Main Leaders Who Changed History
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LEADERS WHO CHANGED HISTORY LEADERS WHO CHANGED HISTORY DK LONDON SENIOR EDITOR: Chauney Dunford US EDITORS: Jennette ElNaggar, Kayla Dugger SENIOR ART EDITORS: Gillian Andrews, Stephen Bere Mark Cavanagh, Anthony Limerick LEAD ILLUSTRATOR: Phil Gamble EDITORS: Jemima Dunne, Joanna Edwards, Kathryn Hennessy, Victoria Heyworth-Dunne, Kathryn Hill, Katie John, Francesco Piscitelli, Helen Ridge EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS: Daniel Byrne, Michael Clark, Gwion-Win Jones PICTURE RESEARCH: Deepak Negi JACKET EDITOR: Emma Dawson SENIOR JACKET DESIGNER: Surabhi Wadhwa JACKET DESIGN DEVELOPMENT MANAGER: Sophia MTT PRODUCER, PREPRODUCTION: Jacqueline Street-Elkayam PRODUCER: Rachel Ng MANAGING EDITOR: Gareth Jones SENIOR MANAGING ART EDITOR: Lee Griffiths ASSOCIATE PUBLISHING DIRECTOR: Liz Wheeler ART DIRECTOR : Karen Self DESIGN DIRECTOR: Philip Ormerod PUBLISHING DIRECTOR: Jonathan Metcalf CONTRIBUTORS: Alexandra Black, Clive Gifford, Reg Grant, Anna Samson CONSULTANTS: Adrian Gilbert, Philip Parker, Alan Saywood INDEXER: Helen Peters PROOFREADER: Alexandra Beeden First American Edition, 2019 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 Copyright © 2019 Dorling Kindersley Limited DK, a Division of Penguin Random House LLC 19 20 21 22 23 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001–312720–Mar/2019 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: 978-1-4654-8033-0 DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 345 Hudson St; reet, New York New York 10014 SpecialSales@dk.com Printed and bound in Malaysia A WORLD OF IDEAS: SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW www.dk.com CONTENTS 06 Introduction 1 2 2000 BCE–1500 1500–1820 EMPIRES AND RELIGIONS CONQUEST AND LIBERTY 10 Moses 72 Hernán Cortés 14 Śiddhartha Gautama Buddha 76 Suleiman the Magnificent 18 Alexander the Great 80 Elizabeth I 24 Qin Shi Huang 86 Tokugawa Ieyasu 27 Cleopatra 90 Yi Sun–sin 28 Jesus Christ 94 Louis XIV 32 Augustus Caesar 98 Frederick the Great 37 Septimia Zenobia 100 George Washington 38 Muhammad 105 Olaudah Equiano 42 Charlemagne 106 Maximilien Robespierre 36 Boudicca 48 Eleanor of Aquitaine 49 Saladin 110 Napoleon Bonaparte 50 Genghis Khan 116 Simón Bolívar 56 Amir Timur 120 Maria Quitéria 58 Joan of Arc 121 Directory 64 Guru Nanak 68 Directory 3 4 5 6 1820–1920 1920–1950 1950–1980 1980–Present 126 Giuseppe Garibaldi 170 Vladimir Lenin 230 Kwame Nkrumah 270 Margaret Thatcher 130 Karl Marx 173 Michael Collins 234 Fidel Castro 272 Bill Gates 136 Sojourner Truth 174 Adolf Hitler 238 John F. Kennedy 278 Mikhail Gorbachev 138 Abraham Lincoln 180 Joseph Stalin 282 Benazir Bhutto 143 Susan B. Anthony 184 Kim Koo 240 Martin Luther King Jr. 188 Mohandas Gandhi 246 Akio Morita 285 Václav Havel 148 Tasuŋka Witko “Crazy Horse” 193 Bhagat Singh 248 Nelson Mandela 286 Oprah Winfrey 194 Haile Selassie 254 Malcolm X 289 Anna Wintour 150 John D. Rockefeller 196 Winston Churchill 258 Yasser Arafat 290 Jack Ma 202 Douglas MacArthur 262 Li Ka–shing 294 Vladimir Putin 203 Franklin Roosevelt 266 Directory 204 Charles de Gaulle 298 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf 156 Emmeline Pankhurst 208 Eleanor Roosevelt 300 Angela Merkel 214 David Ben–Gurion 302 Barack Obama 160 Henry Ford 218 Mao Zedong 306 Malala Yousafzai 164 Coco Chanel 224 Directory 308 Directory NATIONHOOD AND INDUSTRY 144 Otto von Bismarck 154 Jamsetji Tata 155 Swami Vivekananda CONFLICT AND HOPE RIGHTS AND REVOLUTIONS FREEDOM AND OPPORTUNITIES 284 Lech Wałęsa 166 Directory 312 Index and Acknowledgments INTRODUCTION Throughout history, human societies have been shaped and determined by their leaders. Whether triumphing by conquest or political maneuvering, or succeeding by self-belief, these figures are the powerful elite that others have sought, or been compelled, to follow. L eaders take many forms, from monarchs and dictators to social reformers and revolutionaries to prophets and spiritual guides. Styles of leadership are equally diverse, some achieving and sustaining their authority through fear and brutality, while others inspire loyalty through benevolence or shared ideals and aspirations. What unites all great leaders, however, is their ability to influence people, whether briefly, such as John F. Kennedy, or throughout their lifetime, such as Eleanor of Aquitaine during her 66-year reign over France and England. While the legacies of many leaders have faded over time, a notable few have left an indelible mark on the world. The most enduring of these legacies belong to spiritual leaders, such as Muhammad, Moses, and Jesus Christ, whose teachings continue to shape the lives of billions of followers around the world, millennia after their own lifetimes. A number of other leaders also live on in spiritual form as cherished national icons, such as Boudicca, Joan of Arc, and Saladin, whose achievements have become legendary. They endure in people’s minds as much for the principles they represent as for the historical facts of their stories. The effect of power For some leaders, traces of their influence can still be seen in national, geographic, and political boundaries. The vast empires created by Alexander the Great, Suleiman the Magnificent, and Genghis Khan, for example, may have fallen, but the achievements of Qin Shi Huang, Charlemagne, and Otto Von Bismarck endure as modern-day China, France, and Germany. Similarly, through the leadership of George Washington, Mahatma Gandhi, and Kwame Nkrumah, the US, India, and Ghana became new, independent countries. Another mark of successful leadership is advancement, where courageous rulers have led their society to a brighter future by challenging the current regime. As president, Abraham Lincoln released millions of slaves in the US and turned his country away from slavery; Cuba was freed from capitalist corruption by Fidel Castro’s revolution; while in South Africa, Nelson Mandela overthrew apartheid, finally granting equality to the country’s black majority. Leaders can be defined neither by gender nor by race. Some of the great leaders have been female, including Sojourner Truth, Susan B. Anthony, and Emmeline Pankhurst, who all worked toward achieving equality for women. As a result of their initiatives, Margaret Thatcher, Benazir Bhutto, and Angela Merkel were able to forge political careers that saw them become the first elected female leaders of the UK, Pakistan, and Germany, respectively. The civil rights movement in the US, given voice by Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, successfully campaigned for black equality and brought the issue to the world stage. A position of leadership inevitably carries great power, which can be misused and even abused, as witnessed in Adolf Hitler’s persecution of the Jews and other minorities during World War II, devastating Europe for generations. Wielding power does not guarantee success, as seen in communist Russia and China, where Joseph Stalin’s and Mao Zedong’s failed reforms and political ambitions cost the lives of tens of millions of their own people. However, leaders can and do evolve. In their early lives, entrepreneurs such as John D. Rockefeller, Li Ka-shing, and Bill Gates led their businesses to global “The youth of today are the leaders of tomorrow.” Nelson Mandela, 1990 success and earned themselves vast fortunes. Each then used his personal wealth to fund philanthropic projects and, in doing so, improved the lives of those less fortunate, acquiring new supporters around the world. Changing notion of leadership As societies change, so, too, does the concept of leadership. However, the one, indisputable uniting quality among all the leaders that appear in this book is ambition—these are people who, even if their leadership was inherited, chose to make decisions in order to effect change. They accepted, welcomed, or fought for their position, and they were not afraid to stand up for what they believed in, whether that be to mankind’s advantage or detriment. These are people who lived exceptional lives, many of which still continue to influence lives today. 1 EMPIRES AND RELIGIONS 2000 BCE–1500 “ This is what the Lord says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me.” Moses MOSES MILESTONES SURVIVES MASSACRE Discovered and raised by a Pharaoh’s daughter, he survives a massacre of newborn Hebrew boys. FREES HEBREW SLAVE Murders an Egyptian slave master to save a Hebrew slave. Lives as a shepherd for 40 years. COMMANDED BY GOD Chosen by God to lead the Israelites from slavery and deliver them to the Promised Land. SPREADS GOD’S WORD Receives God’s teachings and his commandments, which he compiles to form basis of the Torah. 1391–1271 BCE Chosen by God to free the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, Moses led them across the desert for 40 years to Canaan, the land that God had promised. As the first prophet to proclaim the coming of the Messiah, and the receiver of the Ten Commandments, Moses is remembered in Jewish tradition as the greatest prophet of the Bible. B orn to Hebrew parents (Israelites) in what would become Egypt, Moses lived, according to most scholars, between 14th–13th centuries bce. The Israelites had been slaves in Egypt for around 400 years, and worried that they might form alliances with his enemies, the reigning Pharaoh (name unknown) ordered the execution of all newborn males to reduce their population. As a baby, Moses was hidden by his mother, and discovered by the Pharaoh’s daughter, who raised him at the royal court. As an adult, Moses killed an Egyptian slavemaster after he saw him beating a Hebrew slave. Fearing the death penalty, he fled Egypt for the neighboring area of Midian (believed to be in the Arabian Peninsula). Power of God In Midian, Moses spent the next 40 years living as a shepherd and married a fellow shepherd’s daughter, Zipporah. While tending his sheep on Mount Horeb, he saw a bush that burned but did not perish in the flames. Moses was discovered in a reed basket along the banks of the River Nile by the Pharaoh’s daughter. She adopted him and raised him at the royal court. THE PROMISED LAND Leads the Jews for 40 years wandering the desert. Dies within sight of the Promised Land. 11 “ The Lord will fight for you; you need only to be still.” Moses REMEMB ER THE SA BBATH TS PAREN R U O Y R ONO H When he investigated, God appeared and claimed that he had chosen Moses for a mission—to free the Israelites from slavery and lead them to the Promised Land (the land that God had pledged to Abraham and his descendants). At first, Moses was afraid and refused the task, but eventually he placed his faith in God and accepted the mission. Moses returned to Egypt and demanded that the Pharaoh release his slaves, warning him of God’s punishment, but he refused. God inflicted plagues that ravaged Egypt for months, and after the 10th plague, the Pharaoh finally agreed to release the slaves. Searching for freedom Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt and into the Arabian Desert, and Pharaoh, who regretted his decision to free his workers, sent his chariots to chase them 12 DO down. When faced with the Red Sea, Moses called upon God, who parted the waves so he and the Israelites could pass, as Pharaoh’s chariots were washed away. Later, God appeared to Moses at Mount Sinai, where he outlined laws that the Israelites must follow in exchange for God’s enduring blessing. Moses recorded these as the Ten Commandments, which still form the backbone of Judeo-Christian morality. According to Jewish tradition, God also dictated further teachings, which Moses compiled in the Torah, the most important text in Judaism. Moses became a channel between God and the Israelites, and his direct communication with God distinguishes him from any other prophet in the Bible. The Promised Land As God’s messenger, Moses led the loyal Israelites into the desert, where they sought to find the Promised Land. There, he sent out 12 chiefs in search of the land for 40 days. When 10 returned despondent at what they DO NOT had found, God punished the Israelites for their lack of faith and made them wander the desert for another 40 years, until the generation of doubters had perished. Moses led the Israelites to within sight of the Promised Land, where he handed them over to the care of his assistant, Joshua, and climbed Mount Nebo, where he died, aged 120, having never reached the Promised Land himself. O WORSHIP FALSE G FOLLOW OTHER GODS TAKE GOD’S NAME IN VAIN MURDER STEAL BEAR FAL COMM SE WITNESS IT AD ULTER Y COVET DS The Ten Commandments, in Judeo-Christian thought, are essential moral teachings. Spread by Moses to the Israelites, they consist of a number of required and forbidden practices. JUDAISM GLOBAL FOLLOWERS OVER OVER 6 OVER UNDER MILLION 500,000 NORTH AMERICA LATIN AMERICACARIBBEAN 1.4 MILLION EUROPE 6.6 MILLION MIDDLE EASTNORTH AFRICA OVER 100,000 OVER 200,000 SUB-SAHARAN ASIA-PACIFIC AFRICA 13 MILESTONES KEPT FROM REALITY Spends his life until early adulthood in his father’s palace shielded from human suffering. SHOCKED BY TRUTH Upon leaving the palace, discovers reality of life. He leaves his family to become a holy man. SOURCE OF SUFFERING After meditating, learns that greed, stupidity, and selfishness are causes of human misery. PATH TO NIRVANA Develops philosophy of Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path as a means to reach Nirvana. SPREADS HIS IDEAS Aged 35, attracts his first disciples. Founds Sangha (monastic order) and sets out dharma (teachings). Better known as the Buddha, Śiddhartha Gautama is revered as the founder of one of the oldest and most widespread of world faiths—Buddhism. An Eastern philosophy and religion, it teaches that life is a process of working toward freedom from suffering. Ś iddhartha (meaning “he who achieves his aim”) Gautama was born into the Shakya tribe in Lumbini (modern-day Nepal), in the 6th century bce. The tribe was poor and isolated, but Śiddhartha’s father, Śuddhodana, was the leader, and built a palace where his son, the prince, could live in luxury. Path to enlightenment According to Buddhist tradition, Śiddhartha’s father ordered the people to hide all signs of human suffering from his son. When Śiddhartha finally ventured out of the palace without his father’s knowledge, he was deeply shocked to learn of illness, old age, and death. In response, he left his home, his wife, and his newborn son Rāhula, to seek the truth of human existence. For a few years, Śiddhartha tried to emulate holy men (such as the hermit saint Alara Kalama), and follow a life of study, prayer, and meditation, but their guidance failed to help him achieve spiritual release. Then, meditating alone under a pipal tree (Ficus religiosa), he came to see things as they truly were. When he realized that the causes of suffering are greed, selfishness, and stupidity, and that eliminating these traits would free people from suffering, he reached Nirvana, a state of pure enlightenment, and became the Buddha (“he who is awake”). “All conditioned things are impermanent—when one sees this with wisdom, one turns away from suffering.” The Buddha Kneeing statues representing the six devas (spirit beings) offer devotional gifts to the Tian Tan Buddha in Hong Kong, built in 1993. 14 5 6 3 – 4 8 3 BCE SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA BUDDHA ION DECADEN SELF-MORTIFICAT CE MIDDLE WAY NIRVANA N IO NT ON IN I AT TE TR EN NC CO UNDERSTANDING Buddha taught his followers eight daily practices to help them find a middle way between self-denial and overindulgence, leading to pure enlightenment. RIGHT LIVELIHOOD N IO EF FO SPEECH T AC RT MINDFULNESS During the Buddha’s first sermon, he “set in motion the wheel” of his teachings (dharma). He spoke of the Four Noble Truths: dukkha (the truth of suffering); the arising of dukkha (the causes of suffering); the stopping of dukkha (the end of suffering); and the path to the stopping of dukkha (path to freedom from suffering). He also set out the Eightfold Path—eight practices to be integrated into daily life: right understanding, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. By embracing these habitual behaviours, the Buddha taught that each person could achieve a balance between self-mortification and decadence known as the Middle Way. Teachings and legacy While some of the Buddha’s teachings, such as forbidding the slaughter of living beings, already existed in other schools of thought, his emphasis on equality between human beings and compassion for the poor was a revolutionary concept. The Buddha spent the rest of his life travelling through India and preaching the dharma. However, he did not claim DALAI LAMA Buddhist monk Tenzin Gyatso is the 14th Dalai Lama, and the spiritual leader of Tibet. The current lineage of Dalai Lamas began in the 14th century, and is believed to be successive incarnations of religious teachers who return to Earth to guide others. Since the 17th century, these spiritual masters have led the government in Tibet, until the 14th Dalai Lama went into exile in 1959 following a failed uprising against Chinese occupation. He has since become a world figure for his campaign for Tibetan autonomy. to be a god or a prophet—only a human being who had reached the highest possible understanding of reality. It is said that when he died he told his disciples not to follow another leader. After the Buddha’s death, his teachings were passed through eastern Asia orally for 400 years before being written down. He also came to be venerated in other religions, such as the Ahmadiyya sect of Islam, while Hindus see him as one of ten incarnations of the god Vishnu. BUDDHISM GLOBAL FOLLOWERS OVER UNDER 1.3 500,000 LATIN AMERICACARIBBEAN NORTH AMERICA OVER 3.8 MILLION MILLION EUROPE UNDER 200,000 OVER 500,000 MIDDLE EASTNORTH AFRICA SUBSAHARAN AFRICA OVER 481 MILLION ASIA-PACIFIC ALEXANDER THE GREAT MILESTONES INSPIRED BY HOMER Tutored by Aristotle in 343 bce, and reads Homer’s works, The Iliad and The Odyssey. BECOMES KING Succeeds his father and becomes King of Macedonia, 336 bce. Crushes early dissent. BUILDS ALEXANDRIA Founds a new Greek city, Alexandria, 331 bce, as a Hellenistic center in Egypt. DEFEATS PERSIA Takes control of Persian Empire after decisive Battle of Gaugamela, 331 bce. 3 5 6 – 323 BCE Considered by historians to have been one of the greatest commanders of all time, Alexander the Great‘s tactics influenced military strategists for centuries. Skillful, daring, and ambitious, by the age of 32, he had established an empire that stretched from Greece and Egypt to the Indian subcontinent. B orn in Pella, in the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia, Alexander was the son of Philip II and his fourth wife, Olympias. In Alexander’s early education, he strongly identified with Achilles and Odysseus, the heroes of Homer’s epics, The Iliad and The Odyssey, and from an early age, he sought to emulate their achievements. When Alexander was just 16 years old, he ruled Macedonia as regent in his father’s absence, crushing an uprising in Thrace. Two years later, Alexander led the cavalry charge at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 bce, and, according to the GreekRoman biographer Plutarch, he was the first to force a breach in the enemy line, winning a key victory for his father. The new king After Philip II’s assassination in 336 bce, Alexander, aged 19, became king of Macedonia. Immediately, he began quelling rebellions sparked by the death of his father. After killing his main rival, Attalus, Alexander crushed an uprising in the Greek city of Thebes—the first example of his use of ruthless terror to suppress rebellion. Alexander’s first military expedition saw him defeat an uprising by local chiefs in the Danube Valley, north of Macedonia, in 335 bce. In order to Alexander’s influence helped Hellenism (Greek culture) spread throughout the Ancient World for centuries after his death. The tall stone columns of the Garni Temple in Armenia are typical of Hellenistic architecture. 19 safely cross the river and gain the upper hand, he moved his entire army, with horses and equipment, across the river overnight on rafts made of animal skins stuffed with straw. Alexander’s ability to improvise solutions under pressure, based on an astute reading of the landscape and situation, would be demonstrated throughout his career. Building an empire With his European lands secure, the 22year-old Alexander turned his attention east toward Persia, intent on further conquests. Leading a carefully prepared expedition, he crossed the Hellespont, the body of water separating Europe from Asia Minor, into Anatolia. Alexander’s powerful army consisted of 5,000 Macedonian and Thessalonian cavalry and 40,000 Macedonian and Greek infantry, including Thracian javelin throwers and Cretan archers. His army’s first victory against the Persians came at Granicus (Turkey) in 334 bce. There, he used tactics gleaned from his father; PHILIP II OF MACEDON Philip II (382–336 bce) was king of Macedon and Alexander’s father. When Philip ascended the throne in 359 bce, he embarked on a long campaign to reform and strengthen the Macedonian army. He brought peace to his country and, following the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 bce, established dominance over the Greek city-states, thereby paving the way for his son’s far-reaching conquests. In 336 bce, Philip was assassinated by his bodyguard while planning an invasion of the Persian Empire. 20 Philip II had long utilized a phalanx formation—a huge rectangular mass of soldiers armed with shields and pikes. Unlike previous uses of this formation, Alexander’s version of the phalanx included skirmishers and cavalry, which reinforced their attack. The next year, Alexander confronted the Persian King Darius III and his army on the plains of Issus (Turkey). In one of the decisive battles of the ancient world, Alexander defeated the much larger Persian army, but Darius escaped. Alexander then moved on to Egypt, part of the Persian Empire, taking Tyre (Lebanon) and Gaza (Palestine) en route. Alexander rode into battle on his horse Bucephalus to fight against the Persian King Darius in the Battle of Issus in 331 bce. During his reign, Alexander conquered more than seven kingdoms and tribes. YR ILL IAN TRIBES INDIAN S T & KING RIBE DO M “Approach me, S therefore, as the lord of all Asia.” Alexander the Great, 332 bce PAU R IRE AS AV PERSIAN EMP THRACIAN T RIB ES SOGDIA 21 CONQUERED DEFEATED A SCYTHIAN DESTROYED THE IN 332 bce JAXARTES OF HYDASPES KINGDOM THE ISLAND ARMY OF 15,000 AT PAURAVA IN 326 bce DURING THE BATTLE OF CITY OF TYRE THE BATTLE While in Egypt, Alexander used a passage from The Odyssey to identify a nearby fishing village as the site on which to build a city. He named it Alexandria, and it went on to become a center for trade between Europe and the East and the largest city in the ancient world. In 331 bce, Alexander defeated Darius III at Gaugamela (Iraq), although he was once again outnumbered. Shortly after, he captured the administrative capital of Persia: Babylon (Iraq). Darius fled once more, but was later murdered by a small group of conspirators led by his cousin Satrap Bessus. In 330 bce, Alexander proclaimed himself successor to the Persian throne. The Macedonians believed this would bring an end to his campaigns, but he pressed on, enforcing his claim on all Persian domains and extending his empire into India. The turning point After invading the Punjab, in Northern India, in 326 bce, Alexander defeated King Porus of the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. His army then faced another battle at the River Hyphasis (Beas) in the Himalayas, but his men were outnumbered and suffered 22 huge losses. Demoralized and exhausted at the prospect of further military campaigns, Alexander’s armies began to mutiny. Heeding his people’s needs, Alexander agreed to return home. Part of Alexander’s success in building his empire came from him embracing the customs of the civilizations that he conquered. However, these were not met with such enthusiasm by his Macedonian followers and veterans. Many became jealous as increasing numbers of new Persian followers found favor with Alexander. Discontent was expressed in a series of mutinies that Alexander violently suppressed. His legacy When he died of a fever in Babylon on June 11 323 bce, he left no heir (his son by his wife Roxana, a Sogdian princess, was born after his death). However, he left a strong legacy as the passage of his army led to unprecedented cultural and religious exchanges between East and West, as well as the expansion of trade routes and the founding of many cities. In antiquity, his fame was unequalled, and he was so revered by his followers that his embalmed body was taken to Egypt where it was displayed for more than 500 years. “OUR ENEMIES ARE MEDES AND PERSIANS, MEN WHO FOR CENTURIES HAVE LIVED SOFT AND LUXURIOUS LIVES; WE OF MACEDON FOR GENERATIONS PAST HAVE BEEN TRAINED IN THE HARD SCHOOL OF DANGER AND WAR.” Alexander the Great Addressing troops before the Battle of Issus as quoted in Anabasis Alexandri by Arrian of Nicomedia, Book II, 200 ce QIN SHI HUANG “ I have collected all the writings of the Empire and burnt those which were of no use.” Qin Shi Huang, c. 221–210 bce MILESTONES ASCENDS TO THRONE Succeeds his father, King Zhuangxiang, and becomes king of Qin state, 246 bce. CONQUERS STATES Leads successful military campaigns against the neighboring six states during 230–221 bce. ESTABLISHES CHINA Absorbs seven states into a single nation, China, and proclaims himself emperor, 221 bce. BUILDS GREAT WALL Starts construction of first phase of Great Wall of China to prevent invasions, 220 bce. 25 9 – 210 BCE The self-appointed First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang conquered six states and unified them with his own kingdom to create a single nation—China. Stamping his authority upon his country, he introduced laws that are still in place today. O riginally named Ying Zheng, the future emperor was born the son of a prince in the state of Qin at a time of conflict between rival Chinese kingdoms, known as the Warring States period (475–221 bce). Zheng succeeded his father’s throne to Qin in 246 bce, aged just 13, and ruled first with the assistance of his chancellor, Lü Buwei, before taking full control nine years later. As king, Zheng waged war on his neighboring states and conquered them all between 230–221 bce, before proclaiming himself Qin Shi Huang, meaning First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. Establishing China In order to consolidate his power, Qin and his new chancellor, Li Si, established a system of civil administration across his territory, where positions of power were earned, not inherited. All men were equal under law but equally powerless and without rights. Unity and uniformity were guiding principles of Qin’s rule, which saw him impose empire-wide laws, and standardize measurements, language, currency, and trade. He also introduced Qin ordered the creation of 8,000 life-size soldiers made out of terracotta for his tomb. He believed the figures would guard him in the afterlife. 25 conscription for the poor, and went on to create a powerful army numbering hundreds of thousands, and to establish a labor force that was used to construct new roads, canals, and temples, and start building The Great Wall of China. Obsession and paranoia Even as a young king, Qin was obsessed with his own mortality and ordered the construction of a vast tomb containing life-size terracotta figures designed to protect him in the afterlife. It took 38 years to construct and required hundreds of thousands of laborers. (It was discovered in 1974.) To avoid assassination attempts— of which three were made during his lifetime—and evil spirits, Qin also built secret tunnels between his palaces. Determined to secure his legacy, Qin suppressed the histories of previous dynasties and burned the works of scholars that he did not agree with. He also destroyed works that did not suit his aims, including immortality in later life. In his quest to cheat death, Qin dispatched numerous missions to discover sacred places and people where the elixir of life might be found, and employed scholars to concoct potions that would grant him eternal life. He died, aged 49, believed to be from mercury poisoning, possibly from one of these potions. LI SI As chancellor, Li Si (280–208 bce) was a driving force behind Qin’s unification of China and the policies he implemented. Born in around 280 bce, Li Si encouraged Qin to invade neighboring kingdoms in order to unify the country. Throughout Qin’s rule, Li Si believed that a diversity of political beliefs would undermine the unity of the single Chinese state, so he ordered harsh treatment for those who held beliefs or expressed views counter to the official line. After Qin’s death, Li Si remained chancellor under his successor Qin Er Shi. In 208 bce, Li Si was executed after falling out of political favor. BEGAN BUILDING THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA HAD 50 CHILDREN BY NUMEROUS CONCUBINES ESTABLISHED A CURRENCY THAT WAS THE FORERUNNER OF THE YÜAN 26 BECOMES QUEEN After her father Ptolemy XII dies, becomes queen of Egypt, 51 bce. Rules with brother, Ptolemy XIII. ALLIES WITH CAESAR Banished, 49 bce. Becomes queen again after charming Caesar into defeating Ptolemy XIII in war, 48 bce. SOLE RULER Assassinates co-ruler Ptolemy XIV. Her young son replaces him; Cleopatra now sole ruler, 44 bce. PROCLAIMED GODDESS After successful military campaign, Cleopatra and Marcus Antonius are lauded as gods, 34 bce. Cleopatra Gate, Turkey, where Roman General Mark Antony and Cleopatra struck an alliance in 41 bce. Renowned for her military prowess and shrewd alliances, Queen Cleopatra was the last ruling pharaoh of Egypt. 6 9 – 3 0 BCE MILESTONES C leopatra ascended the throne of Egypt alongside her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII, following their father’s death in 51 bce. When civil war erupted between the sibling rulers, Cleopatra allied herself with the Roman general Julius Caesar, who was charmed by her beauty and intelligence. Once Ptolemy was defeated, Cleopatra co-ruled first with Ptolemy XIV and then with her son, but she was effectively sole ruler of Egypt. Following Julius’s assassination in 44 bce, Cleopatra formed a political and romantic relationship with Mark Antony, one of the three administrators who, along with Octavian (see pp.32—35) and (Marcus Aemilius) Lepidus, led Rome. As the Roman leaders vied for power, Octavian declared war on Antony and Cleopatra. Defeated in battle at Actium in 31 bce, Cleopatra and Antony fled to Egypt, where besieged and facing capture and humiliation, they both committed suicide. CLEOPATRA 27 JESUS CHRIST MILESTONES SAVIOR IS BORN Born to the Virgin Mary, his birth, prophesied by Angel Gabriel, was attended by three Magi. THE SON OF GOD Begins ministry aged 30, after being baptized by John the Baptist. Confirms he is the Son of God. SPREADS GOD’S WORD Teaches and performs miracles to spread God’s word. Acquires hundreds of followers. C.6 BCE– 3 3 CE A first-century Jewish preacher, Jesus is the central figure of Christianity and, according to Christian teaching, the Son of God and the long-awaited Messiah prophesied in the Bible’s Old Testament. Preaching in Galilee, he amassed a small following that would eventually grow into the world’s largest religion. A ccording to the Gospels, Jesus was born to the Virgin Mary, having been conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born in a stable in Bethlehem, where he was visited by shepherds and Magi. Also known as the Christ or Messiah (meaning “Annointed One”) the story of Jesus is derived from the four Canonical Gospels of the Bible’s New Testament: those of Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. In combination, they narrate the birth, life, and death of Jesus of Nazareth, the perceived incarnation of God and the founder of the Christian faith. Life and teachings Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River by John the Baptist, a preacher and prophet, in an act that marked the start of his ministry at around 30 years of age. On emerging from the water, a voice from heaven spoke to Jesus, affirming that he was the Son of God. Jesus then spent 40 days fasting and praying in the desert, while resisting the temptations of Satan. After his final night, Jesus summoned his followers and chose his 12 apostles, or primary disciples. Proclaiming the Kingdom of God, the sovereign rule of God over all creations, and a message of love, CONQUERS DEATH Betrayed by Judas then crucified by the Romans. Rises from death and ascends to heaven. Jesus had his final communion with his apostles at the Last Supper. The apostle Judas had already accepted 30 pieces of silver to betray Jesus. 29 acceptance, and forgiveness, he began preaching throughout Judea and Galilee (in modern-day Israel and Palestine), using allegorical tales (parables) to deliver moral lessons, and performing miracles to prove the Bible’s prophecies were being fulfilled. People of all races and religions began to follow him, yet as his popularity grew so did his opposition. Jewish high priests devised a plot to arrest Jesus for heresy and deliver him to the Roman governors after Jesus drove merchants out of the Temple in Jerusalem and accused the high priests of hypocrisy. Death and resurrection Jesus knew of his prophesied fate to suffer and be killed and had forewarned his apostles. He also knew the apostle Judas, who had already struck a deal of 30 silver pieces with the Jewish high REPENTANCE HOPE JUDAISM AT THE TIME OF CHRIST One of the world’s oldest religions, Judaism existed in four main groups with distinct traditions and practises at the time that Jesus was preaching. The Pharisees considered themselves superior to Jews who were less observant of the law than them, to non-Jews (Gentiles), to the unclean, and to sinners. The Sadducees believed Jewish law should be interpreted exactly as it had been written. The Essenes rejected the Temple of Jerusalem and lived in strict communities. The Zealots, a violent liberation movement, believed social justice could be achieved only by armed revolution. 30 LOVE SERVITUDE CHRISTIANITY GLOBAL FOLLOWERS OVER OVER 266 MILLION NORTH AMERICA 531 MILLION LATIN AMERICACARIBBEAN priests, would betray him. After Jesus and the apostles’ “Last Supper,” in which he taught them how to observe the Holy Communion, Jesus was arrested, mocked, beaten, and crucified for claiming to speak with God’s authority. His body was placed in a tomb, which three days later was found empty; he had risen from the dead. Jesus later appeared to his apostles and told OVER 558 MILLION EUROPE OVER OVER 13 MILLION MIDDLE EASTNORTH AFRICA 517 MILLION SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA OVER 287 MILLION ASIA-PACIFIC them to spread his message to the world, before he ascended to heaven. Although Jesus had a popular following when he died, his church numbered just a few hundred. His teachings were kept alive by his apostles who believed that he had died to save the world from sin. The story of Jesus has endured globally ever since, making him one of the most influential moral teachers of all time. “ Love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you.” HUMILITY Jesus Christ FAITH Jesus embodied key principles throughout his life and death and preached that if his followers practiced these tenets, they would be guaranteed eternal life. 31 A political leader of great cunning, Augustus Caesar transformed ancient Rome from a republic into a hereditary empire and won a series of civil wars, establishing himself as the first Roman emperor. Augustus was also hailed for bringing peace to Rome and presided over an era of cultural prosperity. MILESTONES BECOMES EMPEROR Enters Roman politics after the assassination of his great-uncle, Julius, 44 bce, who had named him heir. POWERFUL ALLIANCE Establishes a triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, 43 bce, legally handing all three shared rule of Rome. ENDS CIVIL WAR Decisively destroys forces of Brutus and Cassius at Battle of Philippi, in Macedonia, 42 bce. BATTLE OF ACTIUM Claims victory against combined forces of Antony and Cleopatra at Battle of Actium, 31 bce. EMPEROR FOR LIFE Founds the Principate, 27 bce, and ascends to position of emperor. Holds power until death. 32 T he future Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus (Octavian) in Rome in 63 bce, the great-nephew of Julius Caesar, dictator of the Roman Republic (see p.34). When Caesar was assassinated in 44 bce, his will revealed Octavian as his adopted son and heir. The assassination propelled 19-year-old Octavian into the heart of a murderous power struggle. His most dangerous enemy was Mark Antony, who had been Caesar’s trusted general, and aspired to inherit the dictator’s power. Showing a maturity well beyond his years, Octavian maneuvered between rival factions, while building up his own army and treasury. After initial skirmishes, Antony and Octavian formed a ruling triumvirate (three-way alliance) with the statesman Lepidus. This deal was sealed by “proscriptions,” the legalized murder of thousands of personal and political enemies. The triumvirate then sought retribution on the senators Brutus and Cassius for their roles in the assassination of Julius Caesar, defeating them in battle at Philippi, in Macedonia, in 42 bce. Sharing power over Rome After Philippi, Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus shared the joint rule of Rome’s territories. Ruling the republic during such a politically turbulent period was challenging, but Octavian’s political skills and ruthlessness proved equal to the task. He guaranteed himself the support of veteran Roman soldiers, such as those commanded by Augustus Caesar, used the tortoise formation during sieges, in which their tightly packed shields protected against arrows. 63 BCE–14 CE CAESAR AUGUSTUS JULIUS CAESAR The great-uncle of Octavian, Julius Caesar was born into the Roman elite in 100 bce. His brilliance as a military commander made him one of the leading political figures in the Roman Republic. Nine years of campaigns against the tribes of Gaul—including raids on Britain—showed his skill as a general and his ruthlessness in crushing revolts. Leading his army into Italy in 49 bce, Julius launched a civil war against his rival Pompey. Victorious in 45 bce, he was appointed dictator by the Senate and embarked on sweeping reforms, including the introduction of the Julian calendar. In 44 bce, he was assassinated by senators who feared that he would turn the republic into a monarchy. 40 YEARS RULED FOR MORE THAN DOUBLED THE SIZE OF ROMAN EMPIRE 34 soldiers by giving them land and quashed a revolt against his authority with the mass execution of rebels. Octavian was equally cunning in family affairs, marrying three times in order to secure allegiances. In 30 bce, he even divorced his second wife, Scribonia, on the day she gave birth to his only child ( Julia), in order to marry Livia Drusilla. Livia was already married to the politician Tiberius Nero, and six months pregnant, but Octavian forced Nero to divorce her. Struggle for power Ill feeling between Octavian and Antony mounted as each vied for greater power. This was made worse by Antony’s affair with Cleopatra (see p. 27) while he was married to Octavian’s sister, Octavia. In 32 bce, the hostility between the two turned into civil war. Helped by the general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, his childhood friend and a master of war, Octavian’s forces surrounded Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in Greece, in 31 bce, while Agrippa, leading Octavian’s fleet, destroyed Antony’s naval force. Facing defeat, he and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they both committed suicide in 30 bce. Political maneuverings Octavian now faced no further barriers to absolute power. However, he did not want to appear to rule as a totalitarian— becoming the focus of revolts and civil wars like those that had plagued Rome for decades—so he upheld Rome’s status as a republic and made a show of returning power to the Senate. In return, in 27 bce, the Senate granted him the title Augustus, which made him become emperor for life, and the sole ruler of Rome in all but name. Augustus believed in traditional Roman values and passed laws rewarding marriage and childbearing—viewed with irony by Romans aware of his own infidelities. He also introduced anti-adultery legislation, which he imposed pitilessly, even against his own daughter, Julia, who he had exiled to the island of Pandateria, and never spoke to again. Augustus was succeeded by his stepson, Tiberius, in 14 ce and achieved his aim of founding a new system of hereditary rule in Rome that would last in one form or another until the fall of the Byzantine Empire, in 1453, nearly 1,500 years later. Augustus remained popular for much of his reign due to his generosity toward his people. The government-issued grain supply, or cura annonae, flourished under his rule. In 23 bce, he used his own funds to feed 250,000 citizens. “ At the age of 19 ... I raised an army by means of which I restored liberty to the republic, which had been oppressed.” Augustus Caesar, c. 14 ce C. 3 0 – 61 CE Brittonic queen Boudicca earned her place in history by leading a revolt in c. 60 ce against the Roman legions who had invaded Britain 17 years prior. B oudicca was the wife of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni (a Brittonic tribe), and ruled eastern England following the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 ce. Prasutagus had succeeded in maintaining his tribes’ independence, but when he died in c. 60 ce, the Romans saw an opportunity to attack – they flogged Boudicca, raped her daughters, and seized her land. In retaliation, Boudicca led a revolt, with the support of other Brittonic tribes. She commanded an attack on the major Roman settlement of Camulodunum (Colchester), then sacked Londinium (London) and Verulamium (St. Albans) before the Romans could mount a response. Later that year, the Romans defeated Boudicca, and the uprising collapsed. She died in 61 ce, and Roman rule in Britain was never seriously challenged again. BOUDICCA Boudicca commanded 200,000 people in her revolt against the Roman Empire, although historians today agree she would not have led them from a chariot. “ On that field they must conquer or fall.” Boudicca, c. 60 ce MILESTONES RAISES REBELLION KILLS THOUSANDS ROMANS TRIUMPH Takes advantage of the absence of Roman governor Suetonius and initiates rebellion, 60 ce. Sacks Colchester, London, and St. Albans, 60 ce, killing up to 80,000 inhabitants. Faces defeat at Battle of Watling Street, 60 ce, between modern-day London and Wroxeter. S eptimia Zenobia married Odaenathus, ruler of Palmyra in Syria, in c. 255 ce, and a few years later, Odaenathus was declared king, and Zenobia queen. In 267 ce, Odaenathus and his eldest son were assassinated, and Zenobia became regent for her son Vaballathus. Exploiting a lack of leadership in the Roman Empire, her armies invaded Egypt, extending her rule as far north as central Anatolia (Turkey). Meanwhile, her court became a center of culture, learning, and religious tolerance. To counter her empire building, Emperor Aurelian swiftly led an army to reimpose Roman authority on Palmyra. She was defeated and captured in 272 ce and died two years later. Historians are unsure how she died. 24 0 – 274 CE Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Syria, Septimia Zenobia seized Egypt but failed to wrestle control of the eastern Mediterranean from Rome. ZENOBIA SEPTIMIA MILESTONES BECOMES QUEEN Marries Odaenathus, self-styled King of Kings, c. 255 ce, as a teenager. CREATES KINGDOM Founds the Palmyrene Empire, 271 ce, after extensive conquests across Egypt and Anatolia. HUMILIATED IN ROME Loses the Battle of Immae to Emperor Aurelian, 272 ce, and is paraded through streets of Rome. “ Spirit divinely Zenobia commanded as many as 70,000 men in battle at the peak of her empire’s power. great, her beauty incredible.” Historia Augusta, c. 4th century 37 MUHAMMAD “A strong person is not the person who throws his adversaries to the ground. A strong person is the person who contains himself when he is angry.” Muhammad MILESTONES CHOSEN BY GOD Aged 40, visited by the angel Gabriel, who made revelations for him to teach in God’s name. FOUNDS ISLAM Preaches God’s word and claims to be a prophet. His followers are Muslims, and his religion, Islam. SETS ISLAMIC LAW City of Medina becomes first Muslim state, 622 ce, where he establishes an Islamic constitution. ISLAM REACHES MECCA Captures Mecca, 630 ce, where the people convert to Islam. Preaches last sermon, 632 ce. 570 – 6 32 CE Revered as the Prophet and founder of the Islamic faith, Muhammad was God’s final messenger, sent to spread his word. After laying the foundations for an Islamic empire, Muhammad became its political, military, and spiritual leader. He successfully captured Mecca, which Muslims regard as Islam’s holiest city. M uhammad ibn ‘Abdallah was born in the city of Mecca (present-day Saudi Arabia) into a branch of the nomadic Quraysh tribe in 570 ce. He was orphaned at age 6 and raised by his paternal grandfather and then his uncle, a camel-train merchant. Young Muhammad accompanied his uncle on trading trips where he encountered people of many cultures and religions and gained a reputation for honesty—acquiring the nickname “al-Amin” (“faithful”). He became a business representative for a wealthy widow and camel-train merchant named Khadija, who became his first wife in 595 ce. Together for 24 years, they had several children. Revelations from Gabriel In 610 ce, while Muhammad was meditating in a cave on Mount Jabal al-Nour, the angel Jibrail (Gabriel) appeared, granting him the first of many revelations that would eventually make up the Quran, Islam’s holy book. Muhammad began to talk publicly about the revelations and slowly gained a following in Mecca. From 613 ce, he claimed the authority of a prophet Muhammad received God’s word via the angel Gabriel. These words form the Quran, Islam’s sacred text, which is taught in Arab schools such as this one in Algiers. 39 and preached the worship of the one true God, Allah—followers of this new religion, Islam, became known as Muslims. Islamic city-state Many tribal leaders saw Muhammad as a threat, as his message condemned their long-standing belief in polytheism (worshipping multiple gods) and idol worship. Hearing of a tribe’s plot to assassinate him, in 622 ce (the start of the Islamic calendar), Muhammad and his followers left PILGRIMAGE Mecca and traveled north to the city of Yathrib. Here Arab clans accepted Muhammad’s status as prophet, and his Muslim community expanded. The city was renamed Medina (meaning “city of the Prophet”) and organized into a unified Islamic city-state—the world’s first Islamic state. Muhammad drew up a constitution, which formed the basis of an Islamic political tradition. It addressed the rights and duties of every group within the community, the rule of law, and the moral issue of war. It recognized other religious communities as separate but agreed on reciprocal obligations with them, including the need to unite in battle should the state come under threat. His aims were for internal peace within the Islamic state and a political structure that would help him gather 40 followers and soldiers to help his conquest of the Arabian Peninsula. Muhammad proved an inspirational leader, and, as God’s messenger, his word carried unquestioned authority. FAITH Triumphant return to Mecca Within two years, war erupted between Mecca and Medina. Muhammad’s army outmaneuvered the Meccan tribes, and in 630 ce he successfully captured the city. Most of the population converted to Islam, and his position was unassailable. Muhammad’s life as a prophet lasted 22 years. He preached his last sermon on Mount Arafat in March 632 ce and returned to Medina, where he died. On his death, the Islamic state he founded covered the entire Arabian Peninsula. The Five Pillars of Islam are the five duties that every Muslim must perform. One of the Five Pillars is a pilgrimage to the sacred Kaaba in Mecca, which Muslims consider to be the house of God. FASTING PRAYER A’ISHA Muhammad’s third wife, A’isha bint Abi Bakr (614–678 ce), was the daughter of his loyal supporter Abu Bakr. A child when she married, A’isha became politically active following her husband’s death. A’isha was allegedly around 6 years old when she was married to the Prophet Muhammad, and although the marriage was politically motivated, A’isha gained Muhammad’s deep and lasting affection. A’isha was intelligent, and after the death of Muhammad, her political convictions grew. She fiercely opposed the third caliph (leader), Uthman, possibly because of his cruel treatment of Muhammad’s companion Ammar ibn Yassir, but she condemned Uthman’s eventual assassination. She was defeated in a battle against his successor, Uthman ibn Affan, and returned to Medina to devote herself to Islam. ALMSGIVING ISLAM GLOBAL FOLLOWERS OVER OVER 3.5 MILLION NORTH AMERICA UNDER 1 MILLION LATIN AMERICACARIBBEAN OVER 43 MILLION EUROPE 317 248 MIDDLE EASTNORTH AFRICA SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA MILLION OVER MILLION OVER 985 MILLION ASIA-PACIFIC CHARLEMAGNE ASSUMES THRONE Jointly rules Francia with brother, 768 ce. Aged 23, following brother’s death, inherits sole rule. A formidable military leader, Charlemagne established a kingdom during the 8th century that covered much of modern-day Europe. He was an advocate for learning, and his reign heralded a golden age in education and the arts. 7 4 2 – 8 14 C E MILESTONES DEFEATS DESIDERIUS Successfully besieges Pavia, near Rome, and defeats Lombard king Desiderius, 773–74 ce. MILITARY DEFEAT Ambushed by Basque forces on France-Spain border, in his only defeat, 778 ce. SAXON MASSACRE Enraged at the killing of some of his nobles in battle, orders the massacre of 4,500 Saxons, 782 ce. CROWNED EMPEROR Appointed Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III, 800 ce. B orn in 742 ce, Charlemagne was the eldest son of Pepin III, king of the Franks (Germanic-speaking people who invaded the Roman Empire in the 5th century ce). After jointly inheriting his father’s kingdom, Francia, in 768 ce, he became sole ruler three years later following the death of his brother. A devout Christian, he set about spreading Christianity and expanding his kingdom. Campaign trail Charlemagne is believed to have carried out 30 military campaigns into surrounding territories during his reign. He prepared carefully for each one, gathering intelligence on a particular region before invading. One of his most successful was in 773–774 ce, in Lombard (now northern Italy). The king of Lombard, Desiderius, had invaded papal territory near Rome, and Pope Hadrian asked Charlemagne to intervene. Charlemagne’s decisive military action resulted in the Lombards retreating to Pavia, the Lombard capital, where the Franks laid siege for several months until Desiderius surrendered, securing Charlemagne a lasting papal alliance. However, success was not always guaranteed. In 778 ce, Charlemagne “ The most famous and greatest of men.” Einhard, scholar at Charlemagne’s court, c. 815–840 Charlemagne invited many leading scholars to his court, including Alcuin of York, pictured right. Alcuin was a driving force behind the Carolingian Renaissance (see box, p. 45). 43 “ The keenest of all kings to seek out and support wise men so that they might philosophize with all delight.” Walafrid Strabo, writer, referring to Charlemagne, c. 815–849 led an unsuccessful campaign into Basque territory, northern Spain, with the aim of expanding Francia. Forced to retreat across the Pyrenees, his rear guard was ambushed and killed. Fighting for his faith Many of Charlemagne’s military efforts were directed toward the northeastern frontier of his kingdom in Saxony, where between 770–790 ce, the pagan Saxons repeatedly rose up against his rule. MU & S T AR 44 SIC RA E T I L CY Charlemagne was determined to stamp out paganism among the Saxons, executing those who refused to convert. In 782 ce, resistance to Frankish rule provoked a massacre at Verden that cost over 4,500 Saxon lives in a single day. As Charlemagne’s dominance across Europe grew, the Catholic church began to regard his support as vital due to rising tensions between the church and the Byzantine Empire. On Christmas Day 800 ce, Charlemagne was crowned AT EDUC ION Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III at St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. He was the first Western emperor for three centuries, and his lands became known as the Holy Roman Empire. Cultural legacy By the time Charlemagne became emperor, his campaigns were reaching an end, and in the years that followed, he oversaw a period of growth in culture and education known as the Carolingian Renaissance period, which lasted into the 10th century. Although illiterate himself, Charlemagne promoted the learning of grammar and rhetoric, along with art, literature, music, and astronomy, inviting distinguished scholars from the far reaches of his empire to court. He implemented reforms in the language of government and the church, ensuring that the clergy could read P AL C I T OLI UNITY CHRIS CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE The reign of the Carolingians, a family of Frankish aristocrats, marked a brief period of enlightenment during the Dark Ages. Prior to the reign of the Carolingians (751–987 ce), Europe was in social, political, and economic disarray following the decline of the Roman Empire. During his rule, Pepin III, the first Carolingian king and a supporter of the Roman church, initiated reforms in writing and education in order to promote Christianity. His legacy was continued by his son, Charlemagne, who brought broader reforms to Pepin’s territories, and created a generation of educated churchmen. classical Latin. After Charlemagne’s death in 814 ce, the Holy Roman Empire would endure for nearly a thousand years, until its dissolution in 1806 by Napoleon Bonaparte (see pp. 110–15). ITY TIAN UNIFIED WESTERN EUROPE RULED AN EMPIRE OF 430,000 SQ MILES (1.1 MILLION SQ KM) Charlemagne unified his newly conquered territories by introducing common political, social, and business reforms, imposing his Christian beliefs, and by promoting the arts. 45 “PEOPLE ARE CRYING AND WAILING ... THE FRANKS, THE ROMANS, ALL CHRISTIANS, ARE STUNG WITH MOURNING AND GREAT WORRY ... THE YOUNG AND OLD, GLORIOUS NOBLES, ALL LAMENT THE LOSS OF THEIR CAESAR ...” An anonymous monk Following the death of Charlemagne, 814 ce ◀ Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 ce, as depicted in this 1724 fresco by Jacob Carl Stauder. 1122–120 4 MILESTONES WEDDED TO POWER Inherits duchy of Aquitaine and marries King Louis VII, of France, 1137, keeping control of her lands. CHAMPIONS SONS Marries King Henry II of England, 1152, and leads plot with three of her sons against him, 1173 TAKES CHARGE Widowed, 1189, rules England while son, king Richard of Lionheart is away on Crusade. Eleanor married King Louis VII in 1137 (left) who embarked on the Second Crusade in 1147 (right), where he fought for two years. Queen of France, then queen of England as wife of King Louis VII and then Henry II respectively, Eleanor was one of the most influential political female figures in 12th-century Europe. E leanor inherited the duchy of Aquitaine, southwest France, at the age of 15, making her one of the richest women in Europe. Her marriage to King Louis VII of France, in 1137, meant that she was able to keep Aquitaine under her control. Louis coveted Eleanor’s wealth and married her with that in mind. In 1152 Louis, frustrated that Eleanor had not produced a male heir, had their marriage annulled; eight weeks later, she married the future King Henry II of England, and they went on to have five sons and three daughters. In 1173, outraged by her husband’s infidelities, and in an effort to advance her sons’ political power, Eleanor backed three of them in a rebellion against Henry. When this failed he kept her prisoner for 16 years. After his death in 1189, Eleanor ruled England while her son King Richard the Lionheart was on crusade, then supported her younger son John as successor. She died five years later, aged 81. ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE 48 SALADIN 1137–119 3 Sultan of Egypt and Syria, Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, or Saladin, led his men to victory in the Third Crusade. S aladin was a Kurdish warrior, born in Tikrit (modern-day Iraq), whose family served the Zengid ruler of Syria. He travelled to Egypt in 1164, where after seven years he overthrew the Fatimid rulers and established his own Ayyubid Dynasty. Returning to Syria in 1174, it took him eight years to depose the rulers and take control of the country. In 1187, he crushed the Christian crusaders at the Battle of Hattin and seized the city of Jerusalem, prompting the Third Crusade, in which the forces of Richard I (the Lionheart) of England and Philip II of France fought to reclaim the Holy Land. After his defeat at the Battle of Jaffa in 1192, Saladin retreated to Jerusalem. Exhauted by fighting, he and Richard I signed a truce—Richard I returned to England, leaving Jerusalem to Saladin. Saladin inspired his men to seize Jerusalem in 1187. While Saladin suffered major defeats during the Third Crusade, his main victory was retaining Jerusalem. “ I have won the hearts of men by gentleness.” Saladin, 1193 MILESTONES FOUNDS DYNASTY DEFEATS CRUSADERS RETAINS JERUSALEM Seizes control of Egypt from Fatimid rulers, 1164, founds Ayyubid dynasty there, 1171. Defeats Western crusaders at Battle of Hattin, 1187, capturing Jerusalem. Although defeated by Richard I at Jaffa, 1192, retains Jerusalem following a truce. 49 “A man of great ability, eloquence, and valor.” Marco Polo, about Genghis Khan, c. 1300 Genghis Khan was known to lead his men into battle himself, risking his own life alongside his loyal horde. GENGHIS KHAN 116 2–1227 The founder of the Mongolian Empire, Genghis Khan is one of the greatest conquerors in history. A military genius, he unified the tribes of the Mongolian grasslands, arguably creating the most brutal cavalry force that has ever existed and established the world’s largest unbroken empire. T emüjin (meaning blacksmith) Borjigin was born into a nomadic tribe in the eastern mountains of the central Asian steppe (a vast grassland region stretching across Mongolia, Manchuria, and North China). His father, Yesügei, the chief of the ruling Borjigin clan, was murdered by a rival group when his son was only nine years old. The clan refused to accept Temüjin as its chief and cast the family out, leaving them without protection. The young warrior As his mother’s eldest surviving son, Temüjin took over as head of the family and quickly learned the resilience needed for its survival, while scraping an existence on foraged food. He gradually built a reputation as a courageous warrior: he escaped from a tribe that had captured him, and he also retrieved horses that had been stolen from a local family. Both incidents helped him gain the loyalty of everyone around him. Temüjin also recognized the importance of cultivating alliances. At the age of 16, he married Börte, to whom he had been betrothed by his father. Temüjin then made gifts to his father’s ally—Toghril, leader of the Keirut people—with Börte’s dowry money. When his wife was kidnapped by the rival Merkits (a tribal state in present-day Mongolia) in 1184, in return, Toghril MILESTONES YASSA CODE CREATES EMPIRE ESTABLISHES TRADE Introduces the Yassa code, 1190, a range of Mongol laws that promote obedience to him and punish wrongdoing. Successfully unites the tribes of central Asia and renames himself Genghis Khan, 1206. His unified force known as Mongols. Conquers Khwarezmid Empire Afghanistan and Iraq), 1225. Brings stability to Silk Road, encouraging trade across empire. 51 KUBLAI KHAN The grandson of Genghis, Kublai Khan (1215–1294) came to power after the death of the previous Khan, his elder brother, Möngke. Kublai conquered China but was haunted by military failures in Vietnam and Japan. When Möngke Khan died in 1259, civil war erupted as Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, contested the throne. Kublai claimed victory in 1264 and became the fifth Khagan ruler. His reign was largely defined by his creation of the Yuan Dynasty in 1271, which stretched across modern-day China, Mongolia, and Korea. By 1279, he had become the first non-Han Chinese Emperor to conquer China. Kublai was anguished in later life by the death of his favorite wife Chabi and his son and chosen heir, Zhenjin, and fell into depression and ill-health. Zhenjin’s son, Temür, became the sixth ruler on Kublai’s death. not only supplied Temüjin with an army but also assisted with creating an alliance with the leader of the Tangut tribe, Jamuka, who provided Temüjin with an army as well. Reinforced with these allies and armies, Temüjin was successful in attacking and crushing the Merkits, and reclaiming his wife. Although he went on to have many wives, Börte was his only ever empress. Start of the Mongol Empire From 1185, Temüjin embarked on several ruthless campaigns that would eventually unite all the nomadic tribes Master conqueror Once he had established himself as sole ruler, Genghis Khan shifted his focus to civilizations beyond the Mongolian steppe. Over the course of three decades, he pushed the boundaries of his growing empire as far as Beijing in the east and the Caspian Sea in the west, subjugating millions of people and destroying several ancient cities, including Samarkand, Bukhara, and Nishapur in the process. With a rare and consummate skill, Genghis KILLED APPROXIMATELY HIS MONGOL ARMY COULD TRAVEL of Mongolia and create an unstoppable armed force with which he could build his empire. Temüjin’s brilliant military campaigns and diplomatic strategy involved executing enemy clan leaders and adopting common people into his army. Although he formed alliances where necessary, he ultimately turned against his allies. including the tribes of Jamuka and Toghril. By 1206, out of tribal warfare and rivalry emerged a united Mongol empire, led by its creator, the newly self-named Genghis Khan (“Universal Leader”). (96 KM) 40 MILLION PEOPLE 60 MILES IN ONE DAY IN HIS CONQUESTS 52 SAMARKAND BEIJING During Genghis Khan’s reign, the Mongol Empire stretched from Beijing in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west. The empire reached its peak in 1279, however, some 50 years after his death, under the rule of Kublai Khan (see p.52). KABUL (13.5 MILLION SQ KM) NATIONS CONQUERED AN AREA OF 8.4 MILLION SQ MILES RULED OVER 50 53 “ Conquer your some cities surrendering before his army had even arrived. Many people even took their own lives preemptively rather than face being conquered by Genghis Khan. enemies, and lead long and happy lives.” Genghis Khan, 1223 Khan commanded expert archers and lancers who, even when not engaged on campaigns, trained constantly. Genghis Khan’s forces travelled in hordes where each rider had as many as five horses. By swapping between their mounts, his men could travel vast distances with stealth and accuracy, and at unprecedented speeds—conventional armies had little hope of defeating them. Genghis Khan was also a master of psychological warfare, and in the tradition of nomadic tribes, his conquests were vicious. Anything that was not useful to him or his army, or was a potential threat, would be destroyed. He used spies and propaganda to induce terror into those he intended to conquer, with A lasting legacy Beyond the battlefields, Genghis Khan proved to be a great and fair ruler. He introduced a series of just laws— the Yassa code—throughout his empire. He encouraged trade, conducted regular censuses, and set up a communication network using a series of messengers who conveyed information across the empire. Moreover, he embraced the cultures of his conquered nations and allowed some religious freedom within his empire, embracing Confucianism, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Islam, and his own religion: Tengrism. In 1227, Genghis Khan died while on a military campaign, possibly from a fever. In accordance with his wishes, his body was given a secret burial in the Mongolian steppe. According to legend, in order to preserve the secrecy of his burial, anyone who encountered the funeral procession was killed. CREATED A ORDERED THE CREATION OF A POSTAL SERVICE THAT USED NEW WRITING SYSTEM, 50,000 HORSES BASED ON THE UYGHUR ALPHABET OUTLAWED THE PRACTICE OF KIDNAPPING WOMEN 54 16 MILLION MEN ALIVE TODAY CARRY HIS DNA “I AM THE PUNISHMENT OF GOD ... IF YOU HAD NOT COMMITTED GREAT SINS, GOD WOULD NOT HAVE SENT A PUNISHMENT LIKE ME UPON YOU.” Genghis Khan Quoted in The History of the World Conquerer, Ata-Malik Juvayni, Persian historian, c. 1200 A ruthless conqueror from Transoxiana (modern day Uzbekistan), Amir Timur conducted brutal raids across Central Asia and built a large but short-lived empire that stretched from Turkey to northern India. A mir Timur was born in Transoxiana, Central Asia, into the Barlas tribe, a Turco-Mongol clan of horsemen, in 1336. He aspired to rebuild Genghis Khan’s empire and position himself as its ruler. When Amir Qazaghan, ruler of Transoxiana, was assassinated in 1358, a power stuggle unsued for sovereignity of the territory. Timur formed successive alliances with warlords to defeat competing rivals, who he would later betray—including a descendant of Genghis Khan, and his brother-in-law. By 1370, Timur ruled Transoxiana. Over the next 30 years, Timur commanded a highly organized army of mounted bowmen in a series of vicious conquests across Western, Southern, and Central Asia. Managing every aspect of his 200,000-strong army, Timur divided each regiment into groups of thousands, hundreds, and tens. His military success lay in the mobility of his army, and his ruthless exploitation of his enemies’ weaknesses, massacring thousands and leveling whole cities. Timur also used psychological warfare, building pyramids out of the skulls of his enemies, spreading fear among any who dared to oppose him. Timur was the last of the nomadic warlords of Central Asia. His dynasty, the Timurids, collapsed after years of infighting among his successors. “ I am the scourge of God appointed to chastise you.” Amir Timur, 1401 MILESTONES TRIBAL LEADER REGIONAL POWER DESTROYS RIVAL CONQUERS INDIA Becomes head of the Barlas tribe after its leader fled, and forms alliance with Husayn of Balkh, 1358. Turns on Husayn, leading to Siege of Balkh, 1370. Conquers the city, giving him power over the region. Defeats Tokhtamysh, a prominent khan of the Blue Horde, at the Battle of the Terek River, 1395. Defeats the Sultan of Delhi, 1398, and absorbs northern India into the Timurid Empire. 56 Timur led a successful siege on the sea-castle Smyrna (now Izmir, western Turkey), 1402, that was held by the Knights of Rhodes, a prestigious military unit. 13 3 6 –14 0 5 TIMUR AMIR Encouraged by religious voices, Joan of Arc masterminded a major triumph for the French over the English during the Hundred Years’ War when she was just 17 years old. She remains a national icon of France to this day. MILESTONES HEARS VOICES Believes she hears the guiding voices of three Catholic saints at the age of 13, 1425. LEADS ARMY Travels to Chinon with two soldiers to meet the King’s heir, who gives her a small army, 1429. SIEGE OF ORLÉANS Leads troops and attacks the English, breaking the Siege of Orléans, 1429. RECLAIMS TERRITORY With her army, successfully takes several towns in the Loire Valley back from the English, 1429. Joan rallied her troops in battle using her banner. It pictured angels presenting God with the fleur-de-lis, a symbol commonly associated with French royalty. 58 J oan was born to a devout Roman Catholic peasant family in a village in the region of Lorraine, France, during what became known as the Hundred Years’ War (see p.61). At the age of 13, Joan began to hear voices, which she believed were saints sent from God. They told her that she was destined to go to the French King Charles VI’s heir, the Dauphin, to help him defeat the English and make sure that he was rightfully anointed the king of France. In 1428, aged just 16, Joan made her first attempt to speak with the Dauphin via a local commander, but she was dismissed immediately. Later that year, after her village was attacked by English-supporting Burgundians, the voices started to tell Joan that she must save the French troops besieged by the English in Orléans. Joan’s mission In 1429, Joan made her second attempt to speak to the Dauphin, traveling to his palace at Chinon through English-occupied territory disguised as a male soldier. After an investigation by a theological council at Poitiers, the Dauphin became convinced by Joan’s prophecy and allowed her to lead a holy war against the English, granting her men, armor, and her own banner. Joan’s forces reached besieged Orléans on April 29, 1429, where her arrival inspired the French soldiers 1412–14 31 JOAN OF ARC “ I was 13 when I had a voice from God for my help and guidance.” Joan of Arc, 1431 already there with renewed religious and patriotic enthusiasm. Roused by Joan’s presence, the French troops successfully attacked the English strongholds around Orléans. With the enemy in retreat, the six-month siege was finally lifted. Fulfilling the prophesies Following victory at Orléans, Joan began to train her troops, and although she had no formal military training herself, she showed an instinctive grasp of warfare. The Dauphin allowed Joan to merge her army with the Duke John II of Alençon’s troops, and was granted joint command of the combined forces. Their aim was to retake Reims, the city where French kings were traditionally crowned. Fighting their way through the Loire Valley, their troops expelled the English from several towns en route, including Beaugency, Janville, and Meung, and the region surrounding Patay. These victories inspired more people to rise up against the English, and hundreds joined Joan’s cause. Towns and cities opened their 60 gates to her men, and the French people pledged allegiance to the Dauphin, who was crowned Charles VII in July 1429. With Reims secure and Charles now king, Joan then wanted to retake Paris. In September 1429, French troops made an unsuccessful attack on the English there, which was followed by Joan’s capture the following year. Tried for a variety of offences, including heresy and blasphemy by a group of English clerics, and English-supporting French nobles and Burgundians, Joan was burned at the stake in Rouen. After Joan’s death, her mother, Isabelle Romée, successfully petitioned the Pope for a retrial in 1455–1456, which reversed the original verdict and declared her innocent. The Roman Catholic Church canonized Joan as a saint in 1920. Joan was burned at the stake on a variety of charges, including dressing as a man, which at the time was seen by many as a transgression of the natural order. CLAIMED DIVINE REVELATION HAD BLASPHEMOUS VISIONS THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR The royal dynasties of England and France battled between 1337–1453 to control France in what became known as the Hundred Years’ War. The kings of England were descended from French nobility and owned vast tracts of land in France. The war began in 1337 when Edward III of England claimed the French throne and won two key battles— Crecy (1346) and Poitiers (1356). Later, in 1420, the Duke of Burgundy allied with the English. The war ended in 1453 when the highly disciplined French army defeated the British at the Battle of Castillon. FIRST RALLIED TROOPS IN BATTLE AGED 17 NEVER FOUGHT IN BATTLE DRESSED IN MALE CLOTHING COMMITTED HERESY ABANDONED HER PARENTS HERSELF TRIED FOR 70 CHARGES (LATER REDUCED TO 12) 61 “KING OF ENGLAND, AND YOU, DUKE OF BEDFORD, WHO CALL YOURSELF REGENT OF THE KINGDOM OF FRANCE ... SETTLE YOUR DEBT TO THE KING OF HEAVEN; SURRENDER TO THE MAIDEN, WHO IS SENT HERE BY GOD, THE KEYS TO ALL THE GOOD TOWNS YOU TOOK AND VIOLATED IN FRANCE.” Joan of Arc An excerpt from a letter dictated by Joan of Arc to the English forces, March 22, 1429 Joan of Arc depicted on a stained glass window in St. Sulpice Church, Brittany, France. ▶ GURU NANAK N anak Dev Ji was born on April 14, 1469, in Talwandi (later named Nankana Sahib), a village near Lahore, now in the Pakistan Punjab. His birth date, marked by Vaishaki (New Year), is one of the most important events in the Sikh calendar. His family were Hindus, but fascinated by Muslims practicing their faith in his community, he studied both Islam and Hinduism. In his youth, Nanak rebelled against the religious dogma that dominated Indian society, where Hinduism classified people according to their profession, placing them in one of numerous castes and sub-castes. People could not marry across castes, or even eat certain foods prepared for them by someone of a lower caste. The only way to achieve a higher social status was to live a virtuous life and be rewarded after death by reincarnation into a different caste. Those outside the caste structure, at the very bottom of society, were known as “untouchables.” Nanak’s family were of a high caste, but at the age of 11, he refused the traditional janeu (sacred thread), which boys were expected to wear to indicate their caste. Aged 12, he married then aged 16 followed his father into accountancy and had a family. However, he gradually withdrew from 14 6 9 –15 39 The founder and first guru of Sikhism, Nanak Dev Ji transformed ideas about religion in 16th-century India, teaching that God’s presence could be found from within, without ritual or dogma. He preached against caste and gender discrimination, and advocated a selfless, all-encompassing approach to humanity. MILESTONES DEFIES TRADITION Rejects caste system and refuses to follow Hindu or Islamic tradition. Seeks a new path by meditation. DISCOVERS NEW WAY Receives a vision and learns that men and women are equal and that the path to God is though devotion. SPREADS HIS IDEALS Travels widely, spreading his philosophy on tours across Asia, finding followers and converts. BECOMES A GURU Settles in Kartarpur as a peasant farmer, 1521, where, as a guru, he continues to teach. APPOINTS SUCCESSOR Nominates Bhai Lehna as his successor, who becomes the second guru of Sikhism, Guru Angad. The Golden Temple at Amritsar, India, built by the fifth guru, Arjan, in 1601, is the holiest gurdwara (place of worship) for Sikhs. 65 everyday life, becoming more interested in pursuing spiritual ideals. According to Sikh tradition, Nanak would go to the river before sunrise to bathe, meditate, and sing hymns. On one occasion in 1499, he left his clothes by the side of a stream and disappeared. He returned after three days proclaiming to have seen a vision of God and wanting to spread his message. Long years of travel Nanak declared that God existed outside of the confines of religious dogma and refused to follow Hinduism or Islam. Instead, he wanted to teach the world about a new democratic, spiritual existence in which there was a universal God above all religions, where men and women were equal, and adopted an ethic of honest work and a selfless devotion to helping those in need. From 1500 to 1524, Nanak spent his years writing, teaching, and spreading Sikhi (his doctrine meaning disciple). He covered an estimated 17,000 miles (28,000 km) on five different tours, known as Udasis, that took him across India and further afield to Sri Lanka, Tibet, Myanmar The practice of langar, or “free kitchen,” first popular with 12th- and 13th-century sufis (Islamic mystics), was adopted by Nanak. All visitors to a gurdwara (place of worship) are offered a free meal regardless of their caste, religion, gender, or ethnicity. 66 (Burma), Turkey, and the Arab countries. His teaching attracted many religious converts, including Muslims and Hindus— among the most devoted was his Muslim traveling companion Bhai Mardana. Philosophy and final days Nanak shunned ritual and superstitious practices, which he saw as meaningless, believing that people are responsible for their own actions, and can only earn forgiveness by direct meditation with God. Outspoken on equality for women, he contradicted long-held Hindu traditions SIKH GLOBAL FOLLOWERS OVER 1 MILLION NORTH AMERICA that forbade women from certain aspects of worship, such as entering temple. He also formalised the three duties every Sikh must carry out in their daily life: Naam Japna (meditate on God’s name), Kirat Karni (earn an honest living), and Vand Chhakna (share one’s earnings). Toward the end of his life, Nanak lived in Kartarpur, a village in central Punjab. It is likely that Nanak had reached Guru status (an inspired religious teacher) by this time and taught and granted blessings to disciples who gathered around him. He died in 1539, aged 70. UNDER OVER 1.1 MILLION EUROPE OVER 100,000 UNDER 1,000 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA UNDER 50,000 LATIN AMERICA- MIDDLE EASTCARIBBEAN NORTH AFRICA 22 MILLION ASIA-PACIFIC DIRECTORY T he earliest empires date to around 2300 bce. Many empires were initially founded by military chiefs and later maintained by dynastic emperors. The best rulers incorporated the cultures of their conquered people and practiced religious tolerance to dispel discontent. MENES c.3100 bce The legendary first pharaoh of ancient Egypt, Menes is traditionally credited with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt to create a single peaceful and prosperous kingdom, and with establishing the First Dynasty. He is also typically ascribed as the founder of Memphis, the capital of ancient Egypt. However, due to a lack of archaeological evidence to Menes’s existence as an individual, many scholars now believe that the name “Menes” is a title used for several early pharaohs, including King Narmer, and that their collective achievements have been attributed to this single identity. SARGON THE GREAT c.2334–2284 bce In the 23rd century bce, Sargon of Akkad was said to have risen from humble beginnings to become the founding ruler of the Akkadian Empire. One of the world’s first empire builders, he seized the Sumerian (south Iraq) city-states and expanded his territory by conquering southern Mesopotamia, Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (part of modern-day Iran). As such, he created the world’s first thriving multinational 68 empire, establishing infrastructure, encouraging trade, and even creating the world’s first postal system. His 50-year reign is remembered as a golden age of the Akkadian Empire. HAMMURABI 1810–1750 bce The best-known ruler of Babylon’s First Dynasty, Hammurabi inherited the throne to become the sixth Babylonian king. He was an accomplished military leader and expanded the kingdom to conquer all of ancient Mesopotamia, uniting it under a single authority. He was known for his public works: constructing canals and irrigation systems, improving food distribution, and building temples. Hammurabi’s greatest legacy is his code of law, which established a set punishment for every crime; one of the earliest codes of this type, it set a standard for rulers of later societies to follow. CYRUS THE GREAT c.600–530 bce Cyrus II of Persia was founder and first king of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire. His campaigns defeated the most powerful kingdoms of the time—Media, Babylonia, and Lydia—and brought most of the Middle East under Persian control. Yet Cyrus allowed local administrations to persist and accepted the cultures and religions of those he conquered. In doing so, he earned respect and loyalty and became known as the “Father” of his people. CONFUCIUS 551–479 bce The Chinese philosopher Confucius (Kongfuzi) set out a series of moral and ethical teachings that have greatly influenced Chinese culture to this day. He saw himself as the voice of an ancient moral tradition that promoted virtuous living, the respect of elders, and family loyalty and emphasized the importance of teachers and leaders as role models for society. His teachings are contained within the Analects—a collection of his thinking, compiled by his disciples, and which includes, most famously, the quote: “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others.” ASHOKA c.300–238 bce The third and last emperor of India’s Mauryan Empire, Ashoka expanded the empire to cover almost all of the Indian subcontinent, from modernday Afghanistan to Bangladesh. Initially a harsh ruler of his own people and conqueror of other territories—notably a state called Kalinga—he later converted to Buddhism and proclaimed remorse for the suffering he had inflicted. From that point, Ashoka renounced war. In further edicts, he called for social compassion and religious freedom. He also turned the tradition of Buddhism into a state ideology and is largely responsible for its status as a world religion today. SPARTACUS c.111–71 bce While little is known conclusively about the life of Spartacus, historical records agree that he was a famous former gladiator who led the most successful slave rebellion in ancient Roman history. Formerly from Thrace, a region northwest of Macedonia, Spartacus was enslaved by the Romans and was then trained as a gladiator in Capua. Along with 70 others, he escaped from a gladiatorial training camp and spent two years trying to avoid recapture while raiding towns for supplies. Spartacus proved himself a master military tactician, leading two successful victories over the Romans. ATTILA THE HUN 406–453 ce One of the most feared and brilliant military leaders in history, Attila ruled the Huns, an ancient nomadic people, and headed an empire including other nomadic tribes. A charismatic leader and skilled horseman, Attila forged his Hunnic Empire in less than 10 years. He led his vast armies in a series of campaigns against the Eastern and Western Roman Empires, to conquer an area reaching from Central Asia to Gaul (modern-day France). He died on his wedding night, choking on his own nosebleed while in a drunk stupor. Within 15 years of his death, Attila’s empire had crumbled. JUSTINIAN I c. 482–565 ce Flavius Justinius, also known as Justinian the Great, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire (the Eastern Roman Empire). During his 40-year reign, he fought the Persians in the Caucasus and retook North Africa from the Vandals, and Italy and Sicily from the Goths. He also launched an empire-wide initiative to build forts, bridges, churches (notably the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople), monasteries, and reservoirs. His greatest achievement was the codification of all Roman laws; known as the Codex Justinianus, these legal reforms laid the foundations of Byzantine law for more than 900 years. SUNDIATA KEITA c. 1217–1255 Information about Sundiata Keita, the founder of the Mali Empire in western Africa, is sourced from oral history. Born into the Keita clan in the kingdom of Kangaba, Sundiata survived the massacre of his family and became head of his clan. The ruling Ghanaian Empire was in decline and Sundiata increased his power by invading other states. When he destroyed the capital of Ghana, the former empire crumbled, and Sundiata founded his own Mali Empire. He established Niani as his capital city, which became a center for trade in West Africa. ISABELLA I 1451–1504 Isabella I of Spain united two Spanish kingdoms by becoming Queen of Castile in 1474 and of Aragon in 1479; ruling both kingdoms with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon. A staunch Catholic, Isabella established the Inquisition, a judicial institution intended to identify heretics. Among her greatest achievements was the capture of Granada—completing the Christian reconquest of Spain—and her sponsorship of Christopher Columbus’s voyage to the Americas, which led to the founding of the Spanish Empire. BABUR 1483–1530 A direct descendent of both Genghis Khan (pp.50–55) and Amir Timur (pp.56– 57), Babur was the founding emperor of the Mughal Empire. Babur was born into the Turkish-influenced Barlas tribe, in central Asia. His first achievement, at 15 years old, was to briefly reclaim the empire’s capital of Samarkand. He seized Kabul in 1504 and then Delhi in 1526, winning control of northern India. He is considered one of the Mughal Dynasty’s greatest emperors; in addition to his political and military achievements, he was also a gifted orator, poet, and writer. MARTIN LUTHER 1483–1546 The German theologian Martin Luther was a pivotal figure in the development of Christianity and civilization in Europe. Having been ordained in 1507, he became disillusioned by the corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and published several works rejecting its teachings. Luther was excommunicated, but his writings triggered the Protestant Reformation, resulting in the division of Western Christianity into different denominations. He also published a translation of the Bible’s New Testament in the German vernacular, which helped the development and spread of a standardized German language. 69 2 CONQUEST AND LIBERT Y 1500 –1820 CORTÉS HERNÁN B orn in Medellín, southwestern Spain into a family of lesser nobility, Hernán Cortés was ambitious from a young age. Aged only 19, he sought his fortune in the Americas, where Spain had recently established its first colonies, and sailed to Hispaniola, in the Caribbean Sea. In 1511, Cortés joined Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, an aide of the governor of Hispaniola, on an expedition to conquer Cuba. Velázquez, now Governor of New Spain (Spain’s colonies in North and Central America), was so impressed with Cortés’s abilities that he appointed Cortés as his secretary; Cortés also served as mayor of Santiago, Cuba, and worked in Cuba’s civil government, acquiring political power and influence in the thriving colony. In 1518, Cortés persuaded Velázquez to make him commander of an expedition to Mexico. However, Velázquez, doubtless aware of Cortés’s ambitious nature, restricted the scope of the expedition to exploration and trade. When Velázquez became aware of Cortés’s intentions to personally profit from the enterprise, he canceled the mission at the last minute. In an act of open mutiny, Cortés “ What men in Upon arriving in Mexico, Cortés had his ships scuttled so his men could not desert him. This tactic ensured the loyalty of his soldiers to their mission. all the world have shown such daring?” Bernal Díaz del Castillo, soldier under Hernán Cortés’ leadership, 1568 MILESTONES SEEKS FORTUNE MEETS VELÁZQUEZ DEFEATS THE AZTECS FINAL CONQUEST Sails to Santo Domingo, the capital of Hispaniola, 1504. Works nearby as a notary for several years. Befriends Diego Velázquez and aids his conquest of Cuba, 1511. Becomes Velázquez’s secretary. Sails for Mexico, defying Velázquez’s orders, 1519. Within just two years, wipes out the Aztec Empire, 1521. Conquers the Baja California Peninsula, in northwestern Mexico, during his final expedition, 1536. 73 14 8 5 –15 47 Courageous, daring, and ruthless, Hernán Cortés was a Spanish explorer and soldier who was responsible for conquering the vast Aztec Empire—in open defiance of the wishes of his superiors. The success of his expeditions opened the gold-rich region to Spain and other European powers, who went on to plunder it mercilessly. nevertheless set sail for Mexico, landing in the southeast state of Tabasco in March 1519. There, he fought and overcame local groups, including the Totonacs and the Tlaxcalans, and eventually challenged the Aztec ruler, Montezuma II. Montezuma accepted the Spanish peacefully and, as they advanced inland, he ordered the people of Cholula—a small town outside the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán—to welcome them. However, Cortés, suspecting a trap, destroyed the town and massacred its entire population. Tenochtitlán falls In November 1519, Montezuma invited Cortés and his men into Tenochtitlán, in a bid to identify their weaknesses and later crush them. After hearing that several Spaniards had been killed on the coast by Aztecs, Cortés took Montezuma hostage in his own palace. Meanwhile, Velázquez had sent an expedition of 1,100 74 Spanish soldiers to Mexico to arrest Cortés, who left Tenochtitlán to defeat them. Upon his return, Cortés discovered that his deputy governor, Pedro de Alvarado, had ordered an unprovoked massacre of Aztecs. Montezuma had been killed, by the Spanish or by his own people (according to differing accounts), and Tenochtitlán had fallen into disarray. Cortés and his men fled the city, before returning in 1521 to lay siege to it for three months. Weakened by hunger, lack of fresh water, and diseases brought by the European invaders, such as smallpox, the Aztecs were unable to defend their capital. Cortés renamed Tenochtitlán as Mexico City and plundered the fallen empire for Spain. Cortés ruled Mexico from 1521 to 1524 and was made governor of New Spain (Spain’s conquered territory in the Americas). He continued to conduct expeditions before returning to Spain for the final time in 1541. When he died in 1547 in Seville, he was planning another voyage to the New World. 400,000 AZTECS LIVED IN TENOCHTITLÁN ON THE EVE OF HIS CONQUEST FIRST SAILED TO MEXICO WITH “ We Spaniards know a sickness of the heart that only gold can cure.” Hernán Cortés, c. 1521 Cortés and his forces were comprehensive in their destruction of the Aztec Empire through their superior weaponry and sophisticated military strategies. They also inadvertently spread diseases that the Aztecs had no resistance to, which killed thousands. 11 SHIPS, 508 SOLDIERS, AND 16 HORSES OVER HALF THE POPULATION DIED IN THE SIEGE OF THE CITY MONTEZUMA II Born in 1466, Montezuma II served as a captain under his uncle Ahuitzotl before succeeding him in 1502 and becoming emperor. Montezuma controlled the Aztec Empire when it was at its greatest extent, stretching as far as modern-day Honduras and Nicaragua. He first met with Cortés on November 8, 1519, on the causeway leading into Tenochtitlán, where he showered Cortés with gifts before inviting him into the city. Montezuma was regarded as a traitor due to his affiliation with his Spanish captors, and was taken hostage by the Spanish and forced to placate the growing unrest of his people. It is believed that he was eventually killed in 1521, either by rioting Aztecs or by the Spanish. 75 Known in the West as “the Magnificent” and in the Muslim world as “the Lawgiver,” Sultan Suleiman I was the greatest ruler of the Ottoman Empire, governing lands across Europe, Asia, and Africa. A patron of the arts who displayed religious tolerance, Suleiman was nonetheless merciless to his rivals, even to his own sons. MILESTONES COMES TO POWER Becomes sultan of the Ottoman Empire at age 25, 1520, succeeding his father Selim I. WAR WITH EUROPE From the 1520s, embarks on war with Christian Europe that continues for most of his reign. AGREES TO PEACE Signs Treaty of Constantinople, 1533, briefly halting his war against Christian Europe. B orn in around 1494, Suleiman came from a line of Ottoman conquerors. His great-grandfather Mehmed II had captured the great city of Constantinople from the Christians in 1453, and his father, Selim I, expanded the empire enormously, adding Egypt and the holy city of Mecca to the Ottoman domains in 1516–1517. Suleiman spoke several languages fluently and was an acclaimed poet, as well as a competent goldsmith. Under his rule, the Ottoman Empire enjoyed a golden age in culture and administration. He founded schools and embellished his capital with magnificent mosques. Unlike former Ottoman Sultans, he allowed Christians and Jews to practice their faith. The sultan also issued a new legal code that would last for three centuries, which reformed taxation, education, land ownership, and criminal law. War and conquest Since Mehmed II’s capture of Constantinople, Ottoman sultans had claimed imperial authority over all other rulers. Suleiman spent most of his reign at war with Christian Europe, asserting this claim to Ottoman dominance by expanding his territory and the scope of Islam. Starting with the conquests CONQUERS BAGHDAD From the 1530s, wages war with the Safavid Empire in Persia. Gains control of Baghdad. SIGNS PEACE TREATY Signs Peace of Amasya, 1555, securing a truce with the Safavid Empire that lasts 20 years. 76 Suleiman commissioned grand architect Mimar Sinan to build the Süleymaniye Mosque, an architectural landmark of modern-day Istanbul, in 1550. 14 9 4 –15 6 6 Suleiman the Magnificent SULEIMAN “ In this world a spell of health is the best state.” THE MAGNIFICENT of Belgrade (Serbia) and Rhodes (Greece) in 1521–1522 and most famously crushing the Hungarian forces at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, he led a great army that combined gunpowder weapons with the fighting skills of Asia’s nomadic horsemen. At sea, his vast naval fleet dominated the Mediterranean, and reached as far as Yemen, India, and Indonesia. In 1529, Suleiman unsuccessfully tried to capture Vienna, heart of the Habsburgruled Holy Roman Empire—a second attack on Austria in 1532 also failed. Over the next decade, he fought repeatedly with the Habsburgs when invading Hungary and Moldavia, while also waging war with the Safavid rulers of Persia. Suleiman eventually gained control of Baghdad and part of the Persian Gulf coast, while Persia remained under Safavid rule. Power struggles and death In contrast to his military and cultural successes, Suleiman’s personal life was tumultuous. Ibrahim Pasha, his grand vizier (prime minister), had been a friend since his youth; but in 1536, Suleiman, fearful of his vizier’s growing influence, ordered him to be executed. Mustafa, Suleiman’s son by his wife Gülbehar, was deemed the most suited successor to the sultan by the 1550s. Suleiman’s other wife, Hürrem, persuaded him that Mustafa was plotting to oust him. In 1553, Suleiman had Mustafa executed, triggering a power struggle between Hürrem’s sons Bayezid and Selim. Bayezid was also killed on his father’s orders, leaving Selim as the sole heir. The last years of Suleiman’s life were darkened by failure in war. In 1565, his forces failed to drive the Knights of St. John out of their stronghold on Malta. The following year, while on campaign in Hungary, Suleiman died in his tent aged 72. GOLDEN AGE TAX REFORM EXECUTED RULED AS SULTAN SULTAN OF HIS FOR 46 AT THE SONS YEARS AGE OF 25 BECAME 78 2 Suleiman’s reign oversaw the golden age of the Ottoman Empire, which was marked by territorial expansion, an economic boom, and a flourishing culture. JUST LAWS “ The sultan of sultans, the sovereign of sovereigns … the shadow of God upon Earth.” Suleiman the Magnificent, 1536 MIHRIMAH SULTAN Born in 1522, Mihrimah was the daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent and his wife Hürrem. Mihrimah exercised significant influence over political decision-making and diplomacy. She married Rüstem Pasha, grand vizier for much of Suleiman’s reign, becoming Suleiman’s most trusted female adviser after Hürrem’s death in 1558. During the subsequent reign of her son, Selim II, she held sway in the Topkapi Palace as a patron of the arts and chief of the imperial harem. She died in 1578 SPREAD OF ISLAM SUCCESSFUL CONQUESTS 79 Elizabeth I, Queen of England and Ireland, was the second daughter of King Henry VIII, and the last Tudor monarch. During her reign she led England to victory over the Spanish Armada, began to formalize the separation of the Church of England from the church in Rome, and paved the way for a “Golden Age” in English art and literature. MILESTONES ACCUSED OF TREASON Held captive in the Tower of London on grounds that she has taken part in a Protestant coup, 1554. SUCCEEDS MARY After Mary’s death, becomes queen, 1558. Crowned at Westminster Abbey. ACT OF SUPREMACY Puts forward Act of Supremacy, placing the monarchy over the Church of England, 1559. SPANISH ARMADA Leads country against unsuccessful invasion by Philip II and his Spanish Armada, 1588. B orn at Greenwich Palace, London, September 7, 1533, Elizabeth was the first child of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife. When Elizabeth was just two-and-a-half years old, her mother was accused of adultery and treason, and subsequently executed. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, and denied the right to accession. Following Henry VIII’s death in 1547, Elizabeth’s nine-year-old half-brother, Edward, was crowned King, and she joined the household of Henry VIII’s sixth wife, Catherine Parr. During his brief reign, the Protestant Edward made lasting contributions to the English Reformation that Elizabeth would eventually further. Upon Edward’s death in 1553, Elizabeth’s Catholic elder, half-sister, Mary, became queen The road to monarchy Soon after taking the throne, Mary had Elizabeth imprisoned in the Tower of London, suspecting her involvement in the Wyatt rebellion, a Protestant coup that took its name from one of its leaders, Thomas Wyatt. Mary’s reign was largely characterized by brutality and religious persecution. A fiercely devout Catholic, she had hundreds of Protestants burned at the stake for heresy. In 1558, following Mary’s death, the Protestant Elizabeth came to the throne, and many hoped she would represent a step away from Mary’s ideals. While she reestablished the Elizabeth was held in the Tower of London for two months on suspicion of treason. No evidence could be found by interrogators, however, and she was released. 80 15 3 3 –16 0 3 ELIZABETH I “ I am already bound unto a husband … the kingdom of England.” Queen Elizabeth I, 1599 82 Protestant religion, she also made attendance at Catholic Mass punishable by fine and made the saying of Mass punishable by death, although this sentence was very rarely carried out. To Elizabeth, there was little benefit to persecuting Catholics, so long as they obeyed her laws. Married to her country Elizabeth’s advisers urged her to marry to ensure a successor to the throne and in the interests of foreign diplomacy— Parliament even threatened to withhold money in a bid to force her hand. However, Elizabeth believed that if she married, she would have to cede some of her power to her consort; hence, she became known as the Virgin Queen. Elizabeth received proposals from many European leaders, including Philip II of Spain, but she rebuffed them all. Diplomatic prowess Politically, Elizabeth demonstrated shrewd understanding. In speeches to Parliament, she often used a “language of love” to appeal to her audience’s sympathies and make the rulership of a female monarch seem more palatable. In military affairs, she also showed considerable strength. In 1588, in one of the most well known sagas in English history, Philip II of Spain launched an Armada of ships to invade England and topple Elizabeth. Its resounding failure, and her patriotic defiance, created a surge of support for Elizabeth’s reign. The arts also flourished under Elizabeth’s patronage, and her name has since become synonymous with an era of unrivaled creativity in English literature. In her final years, Elizabeth became increasingly isolated. Upon her death, aged 69, the English crown went to James VI of Scotland. HENRY VIII King Henry VIII (1491– 1547) was Elizabeth I’s father and founder of the Church of England. Henry VIII was intelligent and cultured but frivolous with the Crown’s money. Widely known as the king who married six times in order to father a male successor, he is also known for establishing the Church of England, in part so that he could have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. Henry VIII was the first monarch in England to deny papal authority, instead claiming the divine right of kings. EXECUTED 750 CATHOLIC REBELS WHO PLOTTED TO DEPOSE HER IN 1569 REIGNED FOR 44 YEARS AND 127 DAYS Hostile weather conditions played a decisive role in Elizabeth’s defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. Their route of retreat blocked by English ships, the Spanish were forced to flee north, sail around Scotland, and then go south, past Ireland, where storms smashed their ships against the rocky coast. 83 “I KNOW I HAVE THE BODY OF A WEAK, FEEBLE WOMAN; BUT I HAVE THE HEART AND STOMACH OF A KING, AND OF A KING OF ENGLAND, TOO, AND THINK FOUL SCORN THAT PARMA OR SPAIN, OR ANY PRINCE OF EUROPE, SHOULD DARE TO INVADE THE BORDERS OF MY REALM.” Queen Elizabeth I Excerpt from a speech to troops at Tilbury in anticipation of the Spanish Armada, August 9, 1588 ◀ Elizabeth addresses her troops in an engraving from a book by Theophilus Camden, 1832. IEYASU TOKUGAWA O riginally named Matsudaira Takechiyo, Ieyasu was born into the Matsudaira clan at Okazaki Castle, in Mikawa, 1542, during the Sengoku Period (1467–1600), a time of conflict between rival Japanese clans. As the son of a daimyō (warlord), Ieyasu was seen as a prize hostage, which saw him abdu