan was committed to maintaining a navy that was only 60 percent the size of those of Britain and the US. Japan also agreed to uphold Chinese territorial integrity. All this angered younger and more nationalist Japanese. 32 he agreements reached at the naval disarmament talks in Washington DC (see BEFORE) served to increase agitation in Japan for a form of government that would be better respected by the outside world. This was realized in 1924 when universal suffrage was introduced, but the transformation was far too quick. Corruption and a long history of insubordination by junior military ofﬁcers were too deeply embedded to be eradicated overnight and the result was a series of political scandals. This drove many younger Japanese towards extreme nationalism. The map above shows the Japanese empire as it was in 1933. Manchuria was an important source of raw materials for Japan and was hotly disputed with Russia. Japan’s difﬁcult strategic position had also been driven home by a major earthquake, which struck Tokyo and the Kanto region on September 1, 1923. The principal naval base at Yokosuku also suffered, as signiﬁcant oil supplies—enough for two years’ operations—were lost. If the country had been at war when the earthquake had struck, the navy would have been crippled. It highlighted Japan’s severe shortage of indigenous natural resources. Nationalism ran strongest in Japan’s armed forces and both the army and navy, and many ofﬁcers became “Daily we submit to hypocrisy and lies; While national honor lingering dies.” JAPANESE NATIONALIST ARMY OFFICERS’ SONG Taking control of Manchuria Japanese troops begin the occupation of Manchuria in 1931–32, which was the prelude to the second Sino-Japanese War. The disunited Chinese forces in the region were unable to repel the invading army. convinced that the only way to secure a reliable supply of raw materials and to gain respect on the world stage was through territorial expansion. Manchuria was the obvious target. As a result of the 1904–05 RussoJapanese War Japan had been granted rights over the southern part of the territory. Some Japanese were settled there and were protected by the Japanese Kwantung Army. Manchuria was, however, still nominally part of China, but this did not prevent the Japanese from investing large sums of money in exploiting its resources. They had hesitated, however, from overrunning the whole of Manchuria for fear of falling out with Europe and the United States. As it was, the Control of the skies A Japanese aircraft crew in action during their virtually unopposed invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Rather than creating a single air force, Japan remained wedded to the idea of separate army and navy air forces. J A PA N O N T H E M A R C H AF TER Japan cemented its hold over Manchuria by renaming it Manchukuo and, to add insult to injury, it installed the last in the line of the Manchu dynasty, Henry Pu Yi (right), as its puppet monarch. WAR ON CHINA The Chinese, wracked by civil war between the government and the Communists ff30–31, were in no position to reclaim their lost HENRY PU YI Manchurian territory. Aware of this and encouraged by the weakness of the League of Nations, the Japanese now prepared to take on China itself 40–41 gg. EUROPEAN FRIENDS The Japanese also began to look for allies and it was inevitable that they should turn to the Fascist states in Europe, since both Italy and Germany were also demonstrating that they cared little for the League of Nations 34–35 gg. In addition, Germany would prove a valuable counterweight to the Soviet Union, which Japan also saw as a potential enemy and a threat to its hold on newly renamed Manchukuo. Sign of the navy The Japanese Navy ensign was inspired by its defeat of the Russian fleet at the Battle of the Tsushima Straits in May 1905. region was dominated by a Chinese warlord, Marshal Zhang, whom the Japanese had on more than one occasion tried to assassinate. In June 1928 they were eventually successful: two Kwantung Army staff ofﬁcers organized the dynamiting of his personal train. Japan invades Manchuria The civilian government in Tokyo had not sanctioned Zhang’s murder and tried to keep the Kwantung Army in 12 700 protestations were ignored, not least because Tokyo had effectively lost control over the Kwantung Army. The League lacked the wherewithal to take military action and its members were unwilling to impose sanctions on Japan, since they did not want their trade with the country affected at a time of general economic slump. Eventually the League sent out a commission to investigate WIDER AMBITIONS The dream of creating a Japanese empire in oil-rich Southeast Asia began to take hold in some quarters of the government. the situation. While recommending that Japan withdraw from Manchuria, it also concluded that the territory should be a semi-independent state and that Chinese forces should not be allowed back into the region. In the meantime a group of ofﬁcers had begun a series of assassinations of corrupt politicians and ﬁnanciers. It culminated in the murder of the prime minister, Inukai Tsuyoshi, at his home in May 1932. Thereafter it was the military who held the strings of power in Japan, and it was able to manipulate governments as it wished. The League of Nations’ recommendations on the future of Manchuria was not to the taste of the military leadership, so in March 1933 Japan, one of the ﬁve permanent members, left the League. with a ﬂat-top conﬁguration, was HMS Furious, a converted cruiser. It was built at Newcastleupon-Tyne, England, and entered service in March 1918. While aircraft take