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This review is about the building code illlustrated. as a design architect building code book has helped me a lot in addressing issues with my designs concerning safety. with this illustrated version i easily understood the explanation behind each code and incorporate them with my building projects.
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INTERIOR DESIGN Illustrated 4th Edition Francis D. K. Ching • Corky Binggeli Cover image: Courtesy of Francis D. K. Ching Cover design: Wiley This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750–8400, fax (978) 646–8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. 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For general information about our other products and services, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762–2974, outside the United States at (317) 572–3993 or fax (317); 572–4002. Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, visit www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Ching, Francis D. K., 1943- | Binggeli, Corky Interior design illustrated / by Francis D. K. Ching, Corky Binggeli.—4th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. LCCN 2017036457 | ISBN 9781119377207 (paperback) | ISBN 9781119468578 (ePDF) ISBN 9781119468530 (ePub) Interior architecture. | Space (Architecture) | Interior Decoration—History—21st century. BISAC: ARCHITECTURE / Interior Design / General. LCC NA2850 .C45 2018 | DDC 729—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017036457 Printed in the United States of America 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ∞ http://booksupport.wiley.com https://lccn.loc.gov/2017036457 http://www.copyright.com http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions http://www.wiley.com CONTENTS Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 1 Interior Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Interior Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3 A Design Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4 Interior Building Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 5 Interior Environmental Systems . . . . . . . . 227 6 Lighting and Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 7 Finish Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 8 Furnishings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 v PREFACE We spend the majority of our lives indoors, in the interior spaces created by the structures and shells of buildings. These spaces provide the physical context for much of what we do, and give substance and life to the architecture that houses them. This introductory text is a visual study of the nature and design of these interior settings. The purpose of this primer is to introduce to students of interior design those fundamental elements that make up our interior environments. It outlines the characteristics of each element and presents the choices we have in selecting and arranging them into design patterns. In making these choices, emphasis is placed on basic design principles and how design relationships determine the functional, structural, and aesthetic qualities of interior spaces. This fourth edition retains the organizational scheme of the third edition, with text and illustrations updated and added to cover sustainability standards, resource usage, and recent developments in the design of interior spaces. The section on lighting reflects current design practice, lamp and fixture styles, especially the growing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The coverage of furnishings responds to changes in the work environment. New residential topics include accessory dwelling units (ADUs) and touchless kitchen faucets, among others. Standards and codes incorporate current International Code Council (ICC) and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements. Finally, the Bibliography and Glossary have been updated. This exploration of the ways and means of developing interior spaces begins with space itself, for it is the prime material with which the interior designer must work. Chapter 1: Interior Space proceeds from a general discussion of architectural space to the particular characteristics of interior space in three dimensions and introduces the components of a building. The adaptive reuse of existing buildings and movement within buildings are addressed. Chapter 2: Interior Design outlines a method for translating programmatic needs and requirements into three-dimensional design decisions. Interior architecture is introduced, as well as designing in existing buildings and historic preservation. The use of artisanal products and resiliency is addressed. Topics including design for an aging population and for children are covered, as are coworking spaces. Sustainable design rating systems and standards are updated as well. Three-dimensional printing and virtual reality are also introduced. Chapter 3: A Design Vocabulary explores the fundamental elements and principles of visual design and applies each of them to the unique field of interior design. New information on photoreceptors in the mammalian retina and strategies for creating emphasis by using lighting and color together are presented. Chapter 4: Interior Building Elements describes the major categories of interior elements and discusses how each affects the functional and aesthetic development of interior spaces. New options in glass wall systems and the importance of views of nature are introduced. Coverage of elevators is expanded to include machine-room-less (MRL) elevators. v i PREFACE Chapter 5: Interior Environmental Systems outlines the environmental control systems that must be integrated with a building’s structure and the layout of the interior spaces. The role of the interior designer in educating the client about building systems is addressed. Updates in the types of plumbing fixtures are added, as is information on wireless electrical systems. Information on problems with flame retardant chemicals is also included. Chapter 6: Lighting and Acoustics addresses the lively and ever-present interaction of light and sound with the interior environment. Recent changes in the process of lighting design and daylighting are addressed, including the increasing use of LEDs and lighting controls. Changes in the use of incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are also covered. Current changes in the lighting industry are discussed. The integration of acoustical design into interior design practices is included, as is the importance of acoustic privacy and sound masking. Chapter 7: Finish Materials introduces the palette used by interior designers to modify the architectural elements of interior spaces. Consideration of functional criteria is expanded to include hydrophobic properties. Finish flooring covers electrostatic discharge (ESD) issues. Coverage of bamboo flooring, terrazzo, and carpet cushions is expanded, and information on carpet recycling is updated. Coverage of composite wood panels, particleboard, medium-density fiberboard (MDF), and vacuum- formed 3D panel products and solid surfacing materials is added, and information on lead paint is expanded. Ceiling finish coverage now includes canopies and clouds. Chapter 8: Furnishings discusses basic types of movable and built-in components within the built environment. New topics include coverage of furnishings manufactured to cross the residential/ commercial barrier, and those designed to avoid undesirable materials, along with other subjects, such as Health Product Declarations (HPDs), sit-stand furniture, innovations in solar shading, and artisanal crafts. Since interior design is to a great extent a visual art, drawings are used extensively in this book to convey information, express ideas, and outline possibilities. Some of the illustrations are quite abstract; others are more specific and particular. All of them, however, should be viewed essentially as diagrams that serve to demonstrate design principles or to clarify the relationships existing among the elements of design. The goal of interior design education is to prepare students to be responsible, well-informed, skilled professionals who make beautiful, safe, and comfortable spaces that respect the earth and its resources. The field of interior design encompasses both visual and functional design, as well as basic knowledge of building materials, construction, and technology. This introduction to interior design is therefore broad in scope. The intent, nevertheless, is to treat the subject with clarity, make it as accessible as possible, and stimulate further in-depth study and research. For the Instructor’s Manual of Interior Design Illustrated, 4th Edition, go to www.wiley.com/go/IDI4e. http://www.wiley.com/go/IDI4e 1 1 Interior Space 2 SPACE S p a c e Space is a prime ingredient in the designer’s palette and the quintessential element in interior design. Through the volume of space we not only move; we see forms, hear sounds, feel gentle breezes and the warmth of the sun, and smell the fragrances of flowers in bloom. Space inherits the sensual and aesthetic characteristics of the elements in its field. Space is not a material substance like stone and wood. It is inherently formless and diffuse. Universal space has no defining borders. Once an element is placed in its field, however, a visual relationship is established. As other elements are introduced into the field, multiple relationships are established between the space and the elements, as well as among the elements themselves. Space is formed by our perception of these relationships. 3 ARCHITECTURAL SPACE The geometric elements—point, line, plane, and volume—can be arranged to articulate and define space. In architecture, these fundamental elements become linear columns and beams, planar walls, floors, and roofs. • A column marks a point in space and makes it visible in three dimensions. • Two columns define a spatial membrane through which we can pass. • When supporting a beam, the columns delineate the edges of a transparent plane. • A wall, an opaque plane, marks off a portion of amorphous space and separates here from there. • A floor defines a field of space with territorial boundaries. • A roof provides shelter for the volume of space beneath it. Defining Space In architectural design, these elements are organized to give a building form, differentiate between inside and outside, and define the boundaries of interior space. Column Two columns Columns and beam Wall Floor Roof 4 EXTERIOR SPACE A building’s form, scale, and spatial organization are the designer’s response to a number of conditions— functional planning requirements, technical aspects of structure and construction, economic realities, and expressive qualities of image and style. In addition, the architecture of a building should address the physical context of its site and the exterior space. A building can be related to its site in several ways. It can merge with its setting or dominate it. It can surround and capture a portion of exterior space. One of its faces can be made to address a feature of its site or define an edge of exterior space. In each case, due consideration should be given to the potential relationship between interior and exterior space, as defined by the nature of a building’s exterior walls. Buildings affect and are affected by conditions of their sites and the wider environment. Selecting and developing sites to reduce site disturbance, stormwater runoff, heat island effects, and light pollution contribute to sustainable design. A building in space Buildings …Dominating …Merging …Surrounding …Fronting Buildings defining space …Defining an edge Exterior Walls 5 OUTSIDE TO INSIDE A building’s exterior walls constitute the interface between our interior and exterior environments. In defining both interior and exterior space, they determine the character of each. They may be thick and heavy, expressing a clear distinction between a controlled interior environment and the exterior space from which it is isolated. They may be thin, or even transparent, and attempt to merge inside and outside. Windows and doorways, the openings that penetrate a building’s exterior walls, are the spatial transitions between exterior and interior space. Their scale, character, and composition often tell us something about the nature of the interior spaces that lie between them. Exterior Walls Thin walls Thick walls Special transitional spaces, belonging to both the outside world and the inside, can be used to mediate between the two environments. Familiar examples include a porch, a veranda, or an arcaded gallery. Many single-family residences have steps at all entrances that present barriers to people with physical disabilities. Visitability is a movement to construct new homes so that they can be readily lived in and visited by people with mobility impairments. Spatial Transitions 6 INTERIOR SPACE Upon entering a building, we sense shelter and enclosure. This perception is due to the bounding floor, wall, and ceiling planes of interior space. These are the architectural elements that define the physical limits of rooms. They enclose space, articulate its boundaries, and separate it from adjoining interior spaces and the outside. Floors, walls, and ceilings do more than mark off a simple quantity of space. Their form, configuration, and pattern of window and door openings also imbue the defined space with certain spatial or architectural qualities. We use terms such as grand hall, loft space, sun room, and alcove not simply to describe how large or small a space is, but also to characterize its scale and proportion, its quality of light, the nature of its enclosing surfaces, and the way it relates to adjacent spaces.Entrances mark the transition from here to there. Spatial Qualities Form Scale Light Outlook 7 INTERIOR SPACE Interior design necessarily goes beyond the architectural definition of space. In planning the layout, furnishing, and enrichment of a space, the interior designer should be acutely aware of its architectural character as well as its potential for modification and enhancement. The design of interior spaces requires, therefore, an understanding of how they are formed by the building systems of structure and enclosure. With this understanding, the interior designer can effectively elect to work with, continue, or even offer a counterpoint to the essential qualities of an architectural space. Interior Space Continuation Contrast Counterpoint The basic shell …modified architecturally …or through interior design 8 STRUCTURING SPACE Superstructure Buildings typically consist of physical systems of structure, enclosure, and building services equipment. Structural Systems • The superstructure is the vertical extension of the foundation system and consists of the columns, beams, and load-bearing walls that support the floor and roof structures. • The foundation system is the substructure that forms the base of a building, anchors it firmly to the ground, and supports the building elements and spaces above. These systems must work together to support the following types of loads: Dead Loads: How a building is constructed determines its dead load, which is a static vertical load comprising the weight of its structural and nonstructural components, including any equipment permanently attached to the structure. Live Loads: How a building is used determines its live load, which is a movable or moving load comprising the weight of its occupants and any mobile equipment and furnishings. In cold or wet climates, collected snow and water impose an additional live load on a building. Dynamic Loads: Where a building is located determines its potential to bear a dynamic load, which can change suddenly due to the forces of wind and earthquakes. Building Loads Roof structure Bearing wall Floor structure Beams Columns Foundation wall Footing Foundation piers Foundation Wind Snow Live loads Dead loads Earthquake 9 STRUCTURING SPACE Enclosure System • The building envelope consists of exterior walls, windows, doors, and roof, which protect and shelter interior spaces from the exterior environment. • Interior walls, partitions, and ceilings subdivide and define interior space. Many of these components are nonstructural in nature and carry no loads other than their own weight. Building Envelope Roof Ex te rio r w all s Doors and windows Building Services • Mechanical systems provide essential services to a building, such as the heating, ventilation, and air- conditioning of interior spaces. • Plumbing systems supply water suitable for human consumption and firefighting, and dispose of sanitary waste. • Electrical systems control and safely distribute power for lighting, equipment, security, communication, and vertical transportation. Building Services Power supply Panelboard Branch circuits Lighting fixtures and power receptacles Furnace Fuel Outside air Return air registers Heating and air-conditioning registers Vents Water supply Water heater Plumbing fixtures Waste disposal 10 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS A building’s structural system is formed according to the geometry of its materials and the way they react to the forces applied to them. This structural form and geometry, in turn, influence the dimensions, proportion, and arrangement of the interior spaces within the building volume. The two basic linear structural elements are the column and the beam. A column is a vertical support that transmits compressive forces downward along its shaft. The thicker a column is in relation to its height, the greater its load-bearing capacity and its ability to resist buckling resulting from off-center loading or lateral forces. A beam is a horizontal member that transmits forces perpendicular to itself along its length to its supports. A beam is subject to bending and deflection, which result in an internal combination of compressive and tensile stresses. These stresses are proportionally greater along the upper and lower region of a beam’s cross section. Increasing depth and placing material where stresses are greatest optimize a beam’s performance. Ve rti ca l c olu mn Horizontal beams Ve rti ca l c olu mn A B C D A. Columns are subject to compression. B. Slender columns are subject to buckling. C. Thick columns may compress, or D. In the case of timber or concrete, they may split or fracture. Compression Te n s i o n Beams are subject to bending. Span = L Depth = D 2L 2D Increasing a beam’s depth enables it to span greater distances. 11 L INEAR STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS Columns mark points in space and provide a measure for its horizontal divisions. Beams make structural and visual connections across space between their supports. Together, columns and beams form a skeletal framework around interconnected volumes of space. A linear structural system may suggest a grid layout of repetitive spaces, but floor, wall, and ceiling planes are necessary for the support and enclosure of interior space. Floor and ceiling planes, which define the vertical limits of space, may consist of planar slabs or a hierarchical arrangement of girders (large primary beams) and beams and joists (a series of smaller, parallel beams). Walls and partitions need not be load-bearing and do not have to be aligned with the columns of a structural frame, except where serving as shear walls and providing for lateral stability. They are free to define the horizontal dimensions of space according to need, desire, or circumstance. Linear structural systems are cumulative by nature and eminently flexible. They allow for growth, change, and the adaptation of individual spaces to their specific uses. Developing space by addition Defining space by subtraction Non-load-bearing partitions Structural grid 12 PLANAR STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS The two principal types of planar structural elements are the load-bearing wall and the horizontal slab. A bearing wall acts as a long, thin column in transmitting compressive forces to its support or foundation. Window and door openings within a bearing wall tend to weaken its structural integrity. Any opening must be spanned by an arch or a short beam called a lintel to support the wall load above and allow compressive stresses to flow around the opening to adjacent sections of the wall. A common pattern for bearing walls is a parallel layout spanned by floor joists and roof rafters, or by horizontal slabs. For lateral stability, pilasters and cross walls are often used to help brace bearing walls. Be ar ing wa ll Slab Be ar ing wa ll Small beams or lintels are required to span openings in bearing walls. Varying degrees of spatial enclosure are possible with walls, depending on the size and location of openings within their planes. While linear structural elements outline the edges of spatial volumes, planar elements such as bearing walls define the physical limits of space. They provide a real sense of enclosure and privacy as well as serve as barriers against the elements. Cross wall Pilaster 13 PLANAR STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS A slab is a horizontal, rigid, usually monolithic plate. A common example is a reinforced concrete slab. A slab is able to support both concentrated and distributed loads because the resulting stresses can fan out across the plane of the slab and take various paths to the slab supports. When supported along two edges, a slab can be considered a wide, shallow beam extending in one direction. Supported along four sides, a slab becomes a two-way structural element. For greater efficiency and reduced weight, a slab can be modified in sections to incorporate ribs. When integrally connected with reinforced concrete columns, flat slabs can be supported without beams. They form horizontal layers of space punctuated only by the shafts of the supporting columns. Slabs may be supported by a framework of beams and columns or by a masonry or concrete bearing wall. Types of Slabs Two-way flat slabs thickened at their column supports define horizontal layers of space. One-way slab Prim ary b eam Secondary beam One-way joist slab Two-way slab Primary beam Prim ary b eam Two-way waffle slab 14 VOLUMETRIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS A volumetric structural system consists of a three- dimensional mass. The mass of the material occupies the void of space. The volume of interior space is carved out of the mass. The efficiency of engineering methods and the strength of modern building materials have limited the use of pure volumetric structural systems, although three- dimensional computer design is changing this; an example is the Walt Disney Concert Hall designed by Frank Gehry. At a small scale, stone and clay masonry units can be seen to be volumetric structural elements. At a larger scale, any building that encloses interior space can be viewed as a three-dimensional structure that must have strength in width, length, and depth. Three-dimensional space Three-dimensional form Three-dimensional material Composite systems combine linear, planar, and volumetric elements into three-dimensional compositions of form and space. Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, California, Frank Gehry, 2003 15 COMPOSITE STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS Most structural systems are in fact composites of linear, planar, and volumetric elements. No one system is superior to all others in all situations. For the structural designer, each presents advantages and disadvantages, depending on the size, location, and intended use of a building. An interior designer should be aware of the character of the interior spaces each system defines. Space Lin e Plane Volume 16 SHAPING INTERIOR SPACE Although a building’s structural system sets up the basic form and pattern of its interior spaces, these spaces are ultimately structured by the elements of interior design. The term “structure” is not used here in the sense of physical support. It refers to the selection and arrangement of interior elements such that their visual relationships define and organize the interior space of a room. Non-load-bearing partitions and suspended ceilings are often used to define or modify space within the structural framework or shell of a building. The color, texture, and pattern of wall, floor, and ceiling surfaces affect our perception of their relative positions in space and our awareness of the room’s dimensions, scale, and proportion. Structuring Space with Interior Design Elements Partitions Ceilings Furniture Furniture groupings A dominant element Artificial lighting Daylighting 17 SHAPING INTERIOR SPACE Within a large space, the form and arrangement of furnishings can divide areas, provide a sense of enclosure, and define spatial patterns. Lighting, and the light and dark patterns it creates, can call our attention to one area of a room, deemphasize others, and thereby create divisions of space. Even the acoustic nature of a room’s surfaces can affect the apparent boundaries of a space. Soft, absorbent surfaces muffle sounds and can diminish our awareness of the physical dimensions of a room. Hard surfaces that reflect sounds within a room help to define its physical boundaries. Echoes can suggest a large volume. Finally, space is structured by the way we use it. The nature of our activities and the rituals we develop in performing them influence how we plan, arrange, and organize interior space. Color, texture, and pattern Communication Movement Individual and group activities 18 SPATIAL FORM Interior spaces are formed first by a building’s structural system, further defined by wall and ceiling planes, and related to other spaces by windows and doorways. Every building has a recognizable pattern of these elements and systems. Each pattern has an inherent geometry that molds or carves out a volume of space into its likeness. It is useful to be able to read this figure–ground relationship between the form of space-defining elements and that of the space defined. Either the structure or the space can dominate this relationship. Whichever appears to dominate, we should be able to perceive the other as an equal partner in the relationship. 19 SPATIAL FORM It is equally useful to see the alternating figure–ground dominance occurring as interior design elements, such as tables and chairs, are introduced and arranged within an interior space. When a chair is placed in a room, it not only occupies space, it also creates a spatial relationship between itself and the surrounding enclosure. We should see more than the form of the chair. We should also recognize the form of the space surrounding the chair after it has filled some of the void. As more elements are introduced into the pattern, the spatial relationships multiply. The elements begin to organize into sets or groups, each of which not only occupies space but also defines and articulates the spatial form. 20 SPATIAL DIMENSIONS The dimensions of interior space, like spatial form, are directly related to the nature of a building’s structural system—the strength of its materials and the size and spacing of its members. The dimensions of a space, in turn, determine a room’s proportion and scale and influence the way it is used. One horizontal dimension of space, its width, has traditionally been limited by the materials and techniques used to span it. Today, given the necessary economic resources, almost any architectural structure is technically possible. Wood or steel beams and concrete slabs can span up to 30 feet (9 m). Wood or steel trusses can span even farther, up to 100 feet (30 m) or more. Longer roof spans are possible with space frames and a variety of curved structures, such as domes, suspension systems, and membranes supported by air pressure. Within the bounds of structural necessity, the width of an interior space should be established by the requirements of those who use the space and their need to set boundaries for themselves and their activities. Building designers have traditionally developed spatial relationships by sketching and model building. Computer- aided design (CAD) and building information management (BIM) software systems are changing the way that building designers work. These computer technologies allow designers to build interactive three-dimensional computer models of buildings, and to coordinate building systems as they design. Modeling a building with a 3D CAD system can provide higher productivity, rapid generation of design alternatives, and removal of errors that result from disparities between different drawings. However, these systems do require special design and management skills. 21 SQUARE SPACES The other horizontal dimension of space, its length, is limited by desire and circumstance. Together with width, the length of a space determines the proportion of a room’s plan shape. A square room, where the length of the space equals its width, is static in quality and often formal in character. The equality of the four sides focuses our attention in on the room’s center. This centrality can be enhanced or emphasized by covering the space with a pyramidal or dome structure. To deemphasize the centrality of a square room, the form of the ceiling can be made asymmetrical, or one or more of the wall planes can be treated differently from the others. Pyramids, domes, and similar roof forms can emphasize the centrality of square spaces. The placement of architectural elements, such as windows and stairways, can deemphasize the centrality of square spaces. 22 RECTANGULAR SPACES Square rooms are rare and distinctive. More often, a room will have a length greater than its width. A rectangular space, normally spanned across its width, is eminently flexible. Its character and usefulness are determined not only by its proportion of width to length, but also by the configuration of its ceiling, the pattern of its windows and doorways, and its relationship to adjacent spaces. When the length of a space is greater than twice its width, it tends to dominate and control the room’s layout and use. Given sufficient width, the space can be divided into a number of separate but related areas. A space whose length greatly exceeds its width encourages movement along its long dimension. This characteristic of linear spaces makes them suitable for use as gallery spaces or as connectors of other spaces. Horizontal dimensions alone do not determine the ultimate qualities and usefulness of a space. They only suggest opportunities for development. Linear spaces may be subdivided with furnishings or by architectural elements. Gallery Connector 23 RECTANGULAR SPACES Both square and rectangular spaces can be altered by addition or subtraction, or by merging with adjacent spaces. These modifications can be used to create an alcove space or to reflect an adjoining element or site feature. Altering Space Extension Addition Subtraction Merging 24 CURVIL INEAR SPACES The nature of building materials and the techniques used to assemble them have traditionally established rectangular spaces as the norm. Curvilinear spaces are exceptional and usually reserved for special circumstances. However, the advent of 3D CAD systems has made the design and construction of curvilinear spaces more feasible. The simplest curvilinear space is a circular one. It is compact and self-centering. Although it creates a focus on its center, a circular space also relates to the surrounding space equally in all directions. It has no front, back, or sides, unless these are defined by other elements. An elliptical space is more dynamic, having two centers and unequal axes. Other curvilinear spaces can be seen as transformations of circular or elliptical spaces that have been combined in an overlapping manner. The use of three-dimensional computer modeling is increasing the ease of designing complex curves. The radius of the curvature of a wall depends on the scale and flexibility of the material used to build it. Circle Ellipse Freeform 25 CURVIL INEAR SPACES Within a rectilinear context, a curvilinear space is highly visible. Its contrasting geometry can be used to express the importance or uniqueness of its function. It can define a freestanding volume within a larger space. It can serve as a central space about which other rooms are gathered. It can articulate the edge of a space and reflect an exterior condition of the building site. Curved walls are dynamic and visually active, leading our eyes along their curvature. The concave aspect of a curved wall encloses and focuses space inward, while its convex aspect pushes space outward. An important consideration when we are dealing with a curvilinear space is the integration of furniture and other interior elements into its volume. One way of resolving conflicting geometries is to arrange interior forms as freestanding objects within the curvilinear space. Another is to integrate the form of built-in furniture and fixtures with the curved boundaries of the space. Circular space serving as an organizing element Circular space situated as a freestanding object Walls curving to respond to an exterior condition Curved walls lead the eye. Extroversion Introversion Furnishings may be placed as freestanding objects within a curvilinear space or be integrated within the curved forms. 26 THE VERTICAL DIMENSION OF SPACE The third dimension of interior space, its height, is established by the ceiling plane. This vertical dimension is as influential as the horizontal dimensions of a space in forming the spatial quality of a room. Design of the ceiling is an important element of interior design. While our perception of a room’s horizontal dimensions is often distorted by the foreshortening of perspective, we can more accurately sense the relationship between the height of a space and our own body height. A measurable change in the height of a ceiling seems to have a greater effect on our impression of a space than a similar change in its width or length. Varying the ceiling height can have a powerful effect on the perceived scale of a space. 27 CEIL INGS High ceilings are often associated with feelings of loftiness or grandeur. Low ceilings may connote cavelike coziness and intimacy. However, our perception of the scale of a space is affected not by the height of the ceiling alone, but by its relationship to the width and length of the space as well. A ceiling defined by the floor plane of the room above it is typically flat. A ceiling created by a roof structure can reflect its form and the manner in which it spans the space. Shed, gable, and vaulted ceiling forms give direction to space, while domed and pyramidal ceilings emphasize the center of a space. Lowering part of a ceiling can foster intimacy, modify acoustics, or add visual texture. Interior soffits, canopies, and clouds can be used to partially lower a ceiling at its perimeter, or over areas of interest. The roof structure can sometimes be left exposed, giving texture, pattern, and depth to the ceiling plane. Pyramids and domes emphasize the centrality of a space. Shed ceiling Gable ceiling Vaulted ceiling 28 SPATIAL TRANSIT IONS Although individual spaces may be designed and formed for a certain purpose or to house certain activities, they are gathered together within a building’s enclosure because they are functionally related to one another, are used by a common group of people, or share a common purpose. How interior spaces are related to one another is determined not only by their relative position in a building’s spatial pattern, but also by the nature of the spaces that connect them and the boundaries they have in common. Floor, wall, and ceiling planes serve to define and isolate a portion of space. Of these, the wall plane, being perpendicular to our normal line of sight, has the greatest effect as a spatial boundary. It limits our visual field and serves as a barrier to our movement. Openings created within the wall plane for windows and doorways reestablish contact with the surrounding spaces from which the room was originally cut. Openings within Wall Planes Access Communication Natural ventilation Daylighting and views 29 DOORWAYS Doorways provide physical access from one space to another. When closed, they shut a room off from adjacent spaces. When open, they establish visual, spatial, and acoustical links between spaces. Large open doorways erode the integrity of a room’s enclosure and strengthen its connection with adjacent spaces or the outdoors. The thickness of the wall separating two spaces is exposed at a doorway. This depth determines the degree of separation we sense as we pass through the doorway from one space to another. The scale and treatment of the doorway itself can also provide visual clues to the nature of the space being entered. The number and location of doorways along a room’s perimeter affect our pattern of movement within the space, and the ways we may arrange its furnishings and organize our activities. The widths of door openings affect the ease of movement for people and furnishings. A 36-inch (914-mm) wide doorway is reduced to about 32 inches (813 mm) when the thickness of the open door and that of its hardware are taken into consideration. Clear openings of less than 32 inches (813 mm) become barriers to standard wheelchairs, affecting accessibility, visitability, and aging- in-place. Doorway locations affect our patterns of movement and activities within a room. 30 WINDOWS Windows let light and air into the interior spaces of buildings and provide views of the outdoors, or from one space to another. Their size and placement, relative to the wall plane in which they occur, also affect the degree of separation between an interior space and the exterior environment. Views to the outside and natural ventilation are important elements in sustainable design. Windows framed within a wall plane attract our attention with their brightness and outlook but maintain the enclosure provided by the wall. Large windows and glass walls attempt, at least visually, to merge indoor and outdoor space. The visual treatment of the window frames in each case can either emphasize or minimize the perceived limits of interior space. Interior windows can, in a similar manner, visually expand a room beyond its physical boundaries and allow it to become an integral part of the surrounding interior space. Operable skylights allow overhead daylight to enter and excess heat to leave the building. They also provide building occupants with views of the sky. Daylighting Framing views Degree of enclosure …or transparency Thin frame Thick frame Interior windows …connecting spaces 31 STAIRWAYS Stairways are also important forms of spatial transitions between rooms. An exterior set of steps leading to a building’s entrance can serve to separate private domain from public passage and enhance the act of entry into a transitional space such as a porch or terrace. Entrances without steps support visitability and aging-in-place. Interior stairways connect the various levels of a building. The manner in which they perform this function shapes our movement in space—how we approach a stairway, the pace and style of our ascent and descent, and what we have an opportunity to do along the way. Wide, shallow steps can serve as an invitation, while a narrow, steep stairway may lead to more private places. Landings that interrupt a flight of steps can allow a stairway to change direction and give us room for pause, rest, and outlook. Designers are becoming more concerned with creating opportunities for movement within interior workplace spaces. One result of this has been the increasing use of wide stairs as seating areas, often connecting work or presentation spaces. Active design focuses on the role of designers in dealing with the urgent health crises of obesity and related diseases such as diabetes. Active design guidelines go beyond Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) programs to address people’s varying needs and educate designers about opportunities to increase daily physical activity and include measures such as making stairs more visible and inviting. They seek to increase stair use by providing a conveniently located stair for everyday use, posting motivational signage to encourage stair use, and designing visible, appealing, and comfortable stairs. The space a stairway occupies can be considerable, but its form can be fit into an interior in several ways. It can fill and provide a focus for a space, run along one of its edges, or wrap around a room. It can be woven into the boundaries of a space or be extended into a series of terraces. Stairways Visitable entrance Exterior entrance Public approach Private access Inviting landings Overlooks Ascent Descent …Filling space …Defining an edge …As sculpture …As seating 32 MODIFYING SPACE Rearranging Space Reconfiguring an existing space requires removing walls and constructing new ones. The architectural planning and design for a new building take into account the nature of the activities to be housed; the spatial requirements for form, scale, and light; and the desired relationships among the various interior spaces. When an existing building is to be used for activities other than those for which it was originally intended, however, activity requirements must be matched with the existing conditions. Where a misfit occurs, a modification of the existing spaces may be required. Today, many interior renovations involve changes to existing buildings. Where the design involves changes in the building’s use, the process is referred to as adaptive reuse. Reusing existing buildings can help preserve the historic qualities and architectural character of a built environment. Two major types of alteration can be considered. The first involves structural changes in the boundaries of interior space and is more permanent in nature than the second. The second type of alteration involves nonstructural modifications and enhancement accomplished through interior design. The acceptance of formerly forbidden accessory dwelling units (ADUs) offer opportunities to create residential units in existing owner-occupied one- to three-family buildings in certain neighborhoods. The ADUs create an opportunity to evolve older residences to meet 21st-century housing needs, while promoting long-term occupancy and neighborhood stability. A structural change may involve removing or adding walls to alter the shape and rearrange the pattern of existing spaces, or to add on new space. When making such alterations, it is extremely important to understand the distinction between load-bearing walls and non-load- bearing partitions. It is, therefore, always advisable to consult a professional engineer or architect when making structural changes to a space. Adding New Space Existing framing extended New supporting framework of columns and beams or a bearing wall Expanding upward New opening for access Horizontal extension Addition 33 MODIFYING SPACE Within the boundaries of a space, the existing pattern of openings can also be altered. Windows may be enlarged or added for better daylighting or to take advantage of a view. A doorway may be moved or added for better access to a room space or to improve the movement paths within the space. A large doorway may be created to merge two adjacent spaces. Any new or enlarged opening in a load- bearing wall requires a lintel or header sized to carry the wall load above the opening. To add a stairway, daylight a space with skylights, or create a vertical relationship between two levels of space, structural changes in the floor or ceiling plane may be required. Alterations in these horizontal structures of a building may require that the edges of any new openings be reinforced and supported by a system of beams, columns, posts, or bearing walls. New Wall Openings Extending space outward Enlarging an existing opening Vertical Expansion Structural support is required along edges of new floor and roof openings. StairwaysV ert ica l re lat ion sh ips Skylights 34 INTERIOR DESIGN Interior Design Even as we deal with specific design issues and with different aspects of a building’s interior spaces, we should be mindful of the overall structure and patterns of the architecture. In particular, any changes in the physical boundaries of a space must be carefully planned so that the structural integrity of a building is not disturbed. Major structural changes in a space, therefore, require the assistance of a professional engineer or architect. Interior spaces can be modified and enhanced with nonstructural alterations, however. While structural changes alter the physical boundaries of space, nonstructural alterations are based on how we perceive, use, and inhabit space. These are the types of changes commonly planned and executed by interior designers. 35 2 Interior Design 36 INTERIOR DESIGN Interior design is the planning, layout, and design of the interior spaces within buildings. These physical settings satisfy our basic need for shelter and protection, set the stage for and influence the shape of our activities, nurture our aspirations, express the ideas that accompany our actions, and affect our outlook, mood, and personality. The purpose of interior design, therefore, is the functional improvement, aesthetic enrichment, and psychological enhancement of the quality of life in interior spaces. Increasingly, educational institutions are using the term interior architecture for their programs that focus creative design processes on the needs of people using buildings, rather than on the buildings as objects. Many projects today involve the interior design of existing buildings, and the design of spatial, technical, cultural, and functional needs from the inside out. When designing new structures, the designer can consider future transformations. Other large concepts, such as sustainability and resiliency, also must be included from the start of the project. This increases the complexity of the interior designer’s role, but also creates greater opportunities. Interior designers need to make maximum use of what they already have and build new only what they absolutely require. Historic preservation has moved to the forefront for many American cities, becoming highly desirable today. Technological advantages unheard of in the past, such as ground-penetrating radar, infrared thermography, and drones with their cameras, open new frontiers for documentation of existing construction. New materials can conserve buildings by sealing masonry and concrete against water penetration, coat active cracks without themselves cracking, and protect iron materials from corrosion. Older buildings can be mathematically modeled in three dimensions to determine their strengths and weaknesses. Some of the repair methods, in opposition to the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards, are so extensive as to be irreversible. Current trends include working with local artisans in developing countries to produce unique furnishings that combine local materials with modern themes. These efforts create employment for artisans as well as helping local people start their own businesses, often with micro- savings programs. The Architectural Context Interior Elements 37 INTERIOR DESIGN Resiliency is the ability of an organization, a place, or a family to weather a catastrophic event—climate, social unrest, and the crisis in affordable housing, for instance—and to come back better than it was before. A resilient system is one designed to evolve and adapt to changing conditions over time. Experts have suggested that interior designer’s contributions to post-disaster shelter design could include culturally appropriate color palettes and geographically appropriate interior finishes, along with layouts and programming that promote social cohesion, which can lead to successful recovery after a disaster. The Perkins + Will report, Weathering the Storm: Mental Health and Resilient Design, identified the following design strategies to address major crisis events: • Green roofs as outdoor refuge spaces and food production • On-site renewable energy • Building elements above a flood plain • Transportation for building occupants, including public transportation, bicycles, and inflatable rafts • On-site storage of emergency supplies • Emergency communications • Shelter in place • Training for personnel • Communications with occupants Intentions, Perception, and Use The Interior Environment Designing for an aging population increases the need for skills in universal design and design for longevity, and notably in renovations, additions, and new construction. Simple and intuitive use is supported by wireless devices, such as thermostats and security systems, home media, lighting systems, baby monitors, and wall ovens. Size and space for approach and use are accommodated by taller kitchen counters for tall residents or lower ones for children’s areas. Pocket doors provide more room in tight bathrooms and closets, and oversized showers work for pets, shower chairs, or portable baby tubs. An extra room space is flexible in use over time, as children’s play area, an entertainment center, home office, guest room, first floor bedroom, or private room for a live-in home health aide. Flexible space also works well for multi-generational living. The unique perspectives of members of the millennial generation are reshaping the design and development of interior space. Bigger does not always mean better. Houses designed to age and adapt with the homeowners’ changing needs are becoming more and more common. Clients are seeking homes that relate to their natural context as well as the lifestyles of their occupants, and designers are consulting clients on what makes them feel at home. 38 INTERIOR DESIGN WeWork, experts on designing for collaborative, empowering office spaces, cite five factors for coworking spaces (Metropolis, June 2016): 1. Warm up the lighting with connections to natural light. 2. Create a spectrum of sound by providing multiple options in terms of energy level and noise, varying with activity level and mood. 3. Feel at home with warm, inviting, and comfortable spaces with a human connection to nature and natural materials. 4. Rely on data by using concerted data analysis such as user rating of spaces. 5. Pair unexpected activities by designing amenity hubs, such as putting printers and food in one area to keep people moving in and out of the space, encouraging them to stop and chat. Office spaces are trying to mimic the private and social spaces of residential architecture. Some spaces feel comfortable and cozy, while other are more expansive and provide views. The more minimal the private workspaces are, and the more energy is put into collaborative or unstructured spaces, the more effective the office is. Kitchens can become hearths of offices, as they have become the home away from home. Dining rooms have become workspaces, balanced by low- or no-tech zones for personal interactions. Research into the impacts of design by sociologists and healthcare experts show us how interior spaces impact productivity and well-being. Interior designers can understand the importance of meeting with the people who will be the users and understanding from their experience how the design will meaningfully support them. Designers can act as liaisons with other professionals to bring a wider range of perspectives to the table. Healthcare facility design today focuses on patients, with evidence-based design (EBD) linking patient-centered design with improved patient and worker safety, patient outcomes, environmental performance, and operational efficiency. Today, everything is changing so quickly that designers need to be able to allow for movement or rearrangement, as some design ideas will remain while others will not. The question of how a person can be productive on an individual basis remains open. Acoustical problems become dominant, engendering multiple types of spaces or ways that people can work. Movement from one space to another becomes increasingly important. 39 THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TEAM The development of architectural forms and environmental systems for any building has implications for the interior designer, just as the information the interior designer collects about the client, the space, and the intended activities has implications for the work of the other members of the design team. The interior designer may be working as a sole practitioner; collaborating with other designers, architects, and design specialists in a larger design firm; or serving as a consultant to an architectural firm. In any case, the interior designer is likely to have contact with architects, engineers, and other consultants in other firms. In addition, the interior designer will work with client representatives, including facilities managers, administrators, and end users. The interior designer is often the liaison between the client and the sources for finishes or furnishings. The user (for example, a hotel’s housekeeping staff) often sees critical elements that professional designers may miss. During construction, the interior designer is also in contact with contractors and suppliers. All of these members of the design and construction team should strive to maintain an atmosphere of communication, cooperation, and mutual respect. The coordination among design professionals throughout the building design process allows the expertise of each design field to be tapped to produce creative solutions to design problems as they arise. Client team Design team Construction team 40 THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TEAM The need to create spaces that work for today’s changes and remain relevant tomorrow makes an interdisciplinary approach that includes designers, architects, engineers, and facility managers increasingly important. It is necessary to look at a building as an interconnected, interactive whole rather than as separate components belonging to a single profession. Complex challenges require technical knowledge from a variety of disciplines, including architecture and interior design, graphic and landscape design, structural, industrial, mechanical, acoustical, electrical and systems engineering, and other fields including psychology, sociology, and anthropology. At the time of writing this book, architecture is still a male-dominated profession. The diversity of solutions, connections, and ideas we need requires more diversity in the industry’s ranks. The design team includes both in-house talent and specialized consultants, preferably from the beginning of the design process. Unfortunately, this often doesn’t happen because of tight timelines and tight budgets. Often, when it does happen, the interior designer may be the one to pull the disciplines together. Interior designers may be uniquely able to facilitate multidisciplinary collaborations. They are knowledge seekers both within their own profession and with other professions. In practice, interior designers rarely work alone, but rather bring together the people and abilities that deliver success for their clients by devising the best possible solutions. The awareness of cultural differences can be aided by multidisciplinary teams. This has an obvious role in projects for affluent clients or in other countries, but is also important in the U.S. when designing to combat homelessness. Programs include consideration of human dignities, such as cleanliness, good food, safety, employment, and community for people on the street. From their student days onward, they collaborate face- to-face and online, and graduate ready to contribute to a team. They realize that architecture and interior design work best when considered as one. Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Owner/Client Engineers Consultants Interior Designer Contractor Owner/Client Construction Manager Engineers Consultants Interior Designer Contractor Architect Contractor Contractor 41 THE DESIGN PROCESS Interior designers determine which elements to use and how to arrange them into patterns through the process of design. Although presented as a linear series of steps, the design process is more often a cyclical, iterative one in which a sequence of careful analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of available information, insights, and possible solutions is repeated until a successful fit between what exists and what is desired is achieved. Steps in the Design Process • Define Problem • Formulate Program • Develop Concept • Assess Alternatives • Make Design Decisions • Develop and Refine Design • Implement Design • Reevaluate Completed Design The design problem is first defined. The ability to define and understand the nature of the design problem is an essential part of the solution. This definition should specify how the design solution should perform and what goals and objectives will be met. Define Problem [ ] Identify client needs. • Who, what, when, where, how, why? [ ] Set preliminary goals. • Functional requirements. • Aesthetic image and style. • Psychological stimulus and meaning. Analy ze Evaluate Sy nt he si ze 42 ANALYSIS Formulate Program [ ] What exists? • Collect and analyze relevant information. • Document physical/cultural context. • Describe existing elements. [ ] What is desired? • Identify user needs and preferences. • Clarify goals. • Develop matrices, charts, and adjacency diagrams. [ ] What is possible? • What can be altered…what cannot? • What can be controlled…what cannot? • What is allowed…what is prohibited? • Define limits: time, economic, legal, and technical. An analysis of the problem requires that it be broken down into parts, that issues be clarified, and that values be assigned to the various aspects of the problem. Analysis also involves gathering relevant information that would help us to understand the nature of the problem and develop appropriate responses. From the outset, it is worthwhile to know the limitations that will help shape the design solution. Any givens—what can change and what cannot be altered—should be determined. Any financial, legal, or technical constraints that will impinge on the design solution should be noted. Through the design process, a clearer understanding of the problem should emerge. New information may develop that could alter our perception of the problem and its solution. The analysis of a problem, therefore, often continues throughout the design process. Hypothesis Predictions Observations If consistent, formulate theory If not consistent, modify hypothesis Collect Information Organize Data Interpret Data Summarize Data 43 Develop Concept [ ] Brainstorm ideas. • Diagram major functional and spatial relationships. • Assign values to key issues or elements. • Search for ways to combine several good ideas into a single better one. • Manipulate the parts to see how a change might affect the whole. • Look at the situation from different points of view. [ ] Draft a concept statement. • Verbalize the principal design ideas in a concise manner. [ ] Develop schematic designs. • Establish major functional and spatial relationships. • Show relative sizes and shapes of important features. • Develop several alternatives for comparative study. SYNTHESIS From the analysis of the problem and its parts, we can begin to formulate possible solutions. This requires synthesizing—bringing together and integrating— responses to the various issues and aspects of the problem into coherent solutions. Design requires rational thought based on knowledge and arrived at through experience and research. Evidence-based design seeks to create better design outcomes by basing decisions on credible research. Also playing important roles in the design process are intuition and imagination, which add the creative dimension to the otherwise rational design process. University-sponsored incubators, which are spaces that are high on collaboration and low on structure and intended to spur new ideas, view design as an invitation to connect. These spaces avoid formalizing design so much that people cannot easily connect. This involves 24/7 operating hours, perfectly functioning wireless connectivity, and a fun atmosphere. Finishes and design are kept flexible and functional, able to change with needs. Academic incubators cultivate ideas in a controlled—but not restricted—environment. There are several approaches one can take to generate ideas and synthesize possible design solutions, including: • Isolate one or more key issues of value or importance, and develop solutions around them. • Study analogous situations that could serve as models for developing possible solutions. • Develop ideal solutions for parts of the problem, which could be integrated into whole solutions and tempered by the reality of what exists. As described by Rosanne Somerson in the May 2016 issue of Metropolis, students required to sit and draw through free association for more than about 45 minutes tend to become uncomfortable. When instructed to push through this discomfort, they often entered a whole new direction for their work—a surprising response to their boredom. Being creative is often uncomfortable, even painful. For designers and artists, it is often the result of driving an inquiry down a new path and stumbling into the unknown. They discover new ways to conceptualize ideas in expansive, nonlinear forms that go beyond traditional perceptual and cognitive divisions. When an idea fails, the materials and processes can suggest alternate paths. This push can result in a moment of insight that teaches how to sustain and encourage creative breakthroughs. 44 EVALUATION Assess Alternatives [ ] Compare each alternative with design goals. [ ] Weigh the benefits and strengths of each alternative against the costs and liabilities. [ ] Rank alternatives in terms of suitability and effectiveness. Make Design Decisions [ ] Combine the best design elements into the final design. • Draw preliminary plans. • Construct scale drawings. • Show important interior architectural details (e.g., walls, windows, built-in elements). • Show furniture if appropriate. • Computer design software may combine these steps. [ ] Make preliminary material selections. • Develop alternative color and finish schemes. • Collect material samples. [ ] Make preliminary furniture and lighting selections. [ ] Prepare a presentation to the client for feedback and preliminary approval. Design requires a critical view of alternatives and careful weighing of the strengths and weaknesses of each proposal until the best possible fit between problem and solution is achieved. Within a range of possible solutions, each must be evaluated according to the criteria set forth in the problem statement and further clarified in the problem analysis. Successive explorations of the problem and the evaluation of alternative solutions should help narrow the choices for design development. While the initial stages of the design process encourage divergent thinking about the problem, the design development phase requires a convergent focus on a specific design solution. Test and Refine Ideas 45 IMPLEMENTATION Once a final decision has been made, the design proposal is developed, refined, and prepared for implementation. This includes the production of construction drawings and specifications and other services related to purchasing, construction, and supervision. Develop and Refine Design [ ] Develop plans, elevations, sections, and details. [ ] Develop three-dimensional computer models of interior spaces, including walk-throughs. [ ] Develop specifications for interior finish materials, furnishings, and lighting. Implement Design [ ] Prepare construction drawings. [ ] Finalize specifications for interior finish materials, furnishings, and lighting. Reevaluate Completed Design [ ] Perform design reviews. [ ] Coordinate with architect, engineers, and consultants. [ ] Solicit client feedback. [ ] Perform post-occupancy evaluation.No design process is complete until a design solution that has been implemented is evaluated for its effectiveness in solving a given problem. This critical appraisal of a completed design can build up our knowledge base, sharpen our intuition, and provide valuable lessons that may be applied in future work. 46 GOOD AND BAD DESIGN One of the idiosyncrasies of the design process is that it does not always lead simply and inevitably to a single, obvious, correct answer. In fact, there is often more than one solution to a design problem. How then can we judge whether a design is good or bad? A design may be good in the judgment of the designer, the client, or the people who experience and use the design for any of several reasons: • Because it functions well—it works. • Because it is affordable—it is economical, efficient, and durable. • Because it looks good—it is aesthetically pleasing. • Because it is sustainable and accessible. • Because it recreates a feeling remembered from another time and place—it carries meaning. At times, we may judge a design to be good because we feel it follows current design trends or because of the impression it will make on others—it is in fashion, or it enhances our status. As these reasons suggest, there are several meanings that can be conveyed by a design. Some operate at a level widely understood and accepted by the general public. Others are more readily discerned by specific groups of people. Successful designs usually operate at more than one level of meaning and thus appeal to a wide range of people. A good design, therefore, should be understandable to its audience. Knowing why something was done helps to make a design comprehensible. If a design does not express an idea, communicate a meaning, or elicit a response, either it will be ignored or it will appear to be a bad design. 47 DESIGN CRITERIA In defining and analyzing a design problem, one also develops goals and criteria by which the effectiveness of a solution can be measured. Regardless of the nature of the interior design problem being addressed, there are several criteria with which we should be concerned. Function and Purpose First, the design must satisfy its intended function and fulfill its purpose. Utility, Economy, and Sustainability Second, a design should exhibit utility, honesty, economy, and sustainability in its selection and use of materials. Form and Style Third, the design should be aesthetically pleasing to the eye and our other senses. Image and Meaning Fourth, the design should project an image and promote associations that carry meaning for the people who use and experience it. Although technology has made the visual aspect incredibly easy, designers need to focus more on narrative storytelling. As humans, we need contact. An agile workforce can work anywhere not because of the agility of the technology, but because of the needs of creative humans using it. 48 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN Buildings use large amounts of materials and energy for their construction and operation. Sustainable design seeks to produce buildings that use energy and natural resources efficiently throughout their lives. Sustainable architecture strives to find architectural solutions that protect both the natural environment and the myriad forms of life on earth. Simply put, sustainable design strategies for building interiors include the following: • Reduce, reuse, and recycle materials. • Evaluate environmental and health impacts, from acquisition of raw materials through end-of-use recovery. • Design for energy- and water-use efficiency. • Access to fresh air, natural light, nontoxic materials, and green public spaces that invite exercise and social contact. Research shows that the presence of plants in the workspace contributes to workers being happier in their jobs. In addition, some plants are able to mitigate indoor pollutants, and some of the most efficient air cleaners are also easy to take care of. The combination of effects makes indoor plants a good choice for a sustainable environment. Reduce Recycle Re us e Raw materials acquisition Manufacturing process Packaging and shipping Installation Indoor air quality Durability and performance Resource recovery 49 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN Since 1984, research has shown that hospital patients with a view of nature had better hospital healing experiences than those without such views. Influential studies have supported biologist E. O. Wilson’s hypothesis in Biophilia that human beings have an innate connection with the natural world. These studies have shown that the presence of water, natural light, and a view to the outdoors can reduce stress, lower blood pressure, improve cognitive function, and enhance memory. Our often visual connection to the natural world is also auditory, olfactory, and tactile. After extensively studying the characteristics and behavior of plants and animals, Janine Benyus developed a thesis based on her observations about how life works. Her 1997 book Biomimicry, which included new research as well as material from five field guides she published by 1990, chronicles her search for new ways in which the design community can create innovations that are inspired by nature and put into human-made products. Her approach to problem solving thrives on changes in how people see the natural world. In 2014, sustainability strategist Bill Browning co-authored 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design: Improving Health and Well-Being in the Built Environment, which grouped the 14 patterns into three broad categories: 1. Nature in the Space: “the direct, physical, and ephemeral presence of nature in an environment.” 2. Natural Analogues: “Nonliving and indirect evocations of nature such as objects, materials, colors, shapes, sequences, and patterns.” 3. Nature of the Space: “Spatial configurations in nature.” German manufacturer Ziehl-Abegg recently introduced a fan blade modeled on the serrated edges of the owl’s wing, significantly enhancing its aerodynamic properties and reducing noise and energy use. 50 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN Sustainable Design Rating Systems and Standards In 2000, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) launched LEED—Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design—a benchmarking system that has driven the global demand for green buildings. To meet LEED’s stringent criteria, the architectural design, engineering, and construction professions have had to learn to work together to deliver buildings with a highly integrated design approach. There are a variety of sustainable design rating systems and standards, including updates of LEED: • The USGBC’s LEED v4 system increases the technical stringency from earlier requirements and has developed new requirements for project types such as data centers, warehouse and distribution centers, hotels/motels, existing schools, existing retail, and mid-rise residential. In addition, LEED v4 will ask manufacturers to disclose the contents of products, and engage in life-cycle thinking. Clients are demanding a higher level of transparency; the process may be messy, but it appears that its time has come. • WELL Building Standard, administered by the International WELL Building Institute, sets performance standards for buildings in seven categories related to human health—air, water, nourishment, light, fitness, comfort, and mind—seeking to improve people’s moods, sleep quality, nutrition, physical fitness, and work performance. • Green Building Initiatives’ Green Globes is an online assessment protocol, rating system, and guidance for green building design, operation, and management. It is interactive, flexible, and affordable, and provides market recognition of a building’s environmental attributes through third-party verification. • International Living Future Institute’s Living Product Challenge requires manufacturers and suppliers to develop products using processes powered only by renewable energy and within the water balance of the places they are made. The Living Product Challenge addresses design and construction methods and draws on the ideas of biomimicry and biophilia. • Living Building Challenge (LBC) defines the most advanced measure of sustainability possible in the current built environment. LBC requires close adherence to some of the most stringent building performance standards in the world. Certification requires meeting all the program requirements over a full 12-month period of continued operations and full occupancy. • Health Product Declaration (HPD) Collaborative is a free and public tool for objective and accurate reporting of product contents and how each ingredient relates to the bigger picture for ecological health. It is moving manufacturers toward full product transparency. • Environmental Product Declaration (EPD): A standardized report outlining the results of data collected in a life cycle assessment (LCA) that transparently present the environmental impacts of a product from cradle to grave, across the entire value chain, qualifying everything that goes in (energy, water, materials) and everything that comes out (emissions to land, air, and water). Completing the EPD helps pinpoint where materials and processes have the most environmental impact. The report provides a common language and measurement about life-cycle environmental impact of products. It is primarily used for business-to-business (not consumer) communication. Typical categories of green building provisions Energy efficiency and conservation Material and resource selection Indoor environmental quality Site selection and sustainability Water efficiency and conservation 51 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND INTERIOR DESIGNERS Interior designers can support sustainable design in the following ways: • Reduce energy use by specifying efficient lighting and equipment. • Design to facilitate daylight, views, and fresh air. • Design for disassembly, so that materials can be taken apart and recycled. • Limit the use of potable (drinkable) water in toilets and sinks. • Select interior finishes and materials made from rapidly renewable, salvaged, refurbished, or recycled materials from local sources. • Choose low volatile organic compound (VOC)-emitting products and installation materials. • Specify products from manufacturers who minimize energy, water, and raw material consumption. • Avoid waste in manufacturing, packaging, and installation. 52 HUMAN FACTORS The interior spaces of buildings are designed as places for human movement, activity, and repose. There should be, therefore, a fit between the form and dimensions of interior space and our own body dimensions. This fit can be a static one, as when we sit in a chair, lean against a railing, or nestle within an alcove. There can also be a dynamic fit, as when we enter a building’s foyer, walk up a stairway, or move through the rooms and halls of a building. How a space encourages or inhibits movement has an important influence on the well- being of its users. When we sit, our metabolism decreases, good cholesterol drops, the muscles in the lower half of our bodies turn off, and some of the insulin in our bodies is produced less efficiently, contributing to heart disease and diabetes. It becomes really important to get up every 30 minutes, even for a short time. We sit all day because of the way our environments have been set up for us. Physical activity has been shown to stimulate mental activity, and designing spaces for different functions has both a physical and mental impact. The design of clean, well-lighted stairways as connectors that encourage movement between spaces has become an important feature. Height-adjustable furniture that easily adjusts between sitting and standing levels is increasingly popular. A third type of fit is the way space accommodates our need to maintain appropriate social distances and to control our personal space. In addition to these physical and psychological dimensions, space also has tactile, auditory, olfactory, and thermal characteristics that influence how we feel and what we do within it. Static fit Dynamic fit Touch Hearing Smell Temperature 53 HUMAN DIMENSIONS Our body dimensions, and the way we move through and perceive space, are prime determinants of architectural and interior design. In the following section, basic human dimensions are illustrated for standing, sitting, and reaching. Dimensional guidelines are also given for group activities, such as dining or conversing. There is a difference between the structural dimensions of our bodies and those dimensional requirements that result from the way we reach for something on a shelf, sit down at a table, walk down a set of stairs, or interact with other people. These are functional dimensions that vary according to the nature of the activity engaged in and the social situation. Always exercise caution when you use any set of dimensional tables or illustrations such as those on the following pages. These are based on typical or average measurements that may have to be modified to satisfy specific user needs. Variations from the norm will always exist as a result of the differences between men and women, among various age and genetic groups, and from one individual to the next. Most people will experience different physical ranges and abilities as they grow and age, and with changes in weight, height, and physical fitness. These changes over time affect how an interior environment will fit or accommodate the user. Bariatric design and design for aging-in-place are two ways that interiors can accommodate these conditions. Structural dimensions Functional dimensions Individual variations and abilities 54 HUMAN DIMENSIONS Unless otherwise specified, dimensions are in inches, with their metric equivalents in millimeters (shown in parentheses). 10–14 26–35 (660–889) 27–39 (685–990) 14–20 (355–508) 14–20 (355–508) 12–18 56 –6 8 ( 14 22 –1 72 7) 38 –4 7 ( 96 5– 11 93 ) 56 –7 5 ( 14 22 –1 90 5) 72 –8 6 ( 18 29 –2 18 4) 28 –3 4 ( 71 1– 86 3) 48 –6 2 ( 12 19 –1 57 4) 30 –3 8 ( 76 2– 96 5) 17 –2 4 ( 43 1– 60 9) 4– 7 ( 10 1– 17 7) 7– 12 (1 77 –3 05 ) 20–25 (508–635) 27–37 (685–939) 34–46 (863–1168) 50° limit of visual field30° high eye movement 0° standard sight line –10° norma l sight line –30 ° low eye move ment –7 0° lim it o f vi su al f ield 60 ( 152 4) m inimu m tu rning radi us 36 (914) minimum 20–25 (508–635) 48 (1219) 8 ( 20 3) 30 (7 62 ) 27 (6 86 ) 43 –5 1 ( 10 92 –1 29 5) 28 –3 6 ( 71 1– 91 4) (254–355) (305–457) 55 HUMAN DIMENSIONS Designing for Longevity By United Nations standards, the populations of Japan, Italy, Germany, Finland, and Greece will be considered super-aged, with over 20 percent of their citizens over 65. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2050 the U.S. population aged 65 and over is projected to be 83.7 million, which is almost double the previously estimated population of 43.1 million in 2012. Approximately one in five adults in the U.S. will be over the age of 65. As fewer and fewer people move into institutional care, more people with disabilities are living in everyday settings that, in the past, were designed for people with levels of agility and ability that they do not have. States such as Oregon have already passed legislation to encourage voluntary age-friendly design in both new construction and remodeling projects. Interior designers will need to meet these changes with designs renovations and new construction of quality housing. According to the American Society of Interior Designers (ASID): • Restaurants, hotels, and motels will need to be accessible. • Offices, retail stores, and other workspaces will need adequate lighting, seating, technology, task areas, and quiet places for older workers. • There will be an increased need for outpatient and in-home healthcare, and accommodation for caretakers and caregivers. • Retail stores will need to be accessible and accommodate users of assistive devices. • There will be a growing demand for multihousing/ multiuse livable communities and urban complexes with easy access to healthcare, entertainment, and shopping. Other trends include looking at how design is about networks, where authorship of a design is less high profile and there is a sense of people working together, reacting to being constantly connected, and exploring things that shape the way we deal with a longer life span. For instance, a move away from digital media to print, or to the spirit of hands-on crafting of interior items, can bring us closer to some of the qualities that define what it is to be human. Designing for Children’s Healthcare Healthcare facilities have taken the lead in creating playful research-based environments that support, distract, and heal children. These spaces strive to be: • Empowering, giving patients ownership of their treatment journey • Familiar, welcoming, and friendly • Dependable, building trust between patients and the institution • Shared experiences that unite patients, their families, and staff Positive patient distraction reduces stress for parents and allows the staff to perform their jobs more effectively. Equal access to facilities 56 PERSONAL SPACE Human beings share with animals a perception of the appropriate uses of the space around their bodies, which varies between various groups and cultures and among individuals within a group. This is a person’s territorial space. Others are allowed to penetrate these areas only for short periods of time. The presence of other people, objects, and the immediate environment can expand or contract our sense of personal space. The invasion of an individual’s personal space can affect the person’s feelings and reactions to everything around him or her. Intimate Zone Allows physical contact; invasion by a stranger can result in discomfort. Personal Space Allows friends to come close and possibly penetrate inner limit briefly; conversation at low voice levels is possible. Social Zone Appropriate for informal, social, and business transactions; conversation occurs at normal to raised voice levels. Public Zone Acceptable for formal behavior and hierarchical relationships; louder voice levels with clearer enunciation are required for communication.Space for movement varies from 30–36 (762–914) for a single person to 72–96 (1829–2438) for three people walking abreast. Social zone48–144 (1219–3658) Public zone 144–300 (3658–7620)18–48 (457–1219) Personal space Intimate zone Personal space Social zone 57 FUNCTIONAL DIMENSIONS Seating Unless otherwise specified, dimensions are in inches, with their metric equivalents in millimeters (shown in parentheses). Plan arrangements for dining tables 84–104 (2134–2642) 24–30 (609–762)26 –2 8 ( 66 0– 71 1) 3 (76) Plan arrangements for seating 16 (406) 14–18 (355–457) 14–18 (355–457) 24–36 (609–914) 16 (406) 28 –3 3 ( 71 1– 83 8) 15 –1 7 (3 81 –4 31 ) 16–24 (406–609) 30–36 (762–914) 14 –1 7 ( 35 5– 43 1) 18–24 (457–609) Passage Lounge chair 14 –1 7 ( 35 5– 43 1) 17–18 (431–45 7) 58 FUNCTIONAL DIMENSIONS Dining Unless otherwise specified, dimensions are in inches, with their metric equivalents in millimeters (shown in parentheses). 32–36 (812–914) 27 –3 0 ( 68 5– 76 2) 24–30 (609–762) 9– 12 (2 28 –3 05 ) 8–18 (203–457) 48 (1 21 9) m ini mu m 19 (4 83 ) m ax im um 30 (762) 36–42 (914–1066) 48–60 (1219–1524) 30 (762) 17 (4 31 ) 8 (2 03 ) 27 (6 85 ) Accessible seating at tables 59 FUNCTIONAL DIMENSIONS Kitchen Layouts Countertop configurations 68 –7 2 ( 17 27 –1 82 8) 16 (406) 19 (483) maximum 18 (4 57 ) 42–48 (1066–1219) Varies 18–24 (457–609) Varies 12 (305) 14 (355)9 (228) Co rn er Co rn er 18–24 (457–609) 30 (762) 40 (1016) 48–70 (1219–1778) 18 (457) 48–64 (1219–1625) 24–30 (609–762) 36 –4 2 ( 91 4– 10 66 ) 24 (6 09 ) 24 (6 09 ) 36 (9 14 ) 32 –3 6 ( 81 2– 91 4) 3– 6 ( 76 –1 52 ) 3 (76) 28 –3 6 ( 71 1– 91 4) 44 (1 11 8) m ax im um3 0 ( 76 2) 29 (737) 48 (1219) Co rn er 15 (381) Accessible reach at counters 60 FUNCTIONAL DIMENSIONS Workstations Workspaces are changing rapidly, with new requirements. Some of the new functions in creative workspaces include: • Spaces where people can play • Spaces where people can come together informally • Spaces where people can find a private space when they need it Good acoustics can make spaces more versatile and able to accommodate more people. Creative spaces are never about money first; rather they are about what can be done for clients that is creative and unique. The space can allow people to work at an individual scale, but also as part of daily operating units, and of a larger community. Offices increasingly are being designed with a kitchen, café, or lounge at the center to facilitate collaboration and mobility. These spaces are often designed with strategies from the hospitality industry, and can offer comfortable sofas, overstuffed chairs, banquette seating, or booths, as well as bar-height countertops or communal tables. A rising demand is occurring for amenities like green space, open stairwells, and lactation rooms. Office layouts 60–72 (1524–1829) 48 –6 0 ( 12 19 –1 52 4) 18–22 (457–559) 30 –3 6 (7 62 –9 14 ) 16 –2 2 30 –3 6 ( 76 2– 91 4) 34–36 (863–914) 60–96 (1524–2438) 48–60 (1219–1524)30–42 (762–1066) 34–42 (863–1066) 18–24 (457–609) 64–72 (1626–1829) 34–36 (863–914) 30–36 (762–914) 50 –5 8 ( 12 70 –1 47 3) 15 –1 8 (38 1– 45 7) 26 –3 0 (6 60 –7 62 ) 15–18 (381–457) 29 (7 36 ) (4 06 –5 59 ) 18–22 (457–559) 61 FUNCTIONAL DIMENSIONS Bathing 60 –6 6 ( 15 24 –1 67 6) 38 (812) 18 (457) 42 (1066) 20–36 (508–914) 24 –3 6 (60 9– 91 4) 18 (4 57 ) 12 (305) Wa lls 19–24 (482–609) 28–48 (711–1219) WCTub Lavatory 12 (305) 19–24 (482–609) 28–48 (711–1219) 32 –3 6 (8 12 –9 14 ) 40 –4 8 ( 10 16 –1 21 9) 72 –7 5 ( 18 29 –1 90 5) 36 (9 14 ) m ini mu m 59 (1 49 9) m ini mu m 18 (457) 60 (1524) minimum Accessible toilet stall 27 (6 86 ) m ini mu m 29 (7 37 ) m ini mu m 34 (8 64 ) m ax im um 9 ( 22 9) m in. 11 (279) minimum Accessible lavatory 17 (432) minimum 48 (1219) minimum 30 (7 62 ) m ini mu m Clear floor space 19 (483) maximum Accessible lavatory Accessible tub 30 (7 62 ) mi nim um 15 (381) minimum 93 (2362) minimum Shower spray unit with a hose at least 60" (1524 mm) long that can be used both as a fixed shower head and as a hand-held shower 62 FUNCTIONAL DIMENSIONS Sleeping Heights King Queen Double 75 (1905) 39 (9 90 ) Single 80 (2032) 84 (2134) 54 (1 37 1) 60 (1 52 4) 76 (1 93 0) Varies24–40 (609–1016) 2 ( 51 ) 30–36 (762–914) 24–28 (609–711) 68 –7 2 ( 17 27 –1 82 8) 60 –6 8 ( 16 24 –1 72 8) 58 –6 6 ( 14 73 –1 67 6) 84 (2 13 4) for pa ss ag e u nd er 40–48 (1016–1219) to wall or closet 16 –2 4 ( 40 6– 60 9) 40–48 (1016–1219) to bed 89 (2261) Extended reach 84 (2134) Institutional door height 80 (2032) Residential door height 75 (1905) Shower head 70–92 (1778–2337) Extended reach 54–71 (1372–1803) Focus point of view 58 (1473) Thermostat 55 (1397) See over walls 48 (1219) Wall switch plate 45 (1143) Door push bar 42 (1067) Handrail 42–45 (1067–1143) Bar height 36 (914) Countertop; doorknob 31 (787) Lavatory rim 29 (736) Desk height 17 (431) Seat height 14 (355) Coffee table 4–7 (102–178) Stair riser 3 (76) Minimum toe clearance 63 PROGRAMMING Today’s workers, including both knowledge workers and digital natives, are looking for authentic experiences at work that feel like a natural part of their lifestyle, their interests, and their life goals—the essence of an authentic workplace, the vital characteristic of which is a combination of space typologies, with space redistributed for different environments, experiences, and postures. Today’s workspaces must support all work styles and lifestyles, offering a sense of having a choice in how, when, and where a person does his or her best work. This diversity also promotes a sense of community and collaboration, sparks imagination and creativity, and offers a focus on employee health and happiness. The programming process begins with trying to understand what is known, then to understand that everything will evolve and change, even in just a few years. Building in efficiencies, economies, and sustainability early allows a project to grow. There are multiple methods to follow for programming a variety of types of buildings. One process—the functional programming process—is defined in the Facility Guidelines Institute’s (FGI) guidelines for hospitals, outpatient, and residential long-term care settings. It begins by gathering management and administration, along with all other disciplines together to discuss the goals of the project. Design professionals must understand an organization’s mission and core values in order to evaluate options. Sustainability goals are evaluated through the organization’s mission and core values. The selection of a building rating system such as LEED or Green Globes combines building performance with patient/resident and staff outcomes and provides for continual improvement. Universal (also called inclusive) design needs to be incorporated into a building’s program from the beginning. The costs for upgrading an existing building are affected by space and structural constraints, working during off- hours to limit the impact on active spaces, modifications that disturb existing finishes and expose existing hazardous material such as lead paint and asbestos, and the need to update the building to current code requirements. Both natural and manmade disasters have made resilience a concern for design professionals and others including regulators, government agencies, and liability insurance carriers. Understanding potential climate change impacts on a site should be considered from the beginning. Research into the current emphasis on individual devices that learn personal patterns of behavior may be somewhat misguided. Alternatively, increased quality and discipline around collaboration may pay huge dividends in transforming the way we work. Basic Principles for Achieving Quality OPR Define requirements Owner’s Project Requirements Emphasize prevention over detection. Measure conformance or nonconformance. En erg y Feedback Time Continuous improvement 64 PROGRAMMING USER REQUIREMENTS [ ] Identify users. • Individuals • User groups • User characteristics • Working parents • Age groups: older users may be more active than in past • Digital natives and their need for fast production processes • Circadian rhythms [ ] Identify needs. • Specific individual needs and abilities • Group needs and abilities • Universal design [ ] Establish territorial requirements. • Personal space • Privacy • Interaction • Digital communications • Access • Security • Blurring boundaries between interior and exterior spaces [ ] Determine preferences. • Favored objects • Favorite colors • Special places • Special interests [ ] Research code requirements. • Prevailing U.S. building energy codes: 1. International Energy Conservation Code (IECC): by International Code Council 2. Standard 90.1: by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): fire safety codes, Life Safety Code • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): electrical code standards [ ] Research environmental concerns. • Energy efficiency • Daylight, views, and fresh air • Reduce, reuse, recycle • Water conservation • Sustainable materials and manufacturing processes • Non-toxic materials • Decreased waste A prime criterion for judging the success of an interior design is whether or not it is functional. Function is the most fundamental level of design. We design to improve the functioning of interior spaces and make the tasks and activities performed within them more convenient, comfortable, and pleasurable. The proper functioning of a design is, of course, directly related to the purposes of those who inhabit and use it, as well as to their physical dimensions and abilities. To understand, and ultimately to fulfill, the function and purpose of an interior space, it is necessary for the designer to carefully analyze the user and activity requirements for that space. The following outline can help the designer program these requirements, translate these needs into forms and patterns, and integrate them into the spatial context. 65 PROGRAMMING ACTIVITY REQUIREMENTS [ ] Identify primary and secondary activities. • Name and function of primary activity • Names and functions of secondary or related activities [ ] Analyze nature of the activities. • Active or passive • Noisy or quiet • Public, small group, or private • Compatibility of activities if space is to be used for more than one activity • Frequency of use • Times of day or night use [ ] Determine requirements. • Privacy and enclosure • Access • Accessibility • Communication • Flexibility • Light • Acoustic quality • Security • Maintenance and durability FURNISHING REQUIREMENTS [ ] Determine furnishings and equipment for each activity. Number, type, and style of: • Seating • Tables • Work surfaces • Storage and display units • Accessories [ ] Identify other special equipment required. • Lighting • Electrical • Mechanical • Plumbing • Data and communications • Security • Fire safety • Acoustical [ ] Establish quality requirements of furnishings. • Comfort • Safety • Variety • Flexibility • Style • Durability and maintenance • Sustainability [ ] Develop possible arrangements. • Functional groupings • Tailored arrangements • Flexible arrangements Primary activities Secondary activities Support services 66 PROGRAMMING SPACE ANALYSIS [ ] Document existing or proposed space. • Measure and draw base plans, sections, and interior elevations. • Photograph existing space. • Laser measure space if applicable. [ ] Analyze space. • Orientation and site conditions of space • Form, scale, and proportion of space • Doorway locations, points of access, and the circulation paths they suggest • Windows and the light, views, and ventilation they afford • Wall, floor, and ceiling materials • Significant architectural details • Location of plumbing, electrical, and mechanical fixtures and outlets • Possible architectural modifications • Elements for possible reuse, including finishes and furnishings DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS [ ] Determine required dimensions for space and furniture groupings. • Each functional grouping of furniture • Access to and movement within and between activity areas • Number of people served • Appropriate social distances and interaction Space Planning The form of a building’s structure and enclosure affects the character of the spaces within. Space planning involves the efficient and productive use of these spaces, fitting living patterns to the architectural patterns of the space. The term “space planning” is often used to refer to the specific task of planning and designing large-scale spaces for commercial and retail businesses. In this narrow sense, space planners program client needs, study user activities, and analyze spatial requirements. The results of such planning are then used in the architectural design of new construction or for negotiating the leasing of existing commercial spaces. Communication Movement Adjacencies Furniture requirements and arrangements 67 PROGRAMMING In a broader sense, all interior designers are involved in the planning and layout of interior spaces, whether small or large, residential or commercial. Once a design program has been outlined and developed from an analysis of the client’s or users’ needs, the design task is to allocate the available or desired interior spaces properly for the various required activities. Area requirements can be estimated from an analysis of the number of people served, the furnishings and equipment they require, and the nature of the activity that will go on in each space. These area requirements can then be translated into rough blocks of space and related to each other and to the architectural context in a functional and aesthetic manner. Space utilization Analysis of User Requirements + Existing or Proposed Spaces…Integration Dimensions Proportions Shape and significant features 68 PROGRAMMING DESIRED RELATIONSHIPS [ ] Determine desired relationships between: • Related activity areas • Activity areas and space for movement • Room and adjacent spaces • Room and the outside [ ] Determine desired zoning of activities. • Organization of activities into groups or sets according to compatibility and use DESIRED QUALITIES [ ] Determine appropriate spatial qualities compatible with client’s or users’ needs or wishes. • Feeling, mood, or atmosphere • Image and style • Degree of spatial enclosure • Comfort and security • Quality of light • Focus and orientation of space • Color and tone • Textures • Acoustical environment • Thermal environment • Flexibility and projected length of use • Encouragment of physical movement 69 ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS Whether collaborating on the design of a new building or planning the remodeling of an existing structure, the interior designer strives for a