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Advanced Grammar in Use A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of English Third Edition with answers and CD-ROM Martin Hewings CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107699892 Third edition © Cambridge University Press, 1999, 2013 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1999 Second edition 2005 Third edition first published 2013 Printed in Italy by L.E.G.O. S.p.A. A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-107-69989-2 Paperback with answers and CD-ROM for Windows XP, Vista or 7 and Mac OSX 10.6, 10.7 ISBN 978-1-107-69738-6 Paperback with answers ISBN 978-1-107-61378-2 Paperback without answers Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Contents Thanks vii To the student To the teacher viii ix Tenses 1 Present continuous and present simple 1 2 Present continuous and present simple 2 3 Past simple and present perfect 4 Past continuous and past simple 5 Past perfect and past simple 6 Present perfect continuous and present perfect 7 Past perfect continuous, past perfect and past continuous 8 Present and past time: review The future 9 Will and be going to 1; 0 Present simple and present continuous for the future 11 Future continuous and future perfect (continuous) 12 Be to + inﬁnitive; be about to + inﬁnitive 13 Other ways of talking about the future 14 The future seen from the past Modals and semi-modals 15 Can, could, be able to and be allowed to 16 Will, would and used to 17 May and might 18 Must and have (got) to 19 Need(n’t), don’t need to and don’t have to 20 Should, ought to and had better Linking verbs, passives, questions 21 Linking verbs: be, appear, seem; become, get, etc. 22 Forming passive sentences 1 23 Forming passive sentences 2: verb + -ing or to-inﬁnitive 24 Using passives 25 Reporting with passives; It is said that ... 26 Wh-questions with who, whom, which, how and whose 27 Negative questions; echo questions; questions with that-clauses Verb complementation: what follows verbs 28 Verbs, objects and complements 29 Verb + two objects 30 Verb + -ing forms and inﬁnitives 1 31 Verb + -ing forms and inﬁnitives 2 If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study planner on page 210. iii Reporting 32 Reporting people’s words and thoughts 33 Reporting statements: that-clauses 34 Verb + wh-clause 35 Tense choice in reporting 36 Reporting offers, suggestions, orders, intentions, etc. 37 Modal verbs in reporting 38 Reporting what people say using nouns and adjectives 39 Should in that-clauses; the present subjunctive Nouns 40 Agreement between subject and verb 1 41 Agreement between subject and verb 2 42 Agreement between subject and verb 3 43 Compound nouns and noun phrases Articles, determiners and quantiﬁers 44 A / an and one 45 A / an, the and zero article 1 46 A / an, the and zero article 2 47 A / an, the and zero article 3 48 Some and any 49 No, none (of) and not any 50 Much (of), many (of), a lot of, lots (of), etc. 51 All (of), whole, every, each 52 Few, little, less, fewer Relative clauses and other types of clause 53 Relative pronouns 54 Other relative words: whose, when, whereby, etc. 55 Prepositions in relative clauses 56 Other ways of adding information to noun phrases 1: additional noun phrases, etc. 57 Other ways of adding information to noun phrases 2: prepositional phrases, etc. 58 Participle clauses with adverbial meaning 1 59 Participle clauses with adverbial meaning 2 Pronouns, substitution and leaving out words 60 Reﬂexive pronouns: herself, himself, themselves, etc. 61 One and ones 62 So and not as substitutes for clauses, etc. 63 Do so; such 64 More on leaving out words after auxiliary verbs 65 Leaving out to-inﬁnitives iv If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study planner on page 210. Adjectives and adverbs 66 Position of adjectives 67 Gradable and non-gradable adjectives 1 68 Gradable and non-gradable adjectives 2 69 Participle adjectives and compound adjectives 70 Adjectives + to-inﬁnitive, -ing, that-clause, wh-clause 71 Adjectives and adverbs 72 Adjectives and adverbs: comparative and superlative forms 73 Comparative phrases and clauses 74 Position of adverbs 1 75 Position of adverbs 2 76 Adverbs of place, direction, indeﬁnite frequency, and time 77 Degree adverbs and focus adverbs 78 Comment adverbs and viewpoint adverbs Adverbial clauses and conjunctions 79 Adverbial clauses of time 80 Giving reasons: as, because, etc.; for and with 81 Purposes and results: in order to, so as to, etc. 82 Contrasts: although and though; even though / if; while, whilst and whereas 83 If 1 84 If 2 85 If I were you ...; imagine he were to win 86 If ... not and unless; if and whether; etc. 87 Connecting ideas in a sentence and between sentences Prepositions 88 Prepositions of position and movement 89 Between and among 90 Prepositions of time 91 Talking about exceptions 92 Prepositions after verbs 93 Prepositions after nouns 94 Two- and three-word verbs: word order Organising information 95 There is, there was, etc. 96 It 1 97 It 2 98 Focusing: it-clauses and what-clauses 99 Inversion 1 100 Inversion 2 If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study planner on page 210. v Appendix 1 Irregular verbs 202 Appendix 2 Passive verb forms 204 Glossary 205 Study planner 210 Grammar reminder 222 Additional exercises 240 Key to Exercises 251 Key to Study planner 277 Key to Additional exercises 278 Index of grammatical items Index of lexical items 287 vi 281 If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study planner on page 210. Thanks I would like to thank all those who worked with me on the ﬁrst two editions of Advanced Grammar in Use, in particular Jeanne McCarten and Alison Sharpe for their encouragement. Thanks also to my former colleagues and students in the English for International Students Unit at the University of Birmingham for their help and interest. For this third edition I am grateful to Colin McIntosh, Nora McDonald, Annabel Marriott, Sabina Sahni, Kevin Doherty, Andy George, Claire Cole and Janet Weller. Claire and Janet in particular have given me tremendous support in preparing the book and the accompanying CDROM. Thanks to Sophie Joyce, Sandy Nichols, Katie Mac, Ian Mitchell and David Whamond for the illustrations and to Kamae Design for their work on the ﬁnished product. I would also like to thank Cambridge University Press for allowing me access to the Cambridge International Corpus. Many students and teachers sent me comments on the 2nd edition, and these have been very helpful in writing this new edition. Thank you all for taking the trouble to contact me. Finally, my thanks, as ever, to Suzanne, David and Ann. The authors and publishers acknowledge the following sources of photographs and are grateful for the permissions granted. p. 6: WithGod/Shutterstock; p. 11: Comstock Images/Thinkstock; p. 17: Thinkstock; p. 33: Image Source/ Glowimages; p. 39: Thinkstock; p. 109: Thinkstock; p. 114: Bildagentur RM/Glowimages. vii To the student Who the book is for Advanced Grammar in Use is for advanced students of English. It was written mainly as a self-study book, but might also be used in class with a teacher. How the book is organised There are 100 units in the book, each looking at a particular area of grammar. Some sections within each unit focus on the particular use of a grammatical pattern, such as will be + -ing (as in will be travelling); others explore grammatical contrasts, such as whether to use would or used to in reporting past events, or when we use except or except for. The 100 units are grouped under a number of headings such as Tenses and The future, and you can ﬁnd details of this in the Contents. Each unit consists of two pages. On the left-hand page are explanations and examples; on the right-hand page are practice exercises. The letters next to each exercise show you which section(s) of the left-hand page you need to understand to do that exercise. At the back of the book you will ﬁnd a number of further sections. Appendices (pages 202 and 204) Two appendices provide further information about irregular verbs and passive verb forms. Glossary (page 205) Although terms to describe grammar have been kept to a minimum, some have been included, and you can ﬁnd explanations of these terms in the Glossary. Study planner (page 210) You can use the Study planner to help you decide which units you should study, or which parts of the Grammar reminder you should read ﬁrst. Grammar reminder (page 222) This presents examples and explanations of areas of grammar that you are likely to have studied already at earlier stages of learning English. References on the lefthand page of each unit point you to the sections of the Grammar reminder relevant to that unit. Read these sections to refresh your understanding before you start work on the more advanced grammar points in the unit. Additional exercises (page 240) If you want further practice of grammar points, follow the references at the bottom of the right-hand page of a unit. These will tell you which of the Additional exercises to do next. Keys (pages 251, 277 and 278) You can check your answers to the practice exercises, Study planner and Additional exercises in the keys. You will also ﬁnd comments on some of the answers. Indexes (pages 281 and 287) Use the Indexes to help you ﬁnd the grammar or vocabulary you need. How to use the book It is not necessary to work through the units in order. If you know which grammar points you have difﬁculty with, go straight to the units that deal with them, using the Contents or Indexes to help you ﬁnd the relevant unit. When you have found a unit to study, read through any related material in the Grammar reminder before you begin. You can use the units in a number of ways. You might study the explanations and examples ﬁrst, do the exercises on the opposite page, check your answers in the Key to Exercises, and then look again at the explanations if you made any mistakes. If you just want to practise an area of grammar you think you already know, you could do the exercises ﬁrst and then study the explanations for any you got wrong. You might of course simply use the book as a reference book without doing the exercises. Corpus information A corpus is a large collection of texts stored on a computer. In writing Advanced Grammar in Use we have worked with the Cambridge International Corpus (CIC), a multi-million word collection of real speech and writing, and the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a collection of exam answers written by students. From these corpora we can learn more about language in use, and about the common errors made by learners. Using this information, we can be sure that the grammar explanations and examples in the book reﬂect real language, and we can focus on problem areas for learners. We have also used the CIC to produce word boxes, listing the most common words found in particular grammar patterns. viii To the teacher Advanced Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book but teachers might also ﬁnd it useful for supplementing or supporting their classroom teaching. The book will probably be most useful for advanced level students for reference and practice. No attempt has been made to order the units according to level of difﬁculty. Instead, you should select units as they are relevant to the syllabus that you are following with your students, or as particular difﬁculties arise, rather than working through from beginning to end. Alternatively, you could ask students to do the multiple-choice test in the Study planner (page 210) and focus on units that deal with areas of grammar where students are least successful. Don’t forget to point students to the Grammar reminder (page 222). This is a reference-only section which presents basic knowledge on a number of areas of grammar. It will be useful for students to read through a section before moving on to the more advanced material in the units. At the beginning of each section of the Grammar reminder you will ﬁnd information about the unit(s) it relates to. There are many ways in which you can use the book with a class. You might, for example, present the explanations on the left-hand page of a unit, and use the exercises for classroom practice. Alternatively, you might want to begin with the exercises and refer to the left-hand page only when students are having problems. You could also set particular units or groups of units (such as those on Articles or Nouns) for self-study if individual students are having difﬁculties. Another possibility might be to develop your own classroom-based activities around the explanations on the left-hand page of a unit, and then set the exercises as consolidation material for self-study. When students need further practice of grammar points from a number of different units, refer them to the Additional exercises (page 240). References at the bottom of the right-hand pages show where the relevant Additional exercises can be found. An edition of Advanced Grammar in Use without the answers is also available, and some teachers might prefer to use it with their students. The third edition of Advanced Grammar in Use has the same comprehensive grammar coverage as previous editions, but many of its exercises have been revised and its layout made more user-friendly. ix Advanced Grammar in Use Unit 1 Present continuous and present simple 1 A State verbs Reminder ➜ A1–A5 We can use the present continuous with some state verbs (e.g. attract, like, look, love, sound) to emphasise that a situation is temporary or for a period of time around the present. Compare: Ella stays with us quite often. The children love having her here. and Ella’s with us at the moment. The children are loving having her here. State verbs which we rarely use with the present continuous include believe, consist of, doubt, own. B Some verbs have different meanings when they are used to talk about states and when they describe actions. With their ‘state’ meanings, they usually take simple rather than continuous forms. With their ‘action’ meanings, they may take simple or continuous forms, depending on context. Compare: The app doesn’t appear to work on my phone. (appear: state = seem) and Carley Robb is currently appearing in a musical Also: cost, expect, feel, ﬁt, have, on Broadway. / She often appears in musicals. imagine, measure, think, weigh (appear: action = take part) C Mental state verbs With some verbs describing mental states (e.g. ﬁnd, realise, regret, think, understand) we can use the present continuous to emphasise that we have recently started to think about something or that we are not sure about something. Compare: I regret that the company will have to be sold. (= I’ve made the decision and I’m sorry about it) and I’m regretting my decision to give her the job. (= I’m increasingly aware that it was the wrong decision) When it means ‘think carefully about’, consider is only used with the present continuous: He’s considering taking early retirement. (not He considers taking early retirement.) Some other verbs describing preferences and mental states (e.g. agree, believe, conclude, know, prefer) are rarely used with the present continuous: I believe you now. (not I’m believing you now.) D Performatives We use the present simple with verbs which perform the action they describe (= performatives): I suggest you park outside the city and Also: acknowledge, admit, advise, apologise, get the bus to the centre. beg, confess, congratulate, declare, deny, We request that you read the terms forbid, guarantee, name, order, permit, predict, and conditions carefully before signing. promise, refuse, remind, request, thank, warn Some verbs used as performatives with the present simple in afﬁrmative (= positive) sentences (apologise, deny, guarantee, promise, suggest) have a similar meaning with either the present simple or the present continuous in negative sentences: I don’t deny / I’m not denying taking the books, but Miguel said it would be okay. Modals are often used with performatives to make what we say more tentative or polite: We would advise you to arrive two hours before the ﬂight leaves. I must beg you to keep this a secret. 2 Unit Exercises 1 Complete each pair of sentences using the same verb (in a question form or negative if necessary) from the box. Use the present continuous; if this is not possible, use the present simple. Use to add any words outside the gap and use contracted forms where appropriate. A&B 1.1 attract consist of have like look doubt feel ﬁt measure sound ’s does 1 a I hear you’re having your house repainted. How it looking ? (or How it look ?) does b I bought this new dress today. How it look ? 2 a A: What are you doing with that ruler? B: I the area of the kitchen. b The garden 12 by 20 metres. 3 a I whether I’ll get another chance to retake the exam. b I suppose she might be at home tonight, but I it. 4 a The new science museum currently 10,000 visitors a month. b Flowers bees with their brightly-coloured petals. 5 a Carlos won’t work at the top of the 20-storey building because he heights. b A: How’s the new job? B: Well, at the moment, I it at all. 6 a My car’s in the garage today. They new brakes. b I bought this jumper for Anna, but it her so I’ll have to take it back. 7 a What’s your shirt made from? It like silk. b I won’t be coming to work today. I very well. 8 a The roof of the house only plastic sheets nailed down in a few places. b Their school uniform black trousers and a dark green jumper. 9 a Simon’s new song quite good, but he doesn’t think he’s ready yet to perform it in public. b A: What’s that noise? B: It like a bird stuck in the chimney. 10 a Poulson treatment for a knee injury, but should be ﬁt to play on Saturday. b My sister long blonde hair. You’re bound to recognise her. 1.2 Cross out any improbable answers. C & D Dear Aunt Mara, Thanks for your message. I (1) apologise / ’m apologising for not getting back to you sooner, but I’ve been incredibly busy. When I went into nursing, you warned me that it would be really hard work, but I (2) admit / ’m admitting that I didn’t really believe you. Don’t get me wrong – I (3) don’t suggest / ’m not suggesting that I’m not enjoying it. It’s incredibly rewarding, but I (4) now realise / ’m now realising how hard the job is. When I get home I just eat (not very well, I (5) confess / ’m confessing) and go straight to bed. It doesn’t help that the bus journey to the hospital is so slow. I (6) consider / ’m considering buying a car, which will make things easier, I hope. And what about you? How (7) GR\RX¿QG / DUH\RX¿QGLQJ living in a village after so many years in the city? I (8) know / ’m knowingKRZGLI¿FXOWLWLVIRU\RXWRWUDYHOVXFKDORQJZD\EXWLWZRXOGEH ORYHO\LI\RXFRXOGFRPHDQGVWD\ZLWKPHIRUDZHHNHQG,¶YHJRWSOHQW\RIURRPLQP\ÀDW, don’t guarantee / ’m not guaranteeing to cook as well as you do, but I (10) promise / ’m promisingWR¿QG time to show you around this lovely old town. Hope to see you soon. Keep in touch. Love, Martina ➜ Additional exercise 1 (page 240) 3 Unit 2 Present continuous and present simple 2 A We often use the present simple and present continuous in stories and jokes Reminder ➜ A1–A5 in informal spoken English to create the impression that events are happening now. This can make them more direct and exciting and hold people’s attention: She goes up to this man and looks straight into his eyes. He’s not wearing his glasses, and he doesn’t recognise her … This man’s playing golf when a kangaroo bounds up to him, grabs his club and hits his ball about half a mile … The main events are usually described in sequence using the present simple and longer background events are described using the present continuous. In narratives and anecdotes the present simple can be used to highlight an event. Often it is used after past tenses and with a phrase such as suddenly or all of a sudden: I was sitting in the park, reading a newspaper, when all of a sudden this dog jumps at me. B We also use the present simple and present continuous in live commentaries (for example, on sports events) when the report takes place at the same time as the action: King serves to the left-hand court and Adams makes a wonderful return. She’s playing magniﬁcent tennis in this match ... C We can use the present simple in phrases such as It says here, I hear, I gather, I see, I understand and They say, (Someone) says, (Someone) tells me to introduce news that we have heard, read, seen (e.g. on television), or been told. We can also use past tenses (e.g. It said here, I heard): I gather you’re worried about Pedro. Sophia tells me you’re thinking of emigrating. Professor Hendriks is at the conference and I hear she’s an excellent speaker. D The present simple is often used in news headlines to talk about events that have recently happened: SECOND QUAKE HITS JAPAN FIRE BREAKS OUT IN HOTEL ROOM SCIENTISTS FIND ICE ON THE MOON FOREIGN MINISTER RESIGNS We can use the present simple to refer to the contents of books, ﬁlms, newspapers, etc: Thompson gives a list of the largest European companies in Chapter 6. At the beginning of the book, three men ﬁnd $4 million in a crashed plane. In the ﬁlm, Loni Baranski takes the role of a private detective. E We can use the present continuous with adverbs such as always, constantly, continually or forever to emphasise that something is done so often that it is characteristic of a person, group or thing: A: I think I’ll stay here after all. B: You’re constantly changing your mind. Jacob is a really kind person. He’s always offering to help me with my work. We often use this pattern to indicate disapproval. The past continuous is used in a similar way with these adverbs (e.g. Was Olivia always asking you for money, too?). We can use the present continuous to describe something we regularly do at a certain time: At eight o’clock I’m usually driving to work, so phone me on my mobile. Seven o’clock is a bit early. We’re generally eating then. 4 Unit Exercises 2 2.1 Complete these sentences using the verbs in brackets. Use the present simple or present continuous. A & B 1 Rodriguez passes to Messi who just over the bar. Barcelona much more in this half … (pass – shoot – attack) 2 A man home late one night after the ofﬁce Christmas party. His wife for him, and she to him … (arrive – wait – say) 3 I went to a concert yesterday in the Town Hall. In the middle of it, while the orchestra this man suddenly on his seat and to conduct them. (play – stand – start) 2.2 Complete what each person says about the news they have read or heard using the present tense phrases in C. C I see the government’s giving the health 1 Government gives health service billions service a lot more money. 2 Vegecorp to sack 1,000 workers. Vegecorp are going to 3 President Cartman announced a new public holiday on his birthday, August 6th. He made the announcement … 4 Did you hear that Bruno’s crashed his car again? we’re going to have Bruno’s Ed 5 I’ve got a new job. she’s Julia 6 2.3 A team of researchers claims to have identiﬁed a gene which causes some people to overeat. Expand one of the sets of notes below to complete each dialogue. E continually / change / mind constantly / criticise / driving 1 2 3 4 5 2.4 they’ve identiﬁed forever / moan / work forever / ask me / money always / complain / handwriting A: I can’t read this. B: You’re always complaining about my handwriting. A: Can I borrow €10? B: You’re A: That was a dangerous thing to do. B: You’re A: I think I’ll stay here after all. B: You’re A: I had a bad day at the ofﬁce again. B: You’re . . . . Complete each pair of sentences using the same verb (in negative form if necessary). Use the present continuous or the present simple. Use to add any words outside the gap. D & E 1 a b 2 a b 3 a b A: Shall I phone at six? B: No, we usually dinner at that time. I lamb, thanks. I’m a vegetarian. Gielman Henry V in the latest production at the Royal Theatre. They constantly loud music until the early hours of the morning. I normally the children to school at 8:30. Perhaps we could meet at 9:00. In his 2007 book, Wall a controversial view of Britain’s role in the war. ➜ Additional exercise 1 (page 240) 5 Unit 3 Past simple and present perfect A Time expressions that refer to the present, such as this morning / week / Reminder ➜ A6–A12 month and today, can be used with either past simple or present perfect verbs. If we think of this morning (etc.) as a past, completed time period, then we use the past simple; if we think of this morning (etc.) as a time period which includes the present moment, then we use the present perfect. Compare: I didn’t shave this morning. (= the morning is over and I didn’t shave) and I haven’t shaved this morning. (= it is still the morning and I might shave later) B In a sentence which includes a time clause with since, we generally prefer a past simple verb in the time clause and a present perfect verb in the main clause. The time clause refers to a particular point in the past: Since Mr Dodson became president unemployment has increased. (rather than … has become …) She hasn’t been able to play tennis since she broke her arm. (rather than … has broken …) Note, however, that we use the present perfect in the time clause if the two situations described in the main clause and time clause extend until the present: Have you met any of your neighbours since you’ve lived here? (not … you lived …) C With time clauses introduced by after, when, until, as soon as, once, by the time and the time expressions the minute / second / moment the past simple refers to past, completed events and the present perfect refers to future events. Compare these examples: After she left hospital (past), she had a long holiday. and After Lucas has left school (future), he will be spending six months in India. The minute I got the news about Anna (past) I telephoned my parents. and I’ll contact you the minute I’ve got my exam results. (future) In the time clause in sentences like this it is possible to use the past perfect instead of the past simple (e.g. After she had left …) and the present simple instead of the present perfect (e.g. After Lucas leaves …) with the same meaning (see also Unit 5). D In news reports, you will often read about or hear recent events introduced with the present perfect, and then the past simple or other past tenses are used to give details: A Russian spacecraft has returned safely to Earth with its two passengers. US astronaut Scott Keane and Russian cosmonaut Olga Kaleri landed in the early hours of Wednesday. An American woman has become the ﬁrst person to make 2 million contributions to Wikipedia. Esther Miller began editing the site eight years ago. E After the pattern It / This / That is / will be the ﬁrst time … we generally use the present perfect in the next clause: That’s the ﬁrst time I’ve seen Jan look embarrassed. (reporting a past event) It won’t be the ﬁrst time she has voted against the government. (talking about a future event) Note that after It / This / That was the ﬁrst time … we generally use the past perfect (see Unit 5): It was the ﬁrst time I’d talked to Dimitra outside the ofﬁce. 6 Unit Exercises 3.1 3 Complete each sentence with a verb from the box. Use the present perfect or past simple, with a negative form where necessary. A have go oversleep read spend wear 1 A: Shall I make us some dinner? It’s already eight o’clock. B: No, thanks. I to the dentist this afternoon and my mouth hurts too much to eat anything. 2 I three lectures today and I still have two more later this afternoon. 3 It was so hot today that I shorts and a T-shirt at work. 4 We £200 on food this month and there’s another week to go before I get paid. 5 A: Do you want a lift home? B: No, I this morning because my alarm clock didn’t go off, so I need to work late. 6 I much of the report yet, but I have to ﬁnish it by the weekend. 3.2 Complete the sentences with the pairs of verbs from the box. Choose the most appropriate tense — present perfect or past simple. B be able – feel not want – fall 1 2 3 4 5 6 3.3 Maria Since she Since he A lot Since I Stefan’s reading happen – speak improve – be rescue – be work – not have to go swimming since she in the river. at the company she a day off through illness. the girl from a house ﬁre, he on TV almost every day. since I last to you. to drive I much more independent enormously since he at school. One sentence in each pair is wrong. Correct it by replacing the past simple with the present perfect of the italicised verb. C 1 a Remember that after you signed the contract you won’t be able to change your mind. b Carlo’s injury only became apparent after he signed to play for Real Madrid. 2 a As soon as I ﬁnished college I want to travel around Australia. b I didn’t have time to check the essay. I handed it in as soon as I ﬁnished it. 3 a By the time Sarah got to work the meeting had ﬁnished. b I’ll probably have ﬁnished breakfast by the time the children got up. 4 a I recognised her the moment I heard her laugh. b I’ll tell you what time we’re coming the moment I heard from Emil. 3.4 Here are some extracts from a television news report. Choose the more appropriate tense – present perfect or past simple – for the verbs in brackets. D & E 1 When President Nelson arrives (arrive) in Paris this evening, it will be the ﬁrst time she (visit) Europe since her election victory in May. 2 The Victoria Hospital in Milltown (close) to new patients after more cases of food poisoning. Three elderly patients (die) last week in the outbreak. 3 The rate of inﬂation (drop) to 4.8%. It’s the ﬁrst time in nearly two years that the rate (fall) below 5%. 4 Nearly 600 laptops (steal) from Ministry of Defence staff over the past ﬁve years. However, a spokesperson (insist) that there had been no security problems as none of the computers (hold) secret information. ➜ Additional exercise 2 (page 241) 7 Unit 4 Past continuous and past simple A When we talk about two events or activities that went on over the same Reminder ➜ A6–A8, A13 period of past time, we can often use the past continuous or the past simple for both: was reading / read Mia was reading to the children while Ben was washing up. (or … read … washed up.) past Using the past continuous emphasises that the event or activity (‘was reading’) was in progress during the past was washing up / washed up period of time (‘while Ben was washing up’). Compare: When I was learning / learned to drive I was living with my parents. Was learning emphasises that the activity was in progress (‘I had lessons during this time’) and learned emphasises completion (‘I passed my test during this time’). now When we talk about two or more past completed events that followed one another, we use the past simple, not the past continuous, for both (see also Unit 5C): She got up when the alarm clock went off. B We usually use the past simple rather than the past continuous to talk about repeated past actions: We went to Spain three times last year. Did you drive past her house every day? However, we can use the past continuous, particularly in spoken English, when we want to emphasise that repeated actions went on for a limited and temporary period of past time: When Kata was in hospital, we were visiting her twice a day. (or … we visited …) To lose weight before the race, I wasn’t eating any biscuits for weeks. (or … I didn’t eat …) or to talk about something that happened surprisingly often: Last week I was having to bring work home every night to get it all done. (or … had …) When the builders were here I was making them cups of tea all the time. (or … made …) C We often use the past simple in a narrative (e.g. a report or a story) to talk about a single complete past event and the past continuous to describe the situation that existed at the time. The event might have interrupted the situation, or happened while the situation was in progress: Erika dropped her bag while she was getting into her car. She was shaking with anger as she left the hotel. D We can use either the past continuous or past simple (or past perfect; see Unit 5E) with some verbs to talk about things we intended to do but didn’t: We were meaning to call in and see you, but Marc wasn’t feeling well. (or We meant …) Also: consider + -ing, expect to, hope to, intend to, plan to / on + -ing, think about / of + -ing, want to These verbs (with the exception of mean and expect) and wonder about can also be used with the present and past continuous to report what we might do in the future. The past continuous is less deﬁnite than the present continuous: I was thinking of going to China next year, but it depends how much money I’ve got. (less deﬁnite than I’m thinking of going …) We were wondering about inviting Eva over tomorrow. (less deﬁnite than We’re wondering about …) 8 Unit Exercises 4.1 4 Complete the sentences using these pairs of verbs. Use the past simple in one gap and the past continuous in the other. A–D come – show get – go look – see play – break hope – give live – spend start – check in 1 Just as I was getting into the bath all the lights went off. 2 I to go away this weekend, but my boss me some work that I have to ﬁnish by Monday. 3 When I in Paris, I three hours a day travelling to and from work. 4 A friendly American couple chatting to him as he at the hotel reception. 5 I bumped into Lena last week. She a lot better than when I last her. 6 My boss into the ofﬁce just as I everyone my holiday photos. 7 I badminton four times a week before I my ankle. This time, use the same tense, either past simple or past continuous, in both spaces. add – taste go off – light not listen – explain push – run not watch – dream 8 The smoke alarm when he a candle underneath it. 9 I can’t remember how to answer this question. I must confess that I while the teacher it to us. 10 She more salt to the soup, and then it much better. 11 Although the television was on, I it. Instead I about my holidays. 12 She open the door and into the room. 4.2 Look again at numbers 1, 4, 7 and 11 in 4.1. Which of these sentences could have both verbs in the past simple? What difference in meaning, if any, would there be? 4.3 Complete this email with either the past simple or the past continuous form of the verbs in brackets. Where alternatives are possible, think about any difference in meaning. A–C I (1) (buy) a new alarm clock the other day in Taylor’s the jewellers, when I actually (2) (see VRPHERG\VKRSOLIWLQJ,¶GMXVW¿QLVKHGSD\LQJIRUP\FORFN and as I (3) (turn) round, an elderly woman (4) silver plate into a bag that she (5) over to another part of the shop and (7) a number of times. When she (8) (think WKDWQRERG\ (look), (have) a chance to (notice) that I (13) (watch) (hurry RXW8QIRUWXQDWHO\IRUKHUWZRSROLFHRI¿FHUV her and (14) (15) (walk) (pick up) an expensive-looking watch (drop) it into the bag. Before I (11) she (10) tell the staff in the shop, she (12) (slowly put) a (carry). Then she (6) (walk) past just at that moment and she (16) (run) straight into them. ➜ Additional exercise 1 (page 240) 9 Unit 5 Past perfect and past simple A When we give an account of a sequence of past events we usually Reminder ➜ A6–A8, A14–A15 put these events in chronological order using the past simple. If we want to refer to an event out of order – that is, an event which happened before the last event in the sequence we have written or spoken about – we can use the past perfect. Study the use of the past perfect and past simple in the text on the right: Order of events: 1 gave present 2 wrote email 3 made mistake 4 realised mistake Order events are mentioned: 1 wrote email 2 had given present (out of order) 3 realised mistake 4 had made mistake (out of order) B When we understand that we are talking about events before another past event, we don’t have to continue using the past perfect: We bought a new car last month. We’d driven my parents’ old car for ages, but it started (or had started) to fall apart. We put (or had put) a new engine in it, but that didn’t solve (or hadn’t solved) the problems we were having. C If the order of past events is clear from the context (for example, if time expressions make the order clear) we can often use either the past perfect or the past simple: After Ivan had ﬁnished reading, he put out the light. (or … Ivan ﬁnished …) The two leaders agreed to meet, even though earlier talks had failed to reach an agreement. (or … talks failed …) D The past perfect is often used in reporting what was originally said or thought in the present perfect or past simple (see also Unit 35): Talking about a past event E 10 I wrote Clara an email to thank her for the present she had given me for my birthday last week. But as soon as I pressed the ‘send’ button, I realised that I had made a mistake and sent it to her sister instead. Reporting this past event ‘I have met him before.’ I was sure that I had met him before. (not … I met him …) ‘The village hasn’t changed much.’ I found that the village hadn’t changed much. (not … the village didn’t change …) ‘225 people drowned in the recent ﬂoods.’ Police said that 225 people had drowned in the recent ﬂoods. (or … drowned …) ‘I stole the watch.’ She admitted that she had stolen the watch. (or … stole …) We can use either the past perfect or past simple (and often past continuous and past perfect continuous; see Units 4 and 7) when we talk about things that we intended to do, but didn’t or won’t now do in the future: I had hoped to visit the gallery before I left Florence, but it’s closed on Mondays. (or I hoped …, I was hoping …, I had been hoping …) Aron planned to retire at 60, but we have persuaded him to stay for a few more years. (or Aron had planned …, Aron was planning …, Aron had been planning …) Unit Exercises 5.1 5 The events mentioned in the magazine article are listed below. Write the order in which the events are mentioned and then the order in which they occurred (or were thought to occur). Compare the two lists and consider why the past perfect (in italics) was used. A & B How I bought my dream house When I ﬁrst saw the old house I had just moved to the area. It had been empty for about a year and was beginning to need some repairs, but the house was exactly what I wanted. But by the time I had put together enough money I learnt that a property developer had bought it and planned to turn it into a hotel. Six months later I had nearly given up hope of ﬁnding anywhere to live in the village when I heard that the house was for sale again. The property developer had decided to invest his money in a new housing development on the edge of the village. I bought the house immediately and I’ve lived there happily ever since. events I moved … I learnt … The property developer decided … I heard … I ﬁrst saw the old house A property developer bought it I nearly gave up… I put together enough money… It was empty 5.2 2 order of events 2 1 1 Underline the correct options. In some cases only one is correct, and in others both are correct. C&D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5.3 order events are mentioned in text Carla Bridges As Jonas was introduced to Mrs Lopez, he realised that he had met / met her before. During the previous week, I had been / went to the gym every evening. He denied that he had taken / took the money from the ofﬁce. I thought it was the best ﬁlm I had seen / saw in my life. The boy told me that he had lost / lost his train ticket and didn’t know how he would get home. At the conference, scientists reported that they had found / found a cure for malaria. The teacher guessed that some of the children had cheated / cheated in the exam. She said that she had made up / made up her mind who to vote for, and that I couldn’t persuade her to change. Thomas explained that he had gone / went home early because he felt ill. When I asked Maria about Jakub, she admitted that she hadn’t heard / didn’t hear from him for ages. The waiter took my plate away before I had ﬁnished / ﬁnished eating. Julia said she didn’t want any dinner. Apparently, she had eaten / ate already. Expand these sets of notes using the past perfect to begin each sentence. E I / expect / operation / painful I / hope / leave / by nine He / not mean / insult / her Lara / not intend / become / dentist I / not think of / cook rabbit 1 2 3 4 5 I had hoped to leave by nine , but I overslept and missed the train. ; she always wanted to be a vet. , but I didn’t feel a thing. , until Andrei told me how tasty it was. , but Daria was very offended. ➜ Additional exercise 3 (page 241) 11 Unit 6 Present perfect continuous and present perfect A We use the present perfect continuous to express the idea of an Reminder ➜ A9–A12, A16–A17 activity (a task, piece of work, etc.) in progress until recently or until the time of speaking: Have you been working in the garden all day? You look exhausted. She’s been writing the book since she was in her twenties and at last it’s ﬁnished. now Note that we often use time expressions to say how long the activity has been in progress. We don’t use the present perfect continuous with verbs such as belong, know, (dis)like, and understand that describe unchanging states: Have you known each other long? (not Have you been knowing …) I haven’t liked ice cream since I ate too much and was sick. (not I haven’t been liking …) When we talk about situations (general characteristics or circumstances) that exist until the present we can often use either the present perfect or present perfect continuous: We’ve been looking forward to this holiday for ages. (or We’ve looked forward to …) B We often use the present perfect or the present perfect continuous to talk about something that has recently ﬁnished if we can still see its results. However, we generally use the present perfect continuous with verbs that suggest extended or repeated activity. Compare: He’s broken his ﬁnger and is in a lot of pain. (not He’s been breaking …) and I’ve been playing squash and need a shower! (more likely than I’ve played …) We use the present perfect continuous rather than the present perfect when we draw a conclusion from what we can see, hear, etc. We often use this form to complain or criticise: Who’s been messing around with my papers? They’re all over the place. You’ve been eating chocolate, haven’t you? There’s some on your shirt. When we talk about the result of circumstances or an activity, we use the present perfect, rather than the present perfect continuous. When we focus on the process we often use either the present perfect or the present perfect continuous. Compare: Prices have decreased by 7%. (not Prices have been decreasing by 7%.) and Prices have been decreasing recently. (or Prices have decreased …) I’ve used three tins of paint on the kitchen walls. (not I’ve been using three tins of paint on the kitchen walls.) and I’ve been using a new kind of paint on the kitchen walls. (or I’ve used …) C The present perfect continuous emphasises that an activity is ongoing and repeated, while the present perfect suggests the activity happened only once or on a speciﬁed number of occasions: Miguel has been kicking a football against the wall all day. (more likely than … has kicked …) He has played for the national team in 65 matches so far. (not He has been playing for the national team in 65 matches so far.) Compare: The workers have been calling for the chairman’s resignation. (= emphasises a number of times, probably over an extended period) and Workers have called for management to begin negotiations on pay. (= maybe a number of times or only once.) 12 Unit Exercises 6.1 Complete each pair of sentences using the same verb. Use the present perfect in one sentence and the present perfect continuous in the other. Use negative forms where appropriate. A–C disappear 1 a b 2 a b 3 a b 4a b 5 a b 6 a b 7 a b 6.2 6 give put read stay stop swim Martina Gonzalez in a rented ﬂat since returning to Buenos Aires. We at this hotel a couple of times before. All day, the police motorists to question them about the accident. Good, the noise . I can start concentrating on my work again. I any of Dickens’ novels. I this book on astrophysics for hours and I’m still only on page six. Dr Fletcher the same lecture to students for the last ten years. Mr Sato nearly a million pounds to the charity this year. I did 20 lengths of the pool today. I that far since I was at school. I and I feel exhausted. In recent years, companies increasing resources into internet marketing. The South African coal company the Calverton Mine up for sale. An important ﬁle from my ofﬁce. Plants and vegetables from my garden since we had new neighbours. Here are two views on the government’s announcement that it is to cut the money it gives to the Inﬂuenza Research Centre. If necessary, correct the present perfect continuous verbs using either the present perfect or past simple. A–C and Unit 3 a Dr Petra Adams, the Director of the Centre It’s remarkable to think that since 1950 inﬂuenza (1) has been claiming more than 50,000 lives in this country, and in 1957 alone around 6,000 people (2) have been dying. But over the last 20 years we at the Centre (3) have been making considerable progress on understanding the illness. We (4) have been producing over a hundred books and articles reporting the results of our research and in 2012 they (5) have been awarding the Nobel Prize for medicine to one of my colleagues. In our more recent work we (6) have been looking into the effects of inﬂuenza on heart disease and we (7) have also been exploring a possible link between climate change and the recent increase in the number of cases of inﬂuenza. It is a tragedy that the government (8) has been making this decision now. b Sabir Khan, the Opposition spokesperson for science The previous government (1) has been investing huge amounts of money into the Centre and I think it’s terrible that the present government (2) has been announcing this cut when the number of cases of inﬂuenza (3) has been increasing. The Centre (4) has been running successfully for many years. But this decision is just typical of this government. It (5) has been neglecting health research ever since it was elected, and (6) has been cutting back on spending on science generally. Although the government says that the cut is necessary because of the recent world economic problems, I (7) have been ﬁnding evidence that they (8) have been planning this for some time. I (9) have been speaking to the Minister about this yesterday and (10) have also been writing to the Prime Minister demanding that the decision should be reversed. ➜ Additional exercise 2 (page 241) 13 Unit Past perfect continuous, past perfect and past continuous 7 A We use the past perfect continuous to talk about something that was in Reminder ➜ A14–A15, A18 progress recently before or up to a past point in time, and the past perfect when we talk about a ﬁnished activity before a past time: I’d been ﬁnishing some work in the garden when Lea arrived, so I didn’t hear her come in. (not I’d ﬁnished some work in the garden when Lea arrived, so I didn’t hear her come in.) and I’d ﬁnished all the ironing so I started cleaning the windows. (not I’d been ﬁnishing all the ironing so I started cleaning the windows.) had been ﬁnishing past had ﬁnished now past now We can often use either the past perfect continuous or the past perfect with a similar meaning: I’d been working / I’d worked hard all year, so I felt that I deserved a holiday. 14 B If we talk about how many times something happened in a period up to a particular past time, we use the past perfect, not the past perfect continuous: How many times had you met him before yesterday? (not How many times had you been meeting …) I had stayed in the hotel twice in the 1990s. (not I had been staying in the hotel twice …) C The past perfect continuous can be used to talk about a situation or activity that went on before a particular past time and (i) ﬁnished at that time, (ii) continued beyond it, or (iii) ﬁnished shortly before it: (i) We’d been driving for about an hour when the engine suddenly stopped. (ii) She felt terrible during the interview because she had been suffering from ﬂu since the previous day. (iii) When I last saw Omar, he’d been running and was out of breath. If we are not interested in how long the activity went on, we can use the past continuous instead of the past perfect continuous. Compare: When the merger was announced it became apparent that the two companies had been discussing the possibility since last year. and A friend told me about a conversation she’d recently overheard. Two women were discussing their holiday plans … I ﬁrst met Mateo and Lucia when they had been going out together for ﬁve years, and they didn’t get married for another three years after that. and Karin met Lars when she was going out with his best friend. D Remember that we don’t describe states with continuous tenses (see Unit 1), and we use the past perfect, not the past perfect continuous, even when we focus on the length of a situation up to a particular past time: We had only owned the car for six weeks when the clutch broke. (not We had been owning the car for six weeks …) E The past perfect continuous is mainly used in written texts and is less common in speech. Here is an example in a newspaper article: The body of a climber who went missing in the Alps was ﬁnally found yesterday. Carl Sims had been climbing alone near the Harz Waterfall, which has claimed many lives in the past. Unit Exercises 7.1 7 Complete each pair of sentences using one verb from the box. Use the past perfect continuous if possible; if not, use the past perfect. A apply carry ﬂy work 1 a She only for the company for a couple of months, so I was surprised to hear that she’d left. b She ﬁnally her way up from trainee to a management position, and she celebrated her promotion with a big party. 2 a The avalanche them 500 metres down the mountain but no one was hurt. b She took a bottle from the bag she all the way from home. 3 a We for visas early, but still hadn’t got them by the week before the holiday. b She for jobs, without success, since leaving university. 4 a He all the way from New York to be at yesterday’s meeting. b When the plane was diverted, shortly after take-off, it from London to Frankfurt. 7.2 Use the past perfect continuous form of the verb in brackets if appropriate; if not, use the past perfect. B–D 1 Mrs Bishop to have children for years, and only became pregnant at the age of 45. (try) 2 This was the ﬁrst time we had been to the castle, even though we Prague a few times before. (visit) 3 She bought her ﬁrst watch at the age of eight. It two pounds. (cost) 4 Emma Willems novels for ten years before she published her ﬁrst book. (write) 5 For some time Daniel about passing the exams and eventually decided to change the course he was taking. (worry) 6 My teacher was really annoyed with me. It was the third time I late for school that week. (arrive) 7 I always it would be easy to get a job, and was disappointed to be rejected. (believe) 8 We about Sarah when, to our amazement, she walked through the door. (talk) In which one of the sentences where you have used the past perfect continuous do you think the past continuous is more likely? C 7.3 Study this conversation extract. If the italicised verbs are correct, write ✓. If they are wrong, correct them using either the past perfect (active or passive) or past perfect continuous. A–E A: How was your weekend? B: Not great, actually. I (1)’d really been looking forward to a relaxing couple of days. But early on Saturday morning Mum phoned to say that Dad (2) had been taking ill. A: Oh, no! What (3) had happened? B: She (4) had just been hearing that he (5) had been ﬂown by helicopter to hospital in Edinburgh from a village called Contin where he (6) had ﬁshed with my Uncle Mark. A: And is he okay? What’s wrong with him? B: Well, Uncle Mark said that Dad (7) had been complaining of a bad headache most of yesterday, but he (8) hadn’t been wanting to go back to the hotel and spoil the day. But then in the evening, just as they (9) had stopped ﬁshing for the day, he (10) had been collapsing… ➜ Additional exercise 3 (page 241) 15 Unit 8 Present and past time: review A Continuous and simple Reminder ➜ Section A When we focus on an activity itself, starting before and continuing up to (and possibly beyond) a particular point of time, rather than focusing on actions as completed events, we use continuous forms: Ingrid can’t come to the phone. She’s washing her hair. As you’re not using your car at the moment, can I borrow it? This time yesterday I was ﬂying over the Paciﬁc. Was she wearing that red dress when you saw her? We use simple forms to talk about general situations, habits, and things that are or were always true: When I worked as a postman I got up at three o’clock every morning. Miguel doesn’t play golf very well. These birds build their nests on the ground. The earthquake struck the area at midday yesterday. (past simple for completed events) We use simple forms with verbs that describe unchanging states (that stay the same): She intends to work hard at school and go on to university. Did you understand the instructions we were given? However, we can use continuous forms with these verbs when they describe something happening or changing: She was intending to talk to Tony about the idea, but she didn’t get the opportunity. I’m understanding physics much better now that Mr Davies is teaching us. B Perfect We use perfect verb forms to describe one event or state from the point of view of a later time. The present perfect suggests a connection between something that happened in the past and the present time. Note, however, that the situation or event does not have to continue until the time of speaking, only to have some connection or relevance to the present time: I’ve ﬁnished that book you wanted, so you can borrow it now. Have you turned the heating off? I don’t like it to be on when I’m not at home. Your nose is bleeding. Has somebody hit you? The past perfect is used to locate a past event before another past event: I invited him out to dinner, but he said he had already eaten. By the time I picked up the phone, they had rung off. C Combinations of perfect and continuous We combine the perfect and continuous forms in the present perfect continuous to describe an activity in progress either at or recently before the time of speaking, and possibly beyond it: I have been following the discussions on the forum with great interest. We can also use the present perfect continuous to talk about activities that have recently ﬁnished with some result that can be seen, heard, etc.: Look at the dirt on your clothes! Have you been digging in the garden again? The past perfect continuous has a similar meaning. However, the point of reference is not ‘now’ (as it is with the present perfect continuous) but a point in the past: When we met Lena and Marko, they had been riding. It had been snowing heavily for hours and when I went to the door I couldn’t open it. 16 Unit Exercises 8.1 8 Amy is writing a blog for her friends and family as she travels around Australia. Use the present simple, present continuous, past simple or past continuous of the verbs in the box to complete the extract. A In 1–10 use: arrive feel (×2) get go know spend text wait write In 11–20 use: ask complain enjoy get (not) get on hear look (×2) seem start I (1) am writing this blog in a hotel room in Perth. I (2) here a couple of hours ago after a long coach journey from Adelaide. I (3) pretty tired so this will only be a short post before I (4) to sleep. As you (5) ,I (6) last week in Adelaide with Ruby. I (7) her a month or so ago to tell her when I would be arriving, and she (8) at the airport for me when , WKHUH)RUWKH¿UVWIHZGD\V, quite jet-lagged, but I soon (11) over that after a few days of lazing around on the beach. Ruby (12) living in Adelaide a lot, although she (13) for a new job just now. It (14) that she (15) very well with her colleagues. Apparently they constantly (16) about the working conditions and it (17) to annoy Ruby. She (18) me to pass on her best ZLVKHVWRDOOKHUROGIULHQGV6RQRZ, IRUZDUGWRH[SORULQJ Perth. I (20) ......................... it’s a wonderful place. I’ll post again soon. Amy 8.2 Complete this extract from a newspaper article using the past simple, present perfect or past perfect of the verbs in brackets. B RONSON SACKED IN UNITED CUTS Aston United (1) have sacked (sack) their manager, Neil Ronson. The former England football international (2) (say) that he (3) (hear) the news when he (4) (return) from a three-week holiday in Spain and that it (5) (come) as a complete shock. ‘There (6) (be) no hint of any problem when I (7) (leave) for the holiday.’ Aston United (8) (appoint) Ronson as manager two years ago and 8.3 last season they (9) (finish) second in the First Division. However, they (10) (win) only five matches so far this season. The chairman of the club, Peter White, last night (11) (accuse) Ronson of lack of commitment to the club. ‘Neil’s attitude (12) (disappoint) us recently. Over the last few months he (13) (spend) more time on Spanish beaches than working with the players in Aston.’ Here is the rest of the conversation in Exercise 7.3. If the italicised verb is correct, write ✓. If it is wrong, correct it using the past simple, present perfect, past perfect, present perfect continuous or past perfect continuous. A–C A: (1) Did he have any health problems recently? B: Well, he (2) ’s been suffering from stress for some time, but we (3) have thought a holiday in Scotland would be relaxing for him. He (4) worked too hard for months, and we (5) ’ve been trying to persuade him to have a break for ages before he agreed. A: So (6) have you gone up to Scotland when you (7) have heard? B: No, Mum (8) has gone up to be with him, but the doctors (9) have checked him over and (10) had been saying that it’s not too serious. They (11) gave him some medicine to bring down his blood pressure and (12) had told him that he needs complete rest for a couple of months. So Mum’s driving him back in the car tomorrow. A: Well, send him my best wishes when you speak to him. B: Thanks, I will do. 17 Unit 9 Will and be going to A We can use either will or be going to to talk about something that is Reminder ➜ B1–B5 planned, or something that we think is likely to happen in the future: We will study climate change in a later part of the course. (or We are going to study …) Where will you stay in Berlin? (or Where are you going to stay …?) The south of the city won’t be affected by the power cuts. (or … isn’t going to be affected …) We often prefer be going to in informal contexts (see also D). B We use will rather than be going to to make a prediction based on our opinion or experience: Why not come over at the weekend? The children will enjoy seeing you again. ‘Shall I ask Lamar?’ ‘No, she won’t want to be disturbed.’ We use be going to rather than will when we make a prediction based on some present evidence: The sky’s gone really dark. There’s going to be a storm. ‘What’s the matter with her?’ ‘It looks like she’s going to faint.’ C To predict the future we often use will with I bet (informal), I expect, I hope, I imagine, I reckon (informal), I think, I wonder and I’m sure, and in questions with think and reckon: I imagine the stadium will be full for the match on Saturday. That cheese smells awful. I bet nobody will eat it. When do you think you’ll ﬁnish work? Do you reckon he’ll say yes? Be going to can also be used with these phrases, particularly in informal contexts. D We use will when we make a decision at the moment of speaking and be going to for decisions about the future that have already been made. Compare: I’ll pick him up at eight. (an offer; making an arrangement now) and I’m going to collect the children at eight. (this was previously arranged) ‘Pineapples are on special offer this week.’ ‘In that case, I’ll buy two.’ and When I’ve saved up enough money, I’m going to buy a smartphone. However, in a formal style, we use will rather than be going to to talk about future events that have been previously arranged in some detail. Compare: Are you going to talk at the meeting tonight? and The meeting will begin at 9 am. Refreshments will be available from 8:30 onwards. E We can use will or be going to with little difference in meaning in the main clause of an if-sentence when we say that something (often something negative) is conditional on something else: You’ll / You’re going to knock that glass over if you’re not careful. When the future event does not depend on the action described in the if-clause, we use be going to, not will. This kind of sentence is mainly found in spoken English. Compare: I’m going to open a bottle of lemonade, if you want some. (= I’m going to open a bottle of lemonade. Do you want some?) and I’ll open a bottle of lemonade if you want some. (= If you say you want some, I’ll open it.) However, we use will, not be going to, when the main clause refers to offers, requests, promises, etc. and ability: If Erik phones, I’ll let you know. (= an offer; ‘…, I’m going to let you know’ suggests ‘I intend to let you know when Erik phones’) If you look to your left, you’ll see the lake. (= you’ll be able to see; ‘… you’re going to see …’ suggests ‘I know this is what you can see when you look to your left’) and when one thing is the logical consequence of another: If you don’t switch on the monitor ﬁrst, the computer won’t come on. 18 Exercises 9.1 Unit 9 Correct or improve the sentences where necessary by changing the italicised will (’ll) forms to be going to forms. A–D 1 Have you seen Nadia recently? She’ll have another baby. ’s going to have 2 The method is quite simple, and I’m sure it will be familiar to most of you already. 3 A: I can’t come over during the day. B: I’ll see you tomorrow evening, then. 4 Are these new skis yours? Will you take up skiing? 5 Wherever you go in Brazil, you’ll ﬁnd the people very friendly. 6 Jamie says he’ll be a politician when he grows up – and he’s only ﬁve years old! 7 It’s getting very humid – we’ll have a thunderstorm. 8 I hear you’ll sell your car. How much do you want for it? 9 You can’t play football in the garden. I’ll cut the grass. 10 A: What’s the matter with Paula? B: She says she’ll be sick. A: She’ll feel better with some fresh air. 11 A: I’ve been offered a new job in Munich, so I’ll leave Camco. B: When will you tell your boss? A: I’m not sure. Perhaps I’ll try to see him later today. 12 A: Did I tell you I’ll have dinner with Karl on Thursday? B: But we’ll see a ﬁlm with Hamid on Thursday. You’ve known about it for weeks. A: Sorry. In that case, I’ll sort out a different day with Karl. 13 A: Did you get the theatre tickets? B: No. I forgot all about them. I’ll book them tomorrow. 14 A: We’ve got small, medium and large. What size do you want? B: I’m going to have a large one, please. 15 A: Shall I give Ian another ring? B: Yes, I expect he’ll be home by now. 16 A: What are those bricks for? B: I’ll build a wall at the side of the garden. 9.2 Complete the sentences with will (’ll) or be going to and an appropriate verb. If both will and be going to are possible, write them both. E 1 If you want me to, I ’ll explain how the equipment works. 2 If you want to help us, we these trees at the bottom of the garden. 3 You your back if you try to lift that box. 4 If I give you the money you me some oranges when you’re out? 5 If you press the red button, the machine . 6 I Laura this weekend, if you’d like to come too. 7 He’s been told that if he’s late once more he . 8 If you listen carefully, you . an owl in the trees over there. ➜ Additional exercise 4 (page 242) 19 Unit 10 Present simple and present continuous for the future A Present simple Reminder ➜ B6 & B7 We can often use either the present simple or will to talk about future events that are part of some timetabled or programmed arrangement or routine. However, we prefer the present simple for ﬁxed, unchangeable events. Compare: Does the sale ﬁnish on Thursday or Friday? (or Will the sale ﬁnish …?) and The sun rises at 5:16 tomorrow. (more likely than The sun will rise …) We avoid the present simple when we talk about less formal or less routine arrangements, or predictions. Instead we use will, be going to, or the present continuous: Are you staying in to watch TV tonight, or are you coming dancing? (not Do you stay to watch TV tonight, or do you come…) It’s only a problem in Britain now, but it will affect the rest of Europe soon. (not … but it affects the rest of Europe soon.) B We use the present simple, not will, to refer to the future – in time clauses with conjunctions such as after, as soon as, before, by the time, when, while, until: When you see Ben, tell him he still owes me some money. (not When you will see Ben …) I should be ﬁnished by the time you get back. (not … by the time you will get back.) in conditional clauses with if, in case, provided, and unless: Provided the right software is available, I should be able to solve the problem. I’ll bring some sandwiches in case we don’t ﬁnd anywhere decent to eat. when we talk about possible future events with suppose, supposing, and what if at the beginning of a sentence. Note that the past simple can be used with a similar meaning: Suppose we miss the bus – how will we get home? (or Suppose we missed …) What if the train’s late? Where shall I meet you then? (or What if the train was late?) C Present continuous We can often use either the present continuous or be going to with a similar meaning to talk about planned future events. The present continuous indicates that we have a ﬁrm intention or have made a deﬁnite decision to do something, although this may not already be arranged: Are you seeing the doctor again next week? (or Are you going to see …?) I’m not asking Tom to the party. (or I’m not going to ask …) However, we don’t use the present continuous for the future – when we make or report predictions about activities or events over which we have no control (we can’t arrange these): I think it’s going to rain soon. Scientists say that the satellite won’t cause any damage when it falls to Earth. when we talk about permanent future situations: People are going to live / will live longer in the future. Her new house is going to have / will have three ﬂoors. D 20 Many people avoid be going to + go / come and use the present continuous forms of go and come instead: I’m going to town on Saturday. (rather than I’m going to go to town …) Are you coming home for lunch? (rather than Are you going to come …?) Unit Exercises 10.1 If possible, use the present simple of a verb from the box to complete each sentence. If not, use will + inﬁnitive. A–C accept change get give out miss play rain read start 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 10.2 10 go lend look after stop want our exam results on the 20th August. We Alex our cats while we’re away next week. I think I’ll take an umbrella in case it . There is a reading list to accompany my lecture, which I at the end. The new drug on sale in the USA next year. The concert at 7:30, not 7:15 as it says in the programme. Provided it raining, we’ll go for a walk this afternoon. What if I my plans and decide to stay longer? Will I need to renew my visa? We Mariam when she leaves, but she says she’ll keep in touch. Unless my parents me some money, I won’t be able to go on holiday this year. Tonight France Germany in a match important for both teams. It is unlikely that the government the court’s decision. Supposing I to upload a video to YouTube? How do I do that? By the time you this letter, I should be in New Zealand. Cross out any answers that are wrong or very unlikely. If two answers are possible, consider the difference in meaning, if any, between them. C, D & Unit 9 1 It’s not a deep cut, but it a scar. a will leave b is going to leave c is leaving 2 Did you know I a new car next week? a will buy b am going to buy c am buying 3 A: I’m not sure how I’ll get to the concert. B: We can take you. We you up at eight. a will pick b are going to pick c are picking 4 I’m sorry I can’t come for dinner. I to York tonight. a will drive b am going to drive c am driving 5 The high-speed rail link the journey time between the cities signiﬁcantly. a will cut b is going to cut c is cutting 6 I have to go now. I you back later today. a will call b am going to call c am calling 7 Don’t go out now. I lunch and it’ll be cold by the time you get back. a will serve b am going to serve c am serving 8 Unless help arrives within the next few days, thousands . a will starve b are going to starve c are starving 10.3 Complete these dialogues with either present simple for the future or present continuous for the future using the verbs in brackets. If neither of these is correct, use will or be going to. Units 9 & 10 1 A: Simon Bianchi (1) (join) us for dinner. You know, the novelist. B: Yes, I’ve read some of his books. A: I’m sure you (2) (like) him. His latest book (3) (come) out at the end of this week. If you want, I’m sure he (4) (give) you a signed copy. 2 A: Have you heard that BWM (1) (sack) 300 workers? B: That’s bad news. Supposing they (2) (close) completely – that would be awful. A: But I’ve heard that they (3) (build) a new factory in Ireland. If you look on their website, you (4) (see) a lot of information about it. ➜ Additional exercise 4 (page 242) 21 Unit 11 Future continuous and future perfect (continuous) A Future continuous: I will be doing Reminder ➜ B8 We can use the future continuous to talk about: (i) something that is predicted to start before a particular point of future time, and that may continue after this point (often the result of a previous decision or arrangement): When it goes into orbit, the spacecraft will be carrying 30 kilos of plutonium. Anna will be helping us to organise the party. (ii) a future activity that is part of the normal course of events or that is one of a repeated or regular series of events: Dr Lin will be giving the same talk in room 103 at ten next Thursday. Will you be driving to work, as usual? We can often use either the future continuous or the present continuous when we talk about arranged activities or events in the future (see also Unit 10). Compare: We will be leaving for Istanbul at 7:00 in the evening. (timetabled; or … are leaving …) and When the race starts later this afternoon the drivers will be hoping for drier weather than last year. (not … are hoping …; not reporting the details of a programme or timetable) B When we don’t want to indicate willingness, intention, invitation, etc., we prefer to use the future continuous instead of will. For example, if guests have stayed longer than you wanted, and you don’t know when they are leaving, you might ask: Will you be staying with us again tonight? (asking about their plans) rather than Will you stay with us again tonight? (they might think this is an invitation) C Future perfect and future perfect continuous: I will have done and I will have been doing We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended, completed, or achieved by a particular point in the future: By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. I’m sure his awful behaviour will soon have been forgotten. (= passive form) We use the future perfect continuous to emphasise the duration of an activity in progress at a particular point in the future: Next year I will have been working in the company for 30 years. With both the future perfect and future perfect continuous we usually mention the future time (e.g. By the time you get home …, Next year …). D The future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous can also be used to say what we believe or imagine is happening around now: We could ask to borrow Joe’s car. He won’t be using it today – he went to work by bike. Most people will have forgotten the ﬁre by now. Tennis fans will have been queuing at Wimbledon all day to buy tickets. We can use the future perfect continuous to say what we think was happening at a point in the past: Motorist Vicky Hesketh will have been asking herself whether speed cameras are a good idea after she was ﬁned £100 last week for driving at 33 mph in a 30 mph zone. 22 Unit Exercises 11.1 11 Complete both sentences in each pair with one verb from the box. Use the future continuous (will / won’t be + -ing) in one sentence and will / won’t + inﬁnitive in the other. A & B give leave move use work 1 a We in an hour or so, so make sure your suitcase is packed. b Without more cheap housing, families the village and ﬁnd homes in town. 2 a you late at the ofﬁce again? I want to know when to cook. b A: We need to get this order sent out before Monday. B: Well, I over the weekend if that will help. 3 a I my car until next week, so you can borrow it if you like. b My grandad a computer. He says he’s very happy with his old typewriter. 4 a Is your suitcase very heavy? I you a hand with it if you like. b Dr Sankey evidence at the trial of James Morgan next week. 5 a He’s parked his car across our drive and says he it. Shall I call the police? b The two schools to a single campus at the beginning of September. 11.2 Make sentences with a beginning from (i), a verb from (ii) (either in the future perfect or future perfect continuous), and an ending from (iii). C & D (i) 1 The weather forecast says that the rain … 2 If the company is making a proﬁt by the end of the year then we … 3 In two years’ time Morneau … 4 I am conﬁdent that I … 5 This book on Proust is really difﬁcult. On Saturday I … 6 As delegates who arrived early … 1 11.3 (ii) (iii) act achieve clear ﬁnish discover read … the objective we set ourselves when we took over. … by the morning and tomorrow will be dry. … for 50 years, and shows no sign of retiring from the theatre. … the report before the end of the week. … it for a month, and I’m still only half way. … there have been some late changes to the conference programme. The weather forecast says that the rain will have cleared by the morning and tomorrow will be dry. Here is part of an email from Emily, an English teacher in Japan, to her friend Rosa. Underline the correct option. A & D Hi Rosa *UHHWLQJVIURP2VDND+RSHWKLV¿QGV\RXDOOZHOO,VXSSRVHE\QRZVFKRRO will close / will have closed IRU&KULVWPDVDQG\RX will be enjoying / will have been enjoyingDUHVW,W¶VKDUGWREHOLHYHWKDW7LP¶V DOUHDG\DQGWKDWLW¶VRQO\DIHZPRQWKVXQWLOKH will be leaving / will have beenOHDYLQJVFKRROIRU FROOHJH 0\PDLQQHZVLVWKDWP\EURWKHU-RHDQGKLVIDPLO\ will have been arriving / will be arriving next )ULGD\DVSDUWRIWKHLUELJWULSDURXQGWKHZRUOG%\WKHWLPHWKH\JHWKHUHWKH\ will be going / will have beenWR&DOLIRUQLDDQG1HZ=HDODQG1RGRXEW-RH¶VFKLOGUHQ will have been planning / will plan LWDOORXWIRUPRQWKV7KH\ won’t be spending / won’t have spentDOOWKHLUWLPHZLWKPH-RHKDVWRJR WR7RN\RRQEXVLQHVVVR, will have kept / will be keepingWKHUHVWRIWKHIDPLO\HQWHUWDLQHGZKLOHKH¶V DZD\7KHQWKH\ will all be going / will all have been goingWR.\RWR« 23 Unit 12 Be to + inﬁnitive; be about to + inﬁnitive A Be to + inﬁnitive is commonly used in news reports to talk about events that are likely to happen in the near future: Police ofﬁcers are to visit every home in the area. The main Rome-to-Naples railway line is to be reopened today. (passive form) It is also used to talk about formal or ofﬁcial arrangements, formal instructions, and to give orders: You are not to leave the school without my permission. The European Parliament is to introduce a new law on safety at work. Children are not to be left unsupervised in the museum. (passive form) Passive forms are often used to make orders and instructions more impersonal. Note that we only use be to + inﬁnitive to talk about future events that can be controlled by people. Compare: In the next few years, thousands of speed cameras are to appear on major roads. (or … will appear …) and Scientists say they can’t predict when or where the disease will appear again. (not … the disease is to appear again; the appearance of the disease can’t be controlled) The President is to return to Brazil later today. (or … will return …) and The comet will return to our solar system in around 500 years. (not The comet is to return …; the movement of the comet can’t be controlled) However, when be to + inﬁnitive refers to the future from the past (see Unit 14B), we often use it to describe what happened to someone, whether they were able to inﬂuence events or not: Matthew Flinders sailed past Tasmania in 1770, but it was to be a further 30 years before he landed there. Clare Atkins was to write two more books about her experiences in Africa before her death in 1997. B We often use be to + inﬁnitive in if-clauses to say that something must happen ﬁrst (in the main clause) before something else can happen (in the if-clause): If the human race is to survive, we must look at environmental problems now. The law needs to be revised if justice is to be done. (passive form) Compare the use of be to + inﬁnitive and the present simple for the future in if-clauses: If Lopez is to win gold at the next Olympics, he needs to work on his ﬁtness. and If Lopez wins gold at the next Olympics, he has said that he will retire from athletics. Note how the order of cause and effects in if-sentences is reversed with these two tenses: If Lopez is to win gold … (= effect), he needs to work … (= cause) and If Lopez wins gold … (= cause), he has said that he will retire … (= effect) C 24 We use be about to + inﬁnitive mainly in conversation to say that something will (not) happen in the very near future: We’re about to eat. Do you want to join us? Appearing on TV might make her famous, but it’s not about to make her rich. A: Why don’t you switch it off and turn it back on again? B: Yes, I was about to try that when you came in. (not Yes, I was to try …) (referring to the future from the past) Unit Exercises 12.1 12 Complete these news extracts using the verbs in brackets. Use be to + inﬁnitive if possible and will + inﬁnitive if not. Use active or passive forms as necessary. A 1 Jon Stobbard has written his ﬁrst new play for 15 years. Its ﬁrst performance (stage) at the New Victoria Theatre. 2 The new safety system (stop) trains automatically if they pass a danger signal. 3 Stafford Boys’ School (merge) with the nearby Bicton Girls’ School to form a new co-educational establishment. 4 There are fears that sea levels (rise) catastrophically in the next 50 years. 5 The old design and technology programme (replace) with a new computer science course. Now use the verbs in the box to do the same in 6 to 10. become create increase receive retire succeed this summer a year early. He 6 Managing Director Lars Lindberg, 59, by Christina Fontana, who joined the company last year. 7 As the temperatures fall with the onset of winter, the refugee crisis more severe. 8 Production line staff at the Heathcote garden furniture factory in Northam a pay rise following a big new order from Italy. 9 Seventy new posts at the factory following a major investment by the parent company in the United States. 10 The recent rapid rise in house prices in the south-east the demand for higher salaries among lower-paid workers. 12.2 Underline the correct answers. In some cases both alternatives are possible. B & C 1 You need to work much harder if you have / are to have any chance of passing the exam. 2 My sister is to start / is about to start a PhD in Physics. 3 Mrs Patel is likely to become the Foreign Minister if the party wins / is to win power at the next election. 4 If you enjoy / are to enjoy romantic comedies, then this is a ﬁlm you must see. 5 A: Can you type this letter for me? B: Sorry, I’m just to go / ’m just about to go home. It’ll have to wait until tomorrow. 6 If Beckman recovers / is to recover from a foot injury, it seems certain that he will play in Saturday’s match against Spain. 7 If the university keeps / is to keep its international reputation, it must ﬁrst invest in better facilities for students. 8 Jonas Fischer has denied that he is to resign / is about to resign as marketing manager. 9 It started snowing an hour ago, and from the look of those clouds things are to get / are about to get a lot worse. 10 If the railway system is improved / is to be improved, the government should invest substantial amounts of money now. 25 Unit 13 Other ways of talking about the future A Some phrases are commonly used to refer to actions or events in the future with a meaning similar to be about to + inﬁnitive (see Unit 12C). We can use be on the verge of … / brink of … / point of … (+ -ing or noun) to say that something will happen soon: People are on the verge of starvation as the drought continues. Scientists are on the brink of making major advances in the ﬁght against AIDS. Exhausted, mentally and physically, she was on the point of collapse. Be on the brink of usually refers to something important, exciting, or very bad. We use be due to (+ inﬁnitive) to say that something is expected to happen at a particular time, be sure / bound to (+ inﬁnitive) to say that something is likely or certain to happen, and be set to (+ inﬁnitive) to say that something is ready to happen: The company’s chief executive is due to retire next year, but following today’s announcement of further losses she is sure to be asked to leave sooner. ‘Will there be somewhere to get a coffee at the station?’ ‘Oh, yes, there’s bound to be.’ Her new ﬁlm is set to be a great success. Note that we use due to + noun to give the reason for something, not to talk about the future (e.g. Due to fog, all ﬂights from the airport have been cancelled). B We use some verbs with a to-inﬁnitive to talk about intentions: We guarantee to refund your money if you are dissatisﬁed with the computer. The present simple + to-inﬁnitive or present continuous + to-inﬁnitive can be used with the verbs marked * to talk about intentions: I aim to get to Bangkok by the end of June. (or I’m aiming to get …; I was aiming to get … is also possible, but more tentative) Also: aim*, agree, expect*, hope*, intend*, mean, plan*, promise, propose*, resolve, undertake, want* Some people, particularly in speech and in journalism, use be looking + to-inﬁnitive to mean planning a course of action: We’re looking to create 3,000 jobs in the city over the next year. C When the phrases and verbs in A and B are used with past tense forms, they are usually concerned with future events seen from the past (see also Unit 14): It was his 64th birthday in 2006 and he was due to retire the following year. Nathan had resolved to become ﬂuent in Spanish before he left university. The new management had been looking to create 20 new jobs. D Some people use shall (and shan’t) instead of will (and won’t) in statements about the future with I and we. However, it is more common to use will (particularly its contracted form ’ll) and won’t: He was a good friend and we shall miss him greatly. (more commonly … we’ll miss …) I’m just going to buy a newspaper. I shan’t be long. (more commonly I won’t …) In current English we don’t usually use shall / shan’t with other subjects to talk about the future, although this is found in formal rules and in older literary styles: The match referee shall be the sole judge of fair play. All people of the world shall live together as brothers. 26 Unit Exercises 13.1 13 Expand the notes to complete the news extracts, using the phrases in A . verge – become sure – face set – make sure – provide point – sign point – move 1/2 brink – go set – launch bound – raise due – return verge – quit due – undergo The decision of Cornico to relocate its international headquarters to Switzerland is bound to raise questions about the government’s new profits tax. It seems that other major financial firms are also on the point of moving their headquarters out of London. 3/4 NASA ’s latest Mars probe is to Earth later today. A spokesperson for NASA exciting said that the probe would be bringing back rock samples that are new information about the planet. 5/6 The Countryside Conservation Society is a new million-Euro scheme for the protection of endangered plant species. It is estimated that over 200 species are extinct in the country. 7/8 Sources at the United Nations have said that the governments of North and South Alicia are an agreement to end their long-running border dispute. However, any resistance from rebel forces in South Alicia, who have said agreement is they will fight on. 9/10 Tennis star Sancho Gomez is a second operation on his injured shoulder. tennis earlier this year after a first operation was unsuccessful. He was 11/12 EU agriculture ministers are an important announcement on increasing support to farmers when they meet in Brussels on Monday. ‘Many farmers are out of business,’ said the Italian representative, ‘and the matter must be decided very soon.’ 13.2 Complete the sentences with the verb pairs from the box. Use either the present simple or present continuous for the ﬁrst verb. If both tenses are possible, write them both. B & C aim – to study expect – to ﬁnish look – to replace intend – to move propose – to deal resolve – to give up guarantee – to ﬁnd 1 My computer is now ﬁve years old, and I ’m looking to replace it with a faster one. 2 In the ﬁrst half of the course we’ll study microbiology, and in the second half I with genetic engineering. 3 We haven’t completed the work yet, but we it later this week. 4 I haven’t done much work at college so far, but I harder from now on. 5 Every New Year he eating biscuits, but by February he has started again. 6 We can’t provide the spare parts ourselves, but we a supplier who can. 7 At the moment I commute for over three hours a day, but I closer to my work in the next few months. 13.3 Underline the possible options. D 1 2 3 4 5 I have passed your letter on to the manager who shall / will reply shortly. Sorry, but I shan’t / won’t be able to give you a lift after all. I think your parents shall / will be very happy with your decision. Only people over the age of 18 shall / will be eligible to vote in the referendum. You shan’t / won’t want to eat your dinner tonight after all that chocolate. 27 Unit 14 The future seen from the past A There are a number of ways of talking about an activity or event that was in the future at a particular point in the past. In order to express this idea, we can use the past tenses of the verb forms we would normally use to talk about the future. These forms are often used in reporting (see Units 32–36). Compare the following sentences: The future from now … past now The future from the past … I haven’t got much money, so I think I’ll stay at home this summer. Eleni decided that she would stay at home for the summer. I’m not going to say anything about the exams today, because I don’t have time. I wasn’t going to say anything about the exams, but the students asked me to. I’m having a meeting with my tutor tomorrow to discuss my work. I couldn’t go to the match because I was having a meeting with my tutor. Will you be going alone, or is Louise going with you? At the time, I thought I would be going alone, but then Jan said he wanted to come. The exam will have ﬁnished by three o’clock, so I’ll see you then. The exam was so easy that most people would have ﬁnished after 30 minutes. There is to be a meeting of ministers this evening. It was announced that there was to be a meeting of ministers that evening. When the school closes, all the children are to be moved to one nearby. Mrs Novak heard that she was to be moved to a post in a nearby school. As the bell is about to go for the end of the lesson, pack your books away. The bell was about to go when all the children started to pack their books away. If the future seen from the past is still in the future for the speaker, then either form is possible: It was announced this morning that there is / was to be a statement this evening. In some cases we don’t know whether the activity or event happened or not. Compare: I didn’t phone to give him the news because we were seeing each other later. He was very upset when I told him. (= we saw each other) and We were seeing each other later that day, but I had to phone and cancel. (= we didn’t see each other) B To talk about an activity or event that was in the future at a particular point in the past, we can use was / were to + inﬁnitive (for things that actually happened) and was / were to have + past participle (for things that were expected, but didn’t happen): At the time she was probably the best actor in the theatre company, but in fact some of her colleagues were to become much better known. The boat, which was to have taken them to the island, failed to arrive. He was to ﬁnd out years later that the car he had bought was stolen. Note, however, that in less formal contexts it is more natural to use be supposed to: I was supposed to help, but I was ill. (more natural than I was to have helped …) 28 Exercises 14.1 Unit 14 Write ✓ if the italicised parts are correct. If they are wrong, correct them. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I’m going to do the washing, but we’d run out of washing powder. The concert tonight would be over by about 9:30. We could eat after that. When we were passing Ivan’s house, we thought we’d drop in and see him. A: Where shall I hang my coat? B: Sorry, I thought Ella will have shown you. Over there. The manager of Newtown United said that the team is to be announced at nine tomorrow. The second half was about to start, so shall we go back to our seats now? I knew that by the morning I would be feeling exhausted, but I just wanted to go dancing. A: Where’s Oliver? He is supposed to be here yesterday, and there’s still no sign of him. B: I’m about to ask the same question. I didn’t phone Ben this morning because I was going to see him when I’ve ﬁnished work. DNA testing was to be used by police in the search for the missing Dublin schoolboy. His parents have welcomed the news. We are meeting at seven in the Globe coffee bar. Can you be there, too? We didn’t expect that having a rabbit as a pet will cause so many problems. In which three cases can we use either a past or present tense form in the italicised parts? 14.2 Choose the more appropriate option, (a) or (b), to complete these sentences. B 1 The meeting was to have taken place in the hall, … a but had to be cancelled at the last minute. b and was well attended. 2 She was to have appeared with Heath Ledger in his last ﬁlm… a and was a tremendous success. b but the part went to her sister. 3 Later, in Rome, I was to meet Professor Pearce … a and was very impressed by his knowledge of Italian culture. b but he left before I got there. 4 The twenty police ofﬁcers who were to have gone off duty at eight … a went to the Christmas party. b had to remain in the police station. 5 It was to take 48 hours to get to Japan … a and we were exhausted when we arrived. b but we managed to do it in only a day. 6 After the war he was to teach at London University … a but no money was available to employ him. b for ten years. 7 The bridge was to have been completed this year … a but a number of accidents have led to delays. b and is to be opened by the president next month. 8 The new road was to have a major impact on trafﬁc in the busy town centre, … a making life much easier for commuters. b but the crowded roads continued. 9 The construction of the cathedral was to have begun in 1650 … a and go on for over 80 years. b but a shortage of labour delayed the start for a further 20 years. 10 We were to stay with Rodrigo in Lisbon … a many times before he moved to Madrid. b but he moved to Madrid. 29 Unit 15 Can, could, be able to and be allowed to A Can, could and be able to: ability Reminder ➜ C1 – C7 We sometimes use be able to instead of can and could to talk about ability. We avoid be able to – when we talk about something that is happening as we speak: Watch me, Mum; I can stand on one leg. (not … I’m able to stand on one leg.) before passives: Films can now easily be streamed online. (rather than Films are now easily able to be streamed …) when the meaning is ‘know how to’: Can you cook? (rather than Are you able to cook?) B If we talk about a single achievement, rather than a general ability in the past, we usually use be able to rather than could. Compare: Sophie could play the ﬂute quite well. (or … was able to …; a general ability) and She swam strongly and was able to cross the river easily, even though it was swollen by the heavy rain. (not She swam strongly and could cross …; a speciﬁc achievement) However, could is usually more natural than be able to – in negative sentences: I tried to get up but I couldn’t move. with verbs of the senses, e.g. feel, hear, see, smell, taste, and with verbs of ‘thinking’, e.g. believe, decide, remember, understand: I could remember the crash, but nothing after that. after the phrases the only thing / place / time, and after all when it means ‘the only thing’: All we could see were his feet. to suggest that something almost didn’t happen, particularly with almost, hardly, just, nearly: I could nearly touch the ceiling. C Can and could: possibility To talk about the theoretical possibility of something happening we use could, not can. However, we use can, not could, to say that something is possible and actually happens. Compare: It could be expensive to keep a cat. (= if we had one, it could or it may not be expensive) and It can be expensive to keep a cat. (= it can be, and it sometimes is) We use can’t, not couldn’t, to say that something is theoretically or actually impossible: There can’t be many people in the world who haven’t watched television. The doctor can’t see you this morning; he’s busy at the hospital. D We use can to indicate that there is a very real possibility of a future event happening. Using could suggests that something is less likely or that there is some doubt about it. Compare: We can stay with Jake in Oslo. (= we will be able to stay) and We could stay with Jake in Oslo. (= it’s possible; if he’s there) E Could and be allowed to: permission To say that in the past someone had general permission to do something – that is, to do it at any time – we can use either could or was / were allowed to. However, to talk about permission for one particular past action, we use was / were allowed to, but not could. Compare: Anyone was allowed to ﬁsh in the lake when the council owned it. (or … could ﬁsh …) and Although he didn’t have a ticket, Ned was allowed to come in. (not … could come in.) In negative sentences, we can use either couldn’t or wasn’t / weren’t allowed to to say that permission was not given in general or particular situations: I couldn’t / wasn’t allowed to open the present until my birthday. 30 Unit Exercises 15.1 Underline the correct or more natural option (or both if possible). A & B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15.2 15 Valuables can / are able to be left in the hotel safe. Please ask at the reception desk. We could / were able to ﬁnish the hockey match before it started snowing too heavily. The rebels could / were able to draw on the support of over 20,000 soldiers. Could you / Were you able to understand Professor Larsen’s lecture? I found it really difﬁcult. A: Do you want a game? B: Sorry, I can’t / ’m not able to play chess. Look at me, I can / ’m able to ride my bike without any help. When the ﬁreﬁghters arrived they could / were able to put out the ﬂames in a couple of minutes. The air was so polluted in the city centre, I could hardly / was hardly able to breathe. I knew Petra had been decorating. I could / was able to smell the paint when I came in. Can you / Are you able to drive without your glasses? No changes can / are able to be made to this rail ticket after purchase. He could / was able to untie the ropes without the guards noticing. She looked all over the house, but couldn’t / wasn’t able to ﬁnd her keys anywhere. I was very busy at work, but I could / was able to have a couple of days off last week. Complete these blog posts with can, could and be allowed to (or two forms if possible). Use negative forms where necessary. A–E a We went camping in the north of Spain last July. As you probably know, it (1) rain a lot on the coast, even in midsummer, and the day we arrived we (2) believe how heavy the rain was. Eventually we found a place to camp, in a field next to a beach. We had a new tent – the advertisement for it said, ‘This tent (3) be assembled in two minutes with no previous experience.’ What a joke! Now, there (4) be many people who haven’t had difficulty putting up a tent at some time, but it took us more than two hours. And then, just as it was done, a man came along and said that we (5) camp there – it was private property. So we had to take the tent down again. Then Eva just said, ‘Well, we (6) stay here all night. Let’s go to that hotel in the last village we drove through.’ Unfortunately, when we got there they were full. But they were very kind and we (7) camp at the end of their garden! b ,WLVRIWHQVDLGWKDWVSRUWVFRDFKHV EHVWULFWEXWDWKOHWH/DQFH-RUGDQ¶V ZDVLQFUHGLEO\KDUGRQKLPLQWKH\HDUEHIRUHWKH2O\PSLF*DPHV)RULQVWDQFH/DQFH VWD\XSODWHUWKDQQLQHDOWKRXJKRQKLVELUWKGD\KH WHOHYLVLRQXQWLOWHQDVLWZDVDVSHFLDORFFDVLRQ2IFRXUVHDOO/DQFH ZDWFK WKLQNRIZDV JRLQJRXWZLWKKLVIULHQGVLQWKHHYHQLQJDQGKH KDUGO\ZDLWIRUWKH*DPHVWR ¿QLVKWRJHWEDFNWRDQRUPDOOLIH:KHQKHFRPSODLQHGKLVFRDFKMXVWVDLGµ7UXVWPHDQG\RX¶OO ZLQJROG±\RX ORVH¶$QGKLVFRDFKZDVULJKW+HZRQDJROGPHGDOLQWKH PHWUHVLQDZRUOGUHFRUGWLPH$QGRQWKHQLJKWRIKLVYLFWRU\/DQFH FHOHEUDWH ±E\VWD\LQJXSXQWLOR¶FORFNµ%XWQRODWHU¶VDLGKLVFRDFKµ7KH:RUOG&KDPSLRQVKLSVDUHRQO\ WZR\HDUVDZD\¶ ➜ Additional exercise 5 (page 242) 31 Unit 16 Will, would and used to A Will and would Reminder ➜ C8 – C14 We can use will (for the present) and would (for the past) to talk about – characteristic behaviour or habits: Every day Dan will come home from work and turn on the TV. At school she would always sit quietly and pay attention. things that are or were always true: Cold weather will kill certain plants. During the war, people would eat all kinds of things that we don’t eat now. (For the use of will to talk about the future, see Unit 9.) We don’t use will or would in this way to talk about a particular occasion. Compare: Each time I gave him a problem he would solve it for me. and Last night I gave him a problem and he solved it for me. (not … he would solve it ...) However, we can use will not (won’t) and would not (wouldn’t) in either case. Compare: He would / wouldn’t walk the ﬁve miles to his place of work. (characteristic behaviour) and She wouldn’t say what was wrong when I asked her. B In speech, we can stress will or would to criticise people’s characteristic behaviour or habits: She just won’t do the washing up when I ask her. I was happy when Ryan left. He would talk about people behind their backs. We can also express disapproval of something they have done using will: ‘I feel sick.’ ‘Well, if you will eat so much, I’m not surprised.’ C We can use use will to draw conclusions or state assumptions about things that are the case now (see also Unit 9B): Martina will be at home by now. Let’s go and see her. You will know that Ewan and Lucy are engaged. (= I assume you already know) D Would and used to When we talk about repeated events in the past that don’t happen now we can use either would or used to + inﬁnitive. However, we can use would only if the time reference is clear. Compare: We used to play in the garden. (not We would play …; time reference not given) and Whenever we went to my uncle’s house, we would / used to play in the garden. We can use used to but not would when we talk about past states that have changed: The factory used to be over there. Didn’t you use to have red hair? We don’t use either used to or would when we say exactly how many times in total something happened, how long something took, or that a sin