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Very much still the key text for ‘all’ education students and researchers. Cohen et al. continue to update Research Methods in Education, with new theoretical, ethical, virtual and mixed methods information. It’s worth noting the impressive web page and links to materials for all chapters which is still the benchmark when looking at the competition for books in this area of social and education research. Dr Richard Race, Senior Lecturer in Education, Roehampton University, UK A clear enhancement on the already well-established text. The new edition addresses an important need to explain research design and question setting in more detail, helping guide the newcomer through the research process from inception through analysis to reporting. David Lundie, Associate Professor of Education, University of St Mark & St John, UK Research Methods in Education is a unique book for everybody who has to undertake educational research projects. The book gives an in depth understanding of quantitative and qualitative research designs and offers a practical guide for data collection and data analysis. It is an essential ‘friend’ for teachers and students from various disciplines who are not familiar with social science research. Dr Ellen P. W. A. Jansen, Associate Professor, Teacher Education, University of Groningen, The Netherlands Research Methods in Education continues to offer an excellent route map, a well-structured and inspiring travel guide, for students engaging in research. It works across levels, and while it provides clarity for the beginning researcher there is plenty here to aid the seasoned researcher with an open mind to new approaches and emerging practices. A superb text that provides guidance for my own research as well as for students and partners in research projects. Peter Shukie, Lecturer in Education Studies and Academic Lead in Digital Innovation, University Centre at Blackburn College, UK Research Methods in Education is, besides being my personal favorite research methods book, a deep as ; well as a broad handbook useful both for undergraduate teacher education students as well as researchers and PhD students within educational sciences. In this new edition, new chapters are added emphasising both quantitative and qualitative methods in combination with thought-through discussions about how to mix them. The book can be used when planning a project and then throughout the whole research process and is therefore a complete methods book. Karolina Broman, Senior Lecturer in Chemistry Education, Umeå University, Sweden Comprehensive, well written and relevant: the eighth edition of Research Methods in Education offers the background for methods courses at different levels. The new edition keeps the strong focus on education studies. Excellent extensions will make the book an even more popular basis for classes on both qualitative and quantitative methods. Felix Weiss, Assistant Professor for Sociology of Education, Aarhus University, Denmark Research Methods in Education, Eighth Edition is an up-to-date, one-stop shop, taking education research students from conceptualization to presentation. With this book on your library shelf, you are good to go. Dr Fiona McGarry, Lecturer in Research Methods, University of Dundee, UK The eighth edition of Research Methods in Education contains a wealth of up-to-the-minute information and guidance on educational research which will be of immense value to researchers at all stages of their careers and across the education domain from early years settings to higher education. As research and education move into increasingly fluid and complex dimensions, Research Methods in Education will support students, researchers and practitioners in charting a course through these changing waters as they seek to create new knowledge about effective teaching and deepen our understanding of how learners learn. Julia Flutter, A Director of the Cambridge Primary Review Trust, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, UK As a doctoral supervisor I know that my students routinely return to Research Methods in Education as they develop their own research projects. This text has always been a mainstay on our reading lists but this new edition now features additional research topics and new perspectives on a wider range of research methods. As with previous editions this book is clearly organised and well written and appeals to a wide audience of experienced and novice researchers alike. Dr Val Poultney, Associate Professor, University of Derby, UK Research Methods in Education This thoroughly updated and extended eighth edition of the long-running bestseller Research Methods in Education covers the whole range of methods employed by educational research at all stages. Its five main parts cover: the context of educational research; research design; methodologies for educational research; methods of data collection; and data analysis and reporting. It continues to be the go-to text for students, academics and researchers who are undertaking, understanding and using educational research, and has been translated into several languages. It offers plentiful and rich practical advice, underpinned by clear theoretical foundations, research evidence and up-to-date references, and it raises key issues and questions for researchers planning, conducting, reporting and evaluating research. This edition contains new chapters on: OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO Mixed methods research The role of theory in educational research Ethics in Internet research Research questions and hypotheses Internet surveys Virtual worlds, social network software and netography in educational research Using secondary data in educational research Statistical significance, effect size and statistical power Beyond mixed methods: using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to integrate cross‑case and within-case analyses. Research Methods in Education is essential reading for both the professional researcher and anyone involved in educational and social research. The book is supported by a wealth of online materials, including PowerPoint slides, useful weblinks, practice data sets, downloadable tables and figures from the book, and a virtual, interactive, self-paced training programme in research methods. These resources can be found at: www.routledge.com/cw/ cohen. Louis Cohen is Emeritus Professor of Education at Loughborough University, UK. Lawrence Manion was Principal Lecturer in Music at Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. Keith Morrison is Professor and Advisor for Institutional Development at Macau University of Science and Technology, China. Research Methods in Education Eighth edition Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison Eighth edition published 2018 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN and by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2018 Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison; individual chapters, Richard Bell, Barry Cooper, Judith Glaesser, Jane Martin, Stewart Martin, Carmel O’Sullivan and Harsh Suri The right of Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison to be identified as authors, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Seventh edition published by Routledge 2011. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Cohen, Louis, 1928– author. | Manion, Lawrence, author. | Morrison, Keith (Keith R. B.) author. Title: Research methods in education / Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison. Description: Eighth edition. | New York: Routledge, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017015256| ISBN 9781138209862 (hardback) | ISBN 9781138209886 (paperback) | ISBN 9781315456539 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Education–Research–Great Britain. Classification: LCC LB1028.C572 2018 | DDC 370.72–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017015256 ISBN: 978-1-138-20986-2 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-20988-6 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-45653-9 (ebk) Typeset in Times New Roman by Wearset Ltd, Boldon, Tyne and Wear Visit the companion website: www.routledge.com/cw/cohen Contents List of figures List of tables List of boxes List of contributors Preface to the eighth edition Acknowledgements xiv xvi xix xxi xxii xxv 2 Mixed methods research 2.1 Introduction 31 2.2 What is mixed methods research? 32 2.3 Why use mixed methods research? 33 2.4 The foundations of mixed methods research 34 2.5 Working with mixed methods approaches 38 2.6 Stages in mixed methods research 48 2.7 Conclusion 48 3 Critical educational research 51 3.1 Critical theory and critical educational research 51 3.2 Criticisms of approaches from critical theory 54 3.3 Participatory research and critical theory 55 3.4 Feminist research 58 3.5 A note on post-colonial theory and queer theory 63 3.6 Value-neutrality in educational research 63 3.7 A summary of three major paradigms 65 4 Theory in educational research 68 4.1 What is theory? 68 4.2 Why have theory? 71 4.3 What makes a theory interesting? 71 4.4 Types of theory 72 4.5 Where does theory come from? 76 4.6 Questions about theory for researchers 77 4.7 Conclusion 77 5 Evaluation and research 79 5.1 Similarities and differences between research and evaluation 79 5.2 Evaluation research and policy making 82 5.3 Research, evaluation, politics and policy making 83 PART 1 The context of educational research 1 1 The nature of enquiry: setting the field 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 The search for understanding 3 1.3 Conceptions of social reality 5 1.4 Paradigms 8 1.5 Positivism 10 1.6 The assumptions and nature of science 10 1.7 The tools of science 12 1.8 The scientific method 13 1.9 Criticisms of positivism and the scientific method 14 1.10 Post-positivism 16 1.11 Alternatives to positivistic and post-positivist social science: naturalistic and interpretive approaches 17 1.12 A question of terminology: the normative and interpretive paradigms 19 1.13 Phenomenology, ethnomethodology, symbolic interactionism and constructionism 20 1.14 Criticisms of the naturalistic and interpretive approaches 23 1.15 Postmodernism and post-structuralist perspectives 24 1.16 Subjectivity and objectivity in educational research 25 1.17 The paradigm of complexity theory 27 1.18 Conclusion 29 31 vii contents 6 The search for causation 87 6.1 Introduction 87 6.2 Causes and conditions 87 6.3 Causal inference and probabilistic causation 88 6.4 Causation, explanation, prediction and correlation 92 6.5 Causal over-determination 94 6.6 The timing and scope of the cause and the effect 95 6.7 Causal direction, directness and indirectness 96 6.8 Establishing causation 96 6.9 The role of action narratives in causation 98 6.10 Researching causes and effects 99 6.11 Researching the effects of causes 101 6.12 Researching the causes of effects 103 6.13 Conclusion 107 PART 2 Research design 7 viii 109 The ethics of educational and social research 111 7.1 Introduction 111 7.2 Ethical principles and the nature of ethics in educational research 112 7.3 Sponsored research 114 7.4 Regulatory contexts of ethics 115 7.5 Choice of research topic and research design 120 7.6 Informed consent 122 7.7 Non-maleficence, beneficence and human dignity 127 7.8 Privacy 128 7.9 Anonymity 129 7.10 Confidentiality 130 7.11 Against privacy, confidentiality and anonymity 130 7.12 Deception 132 7.13 Gaining access and acceptance into the research setting 134 7.14 Power and position 136 7.15 Reciprocity 137 7.16 Ethics in data analysis 137 7.17 Ethics in reporting and dissemination 139 7.18 Responsibilities to sponsors, authors and the research community 141 7.19 Conclusion 141 8 Ethics in Internet research 144 8.1 What is Internet research? 144 8.2 What are key ethical issues in Internet research? 144 8.3 Informed consent 145 8.4 Public and private matters 146 8.5 Confidentiality and anonymity 148 8.6 Ethical codes for Internet research 149 8.7 Conclusion 152 9 Choosing a research project 9.1 Introduction 153 9.2 What gives rise to the research project? 153 9.3 The importance of the research 156 9.4 The purposes of the research 157 9.5 Ensuring that the research can be conducted 158 9.6 Considering research questions 160 9.7 The literature search and review 161 9.8 Summary of key issues in choosing a research topic or project 162 153 10 Research questions 165 10.1 Why have research questions? 165 10.2 Where do research questions come from? 165 10.3 What kinds of research question are there? 166 10.4 Devising your research question(s) 167 10.5 Making your research question answerable 169 10.6 How many research questions should I have? 172 10.7 A final thought 172 11 Research design and planning 173 11.1 Introduction 173 11.2 Approaching research planning 174 11.3 Research design and methodology 175 11.4 From design to operational planning 177 11.5 A framework for planning research 177 11.6 Conducting and reporting a literature review 181 11.7 Searching for literature on the Internet 183 11.8 How to operationalize research questions 185 11.9 Distinguishing methods from methodologies 186 11.10 Data analysis 186 11.11 Presenting and reporting the results 186 11.12 A planning matrix for research 188 contents 11.13 Managing the planning of research 194 11.14 A worked example 196 11.15 Ensuring quality in the planning of research 201 12 Sampling 202 12.1 Introduction 202 12.2 The sample size 203 12.3 Sampling error 209 12.4 Statistical power and sample size 211 12.5 The representativeness of the sample 212 12.6 The access to the sample 213 12.7 The sampling strategy to be used 214 12.8 Probability samples 214 12.9 Non-probability samples 217 12.10 Sampling in qualitative research 223 12.11 Sampling in mixed methods research 224 12.12 Planning a sampling strategy 225 12.13 Conclusion 226 13 Sensitive educational research 228 13.1 Introduction 228 13.2 What is sensitive research? 228 13.3 Sampling and access 230 13.4 Ethical issues in sensitive research 233 13.5 Effects of sensitive research on the researcher 236 13.6 Researching powerful people 237 13.7 Researching powerless and vulnerable people 240 13.8 Asking questions 242 13.9 Conclusion 243 14 Validity and reliability 245 14.1 Defining validity 245 14.2 Validity in quantitative research 246 14.3 Validity in qualitative research 247 14.4 Validity in mixed methods research 250 14.5 Types of validity 252 14.6 Triangulation 265 14.7 Ensuring validity 267 14.8 Reliability 268 14.9 Reliability in quantitative research 268 14.10 Reliability in qualitative research 270 14.11 Validity and reliability in interviews 271 14.12 Validity and reliability in experiments 276 14.13 Validity and reliability in questionnaires 277 14.14 Validity and reliability in observations 278 14.15 Validity and reliability in tests 279 14.16 Validity and reliability in life histories 283 14.17 Validity and reliability in case studies 284 PART 3 Methodologies for educational research 285 15 Qualitative, naturalistic and ethnographic research 287 15.1 Foundations of qualitative, naturalistic and ethnographic inquiry 288 15.2 Naturalistic research 292 15.3 Ethnographic research 292 15.4 Critical ethnography 294 15.5 Autoethnography 297 15.6 Virtual ethnography 299 15.7 Phenomenological research 300 15.8 Planning qualitative, naturalistic and ethnographic research 301 15.9 Reflexivity 302 15.10 Doing qualitative research 303 15.11 Some challenges in qualitative, ethnographic and naturalistic approaches 320 16 Historical and documentary research 323 JANE MARTIN 16.1 Introduction 323 16.2 Some preliminary considerations: theory and method 323 16.3 The requirements and process of documentary analysis 325 16.4 Some problems surrounding the use of documentary sources 325 16.5 The voice of the past: whose account counts? 326 16.6 A worked example: a biographical approach to the history of education 328 16.7 Conclusion 332 17 Surveys, longitudinal, cross-sectional and trend studies 334 17.1 Introduction 334 17.2 What is a survey? 334 17.3 Advantages of surveys 334 17.4 Some preliminary considerations 336 17.5 Planning and designing a survey 337 17.6 Survey questions 340 17.7 Low response, non-response and missing data 341 17.8 Survey sampling 345 17.9 Longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys 347 17.10 Strengths and weaknesses of longitudinal, cohort and cross-sectional studies 349 ix contents 17.11 Postal, interview and telephone surveys 352 17.12 Comparing methods of data collection in surveys 357 18 Internet surveys 361 18.1 Introduction 361 18.2 Advantages of Internet surveys 361 18.3 Disadvantages of Internet surveys 362 18.4 Constructing Internet-based surveys 363 18.5 Ethical issues in Internet-based surveys 367 18.6 Sampling in Internet-based surveys 372 18.7 Improving response rates in Internet surveys 372 18.8 Technological advances 374 19 Case studies 375 19.1 What is a case study? 375 19.2 Types of case study 377 19.3 Advantages and disadvantages of case study 378 19.4 Generalization in case study 380 19.5 Reliability and validity in case studies 381 19.6 Planning a case study 382 19.7 Case study design and methodology 384 19.8 Sampling in case studies 386 19.9 Data in case studies 387 19.10 Writing up a case study 388 19.11 What makes a good case study researcher? 389 19.12 Conclusion 390 20 Experiments 391 20.1 Introduction 391 20.2 Randomized controlled trials 391 20.3 Designs in educational experiments 401 20.4 True experimental designs 402 20.5 Quasi-experimental designs 406 20.6 Single-case ABAB design 408 20.7 Procedures in conducting experimental research 409 20.8 Threats to internal and external validity in experiments 411 20.9 The timing of the pre-test and the post- test 412 20.10 The design experiment 413 20.11 Internet-based experiments 415 20.12 Ex post facto research 418 20.13 Conclusion 425 x 21 Meta-analysis, systematic reviews and research syntheses 427 HARSH SURI 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 Introduction 427 Meta-analysis 428 Systematic reviews 430 Methodologically inclusive research syntheses 431 21.5 Conclusion 439 22 Action research 440 22.1 Introduction 440 22.2 Defining action research 441 22.3 Principles and characteristics of action research 443 22.4 Participatory action research 444 22.5 Action research as critical praxis 445 22.6 Action research and complexity theory 448 22.7 Procedures for action research 448 22.8 Reporting action research 452 22.9 Reflexivity in action research 453 22.10 Ethical issues in action research 454 22.11 Some practical and theoretical matters 454 22.12 Conclusion 456 23 Virtual worlds, social network software and netography in educational research 457 STEWART MARTIN 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 23.9 23.10 Introduction 457 Key features of virtual worlds 457 Social network software 458 Using virtual worlds and social media in educational research 458 Netography, virtual worlds and social media network software 459 Opportunities for research with virtual worlds, social network software and netography 461 Ethics 463 Guidelines for practice 464 Data 465 Conclusion 467 PART 4 Methods of data collection 469 24 Questionnaires 24.1 Introduction 471 24.2 Ethical issues 471 24.3 Planning the questionnaire 472 471 contents 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 24.9 24.10 24.11 24.12 24.13 24.14 Types of questionnaire items 475 Asking sensitive questions 489 Avoiding pitfalls in question writing 490 Sequencing questions 492 Questionnaires containing few verbal items 493 The layout of the questionnaire 493 Covering letters/sheets and follow-up letters 495 Piloting the questionnaire 496 Practical considerations in questionnaire design 498 Administering questionnaires 501 Processing questionnaire data 504 25 Interviews 506 25.1 Introduction 506 25.2 Conceptions of the interview 507 25.3 Purposes of the interview 508 25.4 Types of interview 508 25.5 Planning and conducting interviews 512 25.6 Group interviewing 527 25.7 Interviewing children 528 25.8 Interviewing minority and marginalized people 531 25.9 Focus groups 532 25.10 Non-directive, focused, problem-centred and in-depth interviews 533 25.11 Telephone interviewing 535 25.12 Online interviewing 538 25.13 Ethical issues in interviewing 540 26 Observation 542 26.1 Introduction 542 26.2 Structured observation 545 26.3 The need to practise structured observation 550 26.4 Analysing data from structured observations 550 26.5 Critical incidents 551 26.6 Naturalistic and participant observation 551 26.7 Data analysis for unstructured observations and videos 555 26.8 Natural and artificial settings for observation 555 26.9 Video observations 556 26.10 Timing and causality with observational data 558 26.11 Ethical considerations in observations 558 26.12 Reliability and validity in observations 560 26.13 Conclusion 562 27 Tests 563 27.1 Introduction 563 27.2 What are we testing? 563 27.3 Parametric and non-parametric tests 565 27.4 Diagnostic tests 565 27.5 Norm-referenced, criterion-referenced and domain-referenced tests 565 27.6 Commercially produced tests and researcher-produced tests 567 27.7 Constructing and validating a test 568 27.8 Software for preparation of a test 583 27.9 Devising a pre-test and post-test 583 27.10 Ethical issues in testing 584 27.11 Computerized adaptive testing 585 28 Using secondary data in educational research 586 28.1 Introduction 586 28.2 Advantages of using secondary data 587 28.3 Challenges in using secondary data 588 28.4 Ethical issues in using secondary data 589 28.5 Examples of secondary data analysis 589 28.6 Working with secondary data 589 28.7 Conclusion 592 29 Personal constructs 593 RICHARD BELL 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 Introduction 593 Strengths of repertory grid technique 594 Working with personal constructs 595 Grid analysis 599 Some examples of the use of the repertory grid in educational research 600 29.6 Competing demands in the use of the repertory grid technique in research 604 29.7 Resources 605 30 Role-play and research 606 CARMEL O’SULLIVAN 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5 Introduction 606 Role-play pedagogy 607 What is role-play? 608 Why use role-play in research? 610 Issues to be aware of when using role- play 612 30.6 Role-play as a research method 616 xi contents 30.7 Role-play as a research method: special features 616 30.8 A note of caution 617 30.9 How does role-play work? 617 30.10 Strategies for successful role-play 618 30.11 Examples of research using role-play 623 30.12 A note on simulations 626 31 Visual media in educational research 628 31.1 Introduction 628 31.2 Who provides the images? 630 31.3 Photo-elicitation 630 31.4 Video and moving images 633 31.5 Artefacts 634 31.6 Ethical practices in visual research 636 PART 5 Data analysis and reporting 641 32 Approaches to qualitative data analysis 643 32.1 Elements of qualitative data analysis 643 32.2 Data analysis, thick description and reflexivity 647 32.3 Ethics in qualitative data analysis 650 32.4 Computer assisted qualitative data analysis (CAQDAS) 650 33 Organizing and presenting qualitative data 657 33.1 Tabulating data 657 33.2 Ten ways of organizing and presenting data analysis 661 33.3 Narrative and biographical approaches to data analysis 664 33.4 Systematic approaches to data analysis 665 33.5 Methodological tools for analysing qualitative data 666 35.2 35.3 35.4 35.5 A conversational analysis 688 Narrative analysis 694 Autobiography 698 Conclusion 700 36 Analysing visual media 36.1 Introduction 702 36.2 Content analysis 704 36.3 Discourse analysis 705 36.4 Grounded theory 706 36.5 Interpreting images 707 36.6 Interpreting an image: a worked example 708 36.7 Analysing moving images 712 36.8 Conclusion 713 702 37 Grounded theory 714 37.1 Introduction 714 37.2 Versions of grounded theory 715 37.3 Stages in generating a grounded theory 717 37.4 The tools of grounded theory 717 37.5 The strength of the grounded theory 721 37.6 Evaluating grounded theory 721 37.7 Preparing to work in grounded theory 722 37.8 Some concerns about grounded theory 722 38 Approaches to quantitative data analysis 725 38.1 Introduction 725 38.2 Scales of data 725 38.3 Parametric and non-parametric data 727 38.4 Descriptive and inferential statistics 727 38.5 Kinds of variables 728 38.6 Hypotheses 730 38.7 One-tailed and two-tailed tests 732 38.8 Confidence intervals 733 38.9 Distributions 733 38.10 Conclusion 737 34 Coding and content analysis 668 34.1 Introduction 668 34.2 Coding 668 34.3 Concerns about coding 673 34.4 What is content analysis? 674 34.5 How does content analysis work? 675 34.6 A worked example of content analysis 680 34.7 Reliability in content analysis 684 39 Statistical significance, effect size and statistical power 739 39.1 Introduction 739 39.2 Statistical significance 739 39.3 Concerns about statistical significance 742 39.4 Hypothesis testing and null hypothesis significance testing 744 39.5 Effect size 745 39.6 Statistical power 749 39.7 Conclusion 752 35 Discourses: conversations, narratives and autobiographies as texts 686 35.1 Discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis 686 40 Descriptive statistics 40.1 Missing data 753 40.2 Frequencies, percentages and crosstabulations 754 xii 753 contents 40.3 Measures of central tendency and dispersal 762 40.4 Taking stock 765 40.5 Correlations and measures of association 765 40.6 Partial correlations 772 40.7 Reliability 774 41 Inferential statistics: difference tests 41.1 Measures of difference between groups 776 41.2 The t-test 777 41.3 Analysis of Variance 781 41.4 The chi-square test 789 41.5 Degrees of freedom 792 41.6 The Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests 794 41.7 The Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests 797 41.8 Conclusion 801 42 Inferential statistics: regression analysis and standardization 42.1 Regression analysis 802 42.2 Simple linear regression 803 42.3 Multiple regression 805 42.4 Standardized scores 814 42.5 Conclusion 817 43 Factor analysis, cluster analysis and structural equation modelling 43.1 Conducting factor analysis 818 43.2 What to look for in factor analysis output 826 43.3 Cluster analysis 828 43.4 A note on structural equation modelling 833 43.5 A note on multilevel modelling 836 776 44 Choosing a statistical test 44.1 Introduction 839 44.2 Sampling issues 839 44.3 The types of data used 841 44.4 Choosing the right statistic 841 44.5 Assumptions of tests 841 45 Beyond mixed methods: using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to integrate cross-case and within-case analyses 839 847 BARRY COOPER and JUDITH GLAESSER 802 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 Introduction 847 Starting from a ‘quantitative’ stance 848 Starting from a ‘qualitative’ stance 850 Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) 850 45.5 QCA: sufficiency 852 45.6 Conclusion 853 Bibliography Index 855 907 818 xiii Figures 1.1 2.1 3.1 3.2 6.1 6.2 6.3 11.1 11.2 11.3 12.1 12.2 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 17.1 17.2 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 22.1 24.1 24.2 25.1 26.1 xiv The subjective-objective dimension Mixed methods research typologies Steps in an ‘ideal’ participatory research approach Positivist, interpretive and critical paradigms in educational research Two unrelated factors caused by a third factor Positive and negative causes on an effect (1) Positive and negative causes on an effect (2) A planning sequence for research Theoretical framework for investigating low morale in an organization Understanding the levels of organizational culture Distribution of sample means showing the spread of a selection of sample means around the population mean Snowball sampling Five stages in critical ethnography Stages in the planning of naturalistic, qualitative and ethnographic research Elements of a qualitative research design Seven steps in qualitative data analysis Stages in planning a survey Types of survey The ‘true’ experiment Interaction effects in an experiment Two groups receiving both conditions (repeated measures) The ABAB design An ABAB design in an educational setting Four types of ex post facto research Two causes and two effects A framework for action research Stages in questionnaire design A flow chart for the planning of a postal questionnaire Methods of administering interviews Continua of observation 6 40 57 67 92 97 100 195 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 32.1 32.2 32.3 34.1 197 36.1 198 36.2 209 222 296 302 303 317 338 349 393 405 406 408 409 420 421 451 472 504 540 545 36.3 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 38.6 38.7 38.8 38.9 39.1 39.2 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 Simple grid layout Completed grid Grid summary measures Grid cluster representation Self-identity plot Spatial representation of elements and constructs Organizing data in NVivo (Version 10) A sample memo on observation in NVivo (Version 10) Annotated NVivo image file (Version 10) NVivo (Version 10) coded text for the code on organizational culture, from several files collated into a single file Picture file for analysing picture data in NVivo (Version 10) An early twentieth century photograph of children in an art lesson Matching the viewer’s field of vision and the shape of the main part of a photograph Test scores of two groups The predictions of a one-tailed test that predicts a higher score The predictions of a one-tailed test that predicts a lower score The predictions of a two-tailed test The normal curve of distribution Skewed distributions How well learners are cared for, guided and supported Staff voluntarily taking on coordination roles Types of kurtosis Balancing alpha, beta and statistical power Setting the alpha, beta and power size Bar chart of distribution of discrete stress levels among teachers (SPSS output) Boxplot of mathematics test scores in four schools (SPSS output) Scatterplot with line of best fit (SPSS output) A line graph of test scores 594 596 600 601 602 603 651 652 653 670 703 708 710 732 732 732 733 734 734 735 735 735 750 751 755 756 757 763 figures 40.5 Distribution around a mean with an outlier 40.6 A platykurtic distribution of scores 40.7 A leptokurtic distribution of scores 40.8 Correlation scatterplots 40.9 A line diagram to indicate curvilinearity 40.10 Visualization of correlation of 0.65 between reading grade and arithmetic grade 41.1 Graphic plots of two sets of scores on a dependent variable 42.1 A scatterplot with the regression line (SPSS output) 42.2 Multiple regression to determine relative weightings 42.3 Normal probability plot for testing normality, linearity and homoscedasticity (SPSS output) 42.4 Scatterplot to check the distributions of the data (SPSS output, with horizontal and vertical lines added) 764 764 764 768 770 771 787 803 806 810 42.5 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 43.7 43.8 44.1 Standardizing scores A scree plot (SPSS output) Three dimensional rotation Cluster analysis using average linkage (SPSS output) Cluster analysis using ‘nearest neighbour’ single linkage (SPSS output) Path analysis modelling with AMOS (AMOS output) Path analysis with calculations added (AMOS output) A structural equation model of homework motivation and worry on homework achievement A structural equation model Choosing statistical tests for parametric and non-parametric data 816 821 822 831 832 834 835 836 837 842 810 xv Tables 1.1 3.1 3.2 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 14.1 14.2 17.1 17.2 xvi Alternative bases for interpreting social reality Habermas’s knowledge-constitutive interests and the nature of research Differing approaches to the study of behaviour Mill’s method of agreement Mill’s method of difference Mill’s method of agreement and difference Mill’s method of concomitant variation Mill’s method of residues Science choices of secondary school males and females Science choices of male and female secondary students with Teacher A or B Further science choices of male and female secondary students with Teacher A or B Purposes and kinds of research Three examples of planning for time frames for data collection in mixed methods research Elements of research designs A matrix for planning research A planning matrix for research Sample size, confidence levels and confidence intervals for random samples Sample sizes for categorical and continuous data Minimum sample sizes at power level 0.80 with two-tailed test Types of sample Comparing validity in quantitative and qualitative research Comparing reliability in quantitative and qualitative research Maximum variation for low response rates in a yes/no question for a 50/50 distribution The characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of longitudinal, cross- sectional, trend analysis and retrospective longitudinal studies 7 53 66 89 90 90 91 91 93 93 94 174 181 187 189 196 206 207 212 227 249 272 343 353 17.3 Advantages and disadvantages of data-collection methods in surveys 18.1 Problems and solutions in Internet-based surveys 19.1 Continua of data collection, types and analysis in case study research 21.1 Research syntheses with different epistemological orientations 24.1 Crosstabulation of responses to two key factors in effective leadership 24.2 A marking scale in a questionnaire 24.3 Potential problems in conducting research 25.1 Summary of relative merits of interview versus questionnaire 25.2 Strengths and weaknesses of different types of interview 25.3 The selection of response mode 26.1 A structured observation schedule 26.2 Structured, unstructured, natural and artificial settings for observation 27.1 A matrix of test items 27.2 Compiling elements of test items 29.1 Laddering dialogue 30.1 Examples of the use of role-play in the literature 33.1 The effectiveness of English teaching 33.2 The strengths and weaknesses of English language teaching 33.3 Teaching methods 33.4 Student-related factors 34.1 Tabulated data for comparative analysis 38.1 Extreme values in the Shapiro-Wilk test (SPSS output) 38.2 Tests of normality (SPSS output) 38.3 Frequently used Greek letters in statistics 39.1 Type I and Type II errors 39.2 Effect sizes for difference and association 39.3 Mean and standard deviation in an effect size (SPSS output) 39.4 The Levene test for equality of variances (SPSS output) 39.5 Mean and standard deviation in a paired sample test (SPSS output) 358 368 383 433 474 486 488 509 510 517 546 556 571 571 598 624 658 658 659 659 673 737 737 738 744 746 747 748 748 tables 39.6 Difference test for a paired sample (SPSS output) 39.7 Effect size in Analysis of Variance (SPSS output) 40.1 Frequencies and percentages of general stress level of teachers 40.2 Frequencies and percentages for a course evaluation (SPSS output) 40.3 Crosstabulation by totals (SPSS output) 40.4 Crosstabulation by row totals (SPSS output) 40.5 Rating scale of agreement and disagreement 40.6 Satisfaction with a course 40.7 Combined categories of rating scales 40.8 Representing combined categories of rating scales 40.9 A bivariate crosstabulation (SPSS output) 40.10 A bivariate analysis of parents’ views on public examinations 40.11 A trivariate crosstabulation 40.12 Distribution of test scores (SPSS output) 40.13 Common measures of relationship 40.14 Percentage of public library members by their social class origin 40.15 A Pearson product moment correlation (SPSS output) 40.16 Correlation between score on mathematics test and how easy the students find mathematics (SPSS output) 40.17 Correlation between score on mathematics test and how easy the students find mathematics, controlling for students’ interest in mathematics (SPSS output) 40.18 Correlation between score on mathematics test and how easy the students find mathematics, controlling for students’ liking of mathematics (SPSS output) 40.19 Identifying unreliable items in Cronbach’s alpha (SPSS output) 41.1 Means and standard deviations for a t-test (SPSS output) 41.2 The Levene test for equality of variances in a t-test (SPSS output) 41.3 A t-test for leaders and teachers (SPSS output) 41.4 The Levene test for equality of variances between leaders and teachers (SPSS output) 41.5 Means and standard deviations in a paired samples t-test (SPSS output) 41.6 The paired samples t-test (SPSS output) 41.7 Descriptive statistics for Analysis of Variance (SPSS output) 748 748 755 757 758 759 759 760 760 760 761 761 761 762 766 767 769 773 773 773 775 778 778 779 779 780 780 782 41.8 SPSS output for one-way Analysis of Variance (SPSS output) 41.9 The Tukey test (SPSS output) 41.10 Homogeneous groupings in the Tukey test (SPSS output) 41.11 Means and standard deviations in a two-way Analysis of Variance (SPSS output) 41.12 The Levene test of equality of variances in a two-way analysis of variance (SPSS output) 41.13 Between-subject effects in two-way Analysis of Variance (SPSS output) 41.14 A 2 × 3 contingency table for chi-square 41.15 A 2 × 5 contingency table for chi-square 41.16 A crosstabulation for a Mann-Whitney U test (SPSS output) 41.17 SPSS output on rankings for the Mann-Whitney U test (SPSS output) 41.18 The Mann-Whitney U value and significance level (SPSS output) 41.19 Frequencies and percentages of variable one in a Wilcoxon test (SPSS output) 41.20 Frequencies and percentages of variable two in a Wilcoxon test (SPSS output) 41.21 Ranks and sums of ranks in a Wilcoxon test (SPSS output) 41.22 Significance level in a Wilcoxon test (SPSS output) 41.23 Crosstabulation for the Kruskal-Wallis test (SPSS output) 41.24 Rankings for the Kruskal-Wallis test (SPSS output) 41.25 Significance levels in a Kruskal-Wallis test (SPSS output) 41.26 Frequencies for variable one in the Friedman test (SPSS output) 41.27 Frequencies for variable two in the Friedman test (SPSS output) 41.28 Frequencies for variable three in the Friedman test (SPSS output) 41.29 Rankings for the Friedman test (SPSS output) 41.30 Significance level in the Friedman test (SPSS output) 42.1 A summary of the R, R square and adjusted R square in regression analysis (SPSS output) 42.2 Significance level in regression analysis (SPSS output) 42.3 The beta coefficient in a regression analysis (SPSS output) 782 783 784 786 786 787 791 791 794 795 795 796 796 796 797 798 798 799 800 800 800 800 801 804 805 805 xvii tables 42.4 A summary of the R, R square and adjusted R square in multiple regression analysis (SPSS output) 42.5 Significance level in multiple regression analysis (SPSS output) 42.6 The beta coefficients in a multiple regression analysis (SPSS output) 42.7 Coefficients table for examining collinearity through Tolerance and the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF ) (SPSS output) 42.8 Checking for outliers (SPSS output) 42.9 Casewise diagnostics (outlier cases) (SPSS output) 42.10 Relative beta weightings of independent variables on teacher stress (SPSS output) 42.11 Altered weightings in beta coefficients (SPSS output) 42.12 Further altered weightings in beta coefficients (SPSS output) 42.13 Extract from area under the normal curve of distribution 43.1 Initial SPSS output for Principal Components Analysis (SPSS output) 43.2 The rotated components matrix in Principal Components Analysis (SPSS output) 43.3 Checking the correlation table for suitability of the data for factorization (SPSS output) xviii 807 807 807 809 811 811 812 813 814 816 821 824 827 43.4 Checking the suitability of the data for factor analysis (SPSS output) 43.5 Checking the variance explained by each item (SPSS output) 43.6 Extraction of two factors (SPSS output) 43.7 Pattern matrix (SPSS output with markings added) 44.1 Identifying statistical tests for an experiment 44.2 Statistical tests to be used with different numbers of groups of samples 44.3 Types of statistical tests for four scales of data 44.4 Statistics available for different types of data 44.5 Assumptions of statistical tests 45.1 Dataset where condition is sufficient but not necessary for the outcome 45.2 Dataset where condition is necessary but not sufficient for the outcome 45.3 Truth table for U = f(HA, HC), using 0.8 threshold for consistency with sufficiency 45.4 Full truth table for U = f(HA, HC, ME, M), using 0.8 threshold for consistency with sufficiency 828 829 830 830 840 840 841 843 845 851 851 852 853 Boxes 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 9.1 11.1 11.2 11.3 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 14.1 17.1 19.1 19.2 19.3 20.1 24.1 The functions of science The hypothesis Stages in the development of a science An eight-stage model of the scientific method A classroom episode The costs/benefits ratio Absolute ethical principles in social research Guidelines for reasonably informed consent Conditions and guarantees proffered for a school-based research project Negotiating access checklist Ethical principles for the guidance of action researchers Ethical principles for educational research (to be agreed before the research commences) Issues to be faced in choosing a piece of research The elements of research design Types of information in a literature review A checklist for planning research Issues of sampling and access in sensitive research Ethical issues in sensitive research Researching powerful people Researching powerless and vulnerable groups Key questions in considering sensitive educational research Principal sources of bias in life history research Advantages of cohort over cross-sectional designs Possible advantages of case study Nisbet and Watt’s (1984) strengths and weaknesses of case study The case study and problems of selection The effects of randomization Example of a covering letter 11 13 13 14 18 113 114 122 135 136 139 142 163 178 183 200 233 235 240 241 244 283 352 379 379 388 394 496 24.2 A second example of a covering letter 24.3 A guide for questionnaire construction 25.1 Attributes of ethnographers as interviewers 25.2 Guidelines for the conduct of interviews 26.1 Non-participant observation: a checklist of design tasks 30.1 A role-playing exercise 30.2 The Stanford Prison experiment 30.3 Managing role-play effectively 30.4 Practical points when setting up a multiple role-play procedure 31.1 Approaching image-based research 31.2 Using the image in the interview 31.3 Data analysis with image-based research 31.4 Ethics and ownership of images 35.1 Transcript of a conversation in an infant classroom 38.1 SPSS command sequence for calculating skewness and kurtosis 38.2 SPSS command sequence for the Shapiro- Wilk and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests of normality 40.1 SPSS command sequence for crosstabulations 40.2 SPSS command sequence for descriptive statistics 40.3 SPSS command sequence for correlations 40.4 SPSS command sequence for partial correlations 40.5 SPSS command sequence for reliability calculation 41.1 SPSS command sequence for independent samples t-test 41.2 SPSS command sequence for t-test for related (paired) samples 41.3 SPSS command sequence for one-way ANOVA with the Tukey test 41.4 SPSS command sequence for repeated measure ANOVA with the Tukey test 41.5 SPSS command sequence for two-way ANOVA 41.6 SPSS command sequence for MANOVA 497 498 507 521 547 609 613 619 622 639 639 640 640 689 736 736 761 765 766 774 775 781 781 785 785 788 788 xix boxes 41.7 SPSS command sequence for univariate chi-square 41.8 SPSS command sequence for bivariate chi-square with crosstabulations 41.9 SPSS command sequence for bivariate chi-square with aggregated data 41.10 SPSS command sequence for the Mann-Whitney statistic 41.11 SPSS command sequence for the Wilcoxon test 41.12 SPSS command sequence for the Kruskal-Wallis statistic 41.13 SPSS command sequence for the Friedman test xx 790 792 793 795 797 799 801 42.1 SPSS command sequence for simple regression 42.2 SPSS command sequence for multiple regression 42.3 SPSS command sequence for logistic regression 42.4 SPSS command sequence for calculating z-scores 43.1 SPSS command sequence for Principal Components Analysis 43.2 SPSS command sequence for hierarchical cluster analysis 806 808 815 817 826 833 Contributors Richard Bell, PhD, Honorary staff member and formerly Associate Professor in the Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, has written Chapter 29: ‘Personal constructs’. Barry Cooper, PhD, Emeritus Professor of Education in the School of Education, University of Durham, has jointly written Chapter 45: ‘Beyond mixed methods: using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to integrate cross-case and within-case analyses’. Judith Glaesser, PhD, Research Associate for Evaluation in the School of Education at Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, has jointly written Chapter 45: ‘Beyond mixed methods: using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to integrate cross-case and within-case analyses’. Jane Martin, PhD, Professor of Social History of Education and Head of the Department of Education and Social Justice, University of Birmingham, has written Chapter 16: ‘Historical and documentary research’, and is currently conducting research on Caroline Benn. Stewart Martin, PhD, Professor of Education at the School of Education and Social Sciences, University of Hull, has written Chapter 23: ‘Virtual worlds, social network software and netography in educational research’. Carmel O’Sullivan, PhD, Associate Professor of Education and Head of School of Education at Trinity College Dublin, has written Chapter 30: ‘Role-play and research’. Harsh Suri, PhD, Senior Lecturer in Learning Futures in the Faculty of Business and Law at Deakin University, has written Chapter 21: ‘Meta-analysis, systematic reviews and research syntheses’. xxi Preface to the eighth edition We are indebted to Routledge for the opportunity to produce an eighth edition of our book Research Methods in Education. The book continues to be received very favourably worldwide; it is the standard text for many courses in research methods and has been translated into several languages. The eighth edition contains much new material, including entirely new chapters on: OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO Paradigms in educational research Mixed methods research The role of theory in educational research Ethics in Internet research Research questions and hypotheses Historical and documentary research Internet surveys Meta-analysis, research syntheses and systematic reviews Virtual worlds, social network software and netography in educational research Using secondary data in educational research Statistical significance, effect size and statistical power Beyond mixed methods: using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to integrate cross-case and within-case analyses. Whilst retaining the best features of the former edition, the reshaping, updating and new additions undertaken for this new volume now mean that the book covers a greater spread of issues than the previous editions, and in greater depth, catching the contemporary issues and debates in the field. In particular, the following new material has been included: Part 1: Post-positivism, post-structuralism and postmodernism OO Constructionism in educational research OO Subjectivity and objectivity in educational research OO Mixed methods research OO Paradigms, ontology and epistemology in mixed methods research OO Working with mixed methods research OO Stages in mixed methods research OO Value-neutrality in educational research OO The role of theory in educational research OO Types and meanings of theory OO Worked examples of causation in educational research OO Part 2: OO Regulatory contexts of ethics OO Sponsored research OO Ethical codes and their limitations OO Ethics and the quality of research OO Power and position xxii Preface to the eighth edition OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO OO Reciprocity Ethics in data analysis, reporting and dissemination Key ethical issues in Internet research Challenges to privacy and informed consent in Internet research Public and private matters in Internet research Ethical codes in Internet research Choosing a research project Deriving and devising research questions Different kinds of research question Organizing research questions The need for warrants in educational research Statistical power in sampling issues Sampling in mixed methods research Effects of sensitive research on the researcher Part 3: OO Autoethnography OO Virtual ethnography OO Reflexivity OO Historical and documentary research OO Survey questions OO Low response, non-response and missing data in surveys OO Constructing Internet-based surveys OO Ethical issues in Internet-based surveys OO Typology of case studies OO Generalization in case study OO What makes a good case study researcher? OO Randomized controlled trials OO The importance of randomization OO Concerns about randomized controlled trials OO The limits of averages in randomized controlled trials OO Null hypothesis significance testing OO Participatory action research OO Ethical issues in action research Part 4: OO Considering the demands on the respondent in questionnaire construction OO Administering questionnaires OO Planning and conducting interviews OO Prompts and probes in interviews OO Interviewing children OO Group interviewing OO Telephone interviewing OO Online interviewing OO Key issues in observations OO Video observations OO Using secondary data in educational research OO Sources and types of secondary data OO Advantages of, and challenges in, using secondary data OO Ethical issues in using secondary data OO Examples of secondary data analysis OO Working with secondary data OO Photo-elicitation xxiii Preface to the eighth edition OO OO OO Provision of images in educational research Video and moving images in educational research Ethical practices in visual research Part 5: OO Elements of qualitative data analysis OO Making sense of qualitative data OO Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) OO Examples of CAQDAS OO Reflexivity in CAQDAS OO Strengths and weaknesses of CAQDAS OO Advances in CAQDAS OO Ways of organizing and presenting qualitative data analysis OO Examples of coding qualitative data with software (CAQDAS) OO Concerns about coding OO Content analysis with software (CAQDAS) OO Worked examples of using software in analysing visual data (CAQDAS) OO Challenges in interpreting visual images OO Analysing moving images OO Versions of, stages in and concerns about grounded theory OO Moderator and mediator variables OO Confidence intervals OO Concerns about statistical significance OO Hypothesis testing and null hypothesis significance testing OO Statistical power OO Coping with missing data OO ‘Safety checks’ and assumptions when using statistics (for all the statistics addressed) OO Command sequences for running statistics in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) OO Reporting statistical analysis OO Cluster analysis OO What to look for in factor analysis output OO Additions to guidance charts when choosing statistics OO Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to integrate cross-case and within-case analyses OO Starting from quantitative and qualitative stances in QCA OO Ragin’s QCA OO Worked examples of QCA A signal feature of this edition is the inclusion of very many extensively worked examples and more figures, diagrams and graphics to illustrate and summarize key points clearly. Several of the tables in Part 5 include SPSS and NVivo output, so that readers can check their own SPSS and NVivo analysis against the examples provided. To accompany this volume, a companion website provides a comprehensive range of materials to cover all aspects of research (including summaries of every chapter on PowerPoint slides), exercises and examples, explanatory material and further notes, website references, SPSS data files, QSR NVivo data files, together with further statistics and statistical tables. These are indicated in the book. This book stands out for its practical advice that is securely rooted in theory and up-to-date discussion from a range of sources. We hope that it will continue to constitute the first ‘port of call’ for educational researchers and continue to be the definitive text in its field. xxiv Acknowledgements Our thanks are due to the following publishers and authors for permission to include materials in the text: American Educational Research Association, for words from Strike, K. A., Anderson, M. A., Curren, R., van Geel, T., Pritchard, I. and Robertson, E. (2000) Ethical Standards of the American Educational Research Association 2000. Washington, DC: American Educational Research. American Psychological Association, for words from American Psychological Association (2010) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (sixth edition). Washington, DC: Author. Association of Internet Researchers, for words from Association of Internet Researchers (2012) Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee (Version 2.0). Beamish Museum, UK, for photograph No. 29474. Bloomsbury Publishing, Plc, for words from Hammersley, M. © (2013) What Is Qualitative Research? Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc; Kettley, N. © (2012) Theory Building in Educational Research. Continuum, used by permission of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc; Wellington, J. © (2015) Doing Qualitative Educational Research: A Personal Guide to the Research Process (second edition). Continuum, used by permission of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. For anonymous, third-party interview words reported in Walford, G. © (2001) Doing Qualitative Educational Research: A Personal Guide to the Research Process. Continuum, used by permission of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. British Educational Research Association, for words from British Educational Research Association (2011) Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research. London: British Educational Research Association. British Medical Journal Publishing Group Ltd, for material from Curr, D. (1994) Role play. British Medical Journal, 308 (6930), p. 725. British Psychological Society, for words from British Psychological Society (2013) Ethics Guidelines for Internet-Mediated Research. Leicester, UK: British Psychological Society; British Psychological Society (2014) Code of Human Research Ethics. Leicester, UK: British Psychological Society. British Sociological Association, for words from British Sociological Association (2002) Statement of Ethical Practice. Durham, UK: British Sociological Association. Reproduced with permission from © The British Sociological Association. Brookshire, R. G. and Bartlett, J. E., for material from Bartlett, J. E., II, Kotrlik, J. W. and Higgins, C. C. (2001) Organizational research: determining appropriate sample size in survey research. Information Technology, Learning and Performance Journal, 19 (1), pp. 43–50. Cambridge University Press, for words from Strauss, A. L. (1987) Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Economic and Social Research Council, for words from Economic and Social Research Council (2015) ESRC Framework for Research Ethics. Swindon, UK: Economic and Social Research Council. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, for materials from Cohen, L. and Holliday, M. (1979) Statistics for Education and Physical Education. Harvard Education Publishing Group, for words from Carver, R. P. (1978) The case against statistical significance testing. Harvard Educational Review, 48 (3), pp. 378–99. Higher Education Research and Development and B. Grant (Editor), for words from Hammersley, M. (2012) Troubling theory in case study research. Higher Education Research and Development, 31 (3), pp. 393–405. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, for words from Leshem, S. (2012) The group interview experience as a tool for admission to teacher education. Education Research International, Article ID 876764. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/876764. xxv Acknowledgements Human Kinetics Inc., for words from Sparkes, A. C. (2000) Autoethnography and narratives of self: reflections on criteria in action. Sociology of Sport Journal, 17 (1), pp. 21–43. Jean McNiff and September Books for words from McNiff, J. (2010) Action Research for Professional Development: Concise Advice for New and Experienced Action Researchers. Poole, UK: September Books. John Wiley & Sons, for words from Dyer, C. (1995) Beginning Research in Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell. Labaree, R. V. and University of Southern California, for words from Labaree, R. V. (2013) Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Types of Research Designs. USC Libraries Research Guides. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California. McGraw-Hill, for words from Denscombe, M. (2014) The Good Research Guide (fourth edition). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press. Mosaic Books and PRIA: Society for Participatory Research in Asia, for words from Tandon, R. (ed.) (2005) Participatory Research: Revisiting the Roots. Palgrave Macmillan, for words from Torgerson, C. J. and Torgerson, D. J. (2008) Designing Randomised Trials in Health, Education and the Social Sciences. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Penguin Random House, for excerpts from material from Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates by Erving Goffman. Copyright © 1961 by Erving Goffman. Used by permission of Doubleday, an imprint of Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved. Penguin Random House UK, for material from Goffman, E. (1968) Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Copyright © Erving Goffman, 1961. QSR International Pty, Ltd, for screenshot reproduced with permission of NVivo qualitative data analysis Software; QSR International Pty Ltd. Version 10, 2012. Research Council of Norway, for words from Gorard, S. (2012) Mixed methods research in education: some challenges and problems. In Research Council of Norway (ed.) Mixed Methods in Educational Research: Report on the March Seminar, 2012, pp. 5–13. Available from: www.uv.uio.no/ils/personer/vit/kirstik/ publikasjoner-pdf-filer/klette.-mixed-methods.pdf. xxvi Sage Publications Inc., for material from Patton, M. Q. (1980) Qualitative Evaluation Methods, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage; Lee, R. M. (1993) Doing Research on Sensitive Topics. London: Sage; Denshire, A. (2014) On auto-ethnography. Current Sociology Review, 62 (6), pp. 831–50. Sheffield Hallam University, Institute of Education, for words from Sheffield Hallam University (2016) Can Randomised Controlled Trials Revolutionise Educational Research? Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Institute of Education, Sheffield Hallam University. Available from: www4.shu.ac.uk/research/ceir/randomised-controlledtrials-1. Springer, for Leech, N. L. and Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2009) A typology of mixed methods research designs. Quantity and Quality, 43 (2), pp. 265–75; Lather, P. (1986) Issues of validity in openly ideological research. Interchange, 17 (4), pp. 63–84; Pearce, W. and Raman, S. (2014) The new randomized controlled trials (RCT) movement in public policy: challenges of epistemic governance. Policy Sciences, 47 (4), pp. 387–402. Stanford University Press, for words from Sears, R., Maccoby, E. and Levin, H. (1957) Patterns of Child Rearing. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. Taylor and Francis (www.tandfonline.com), for Anderson, G. and Arsenault, N. (1998) Fundamentals of Educational Research (second edition); Bradley, B. A. and Reinking, D. (2011) Enhancing research and practice in early childhood through formative and design experiments. Early Child Development and Care, 181 (3), pp. 305–19; Burgess, R. (ed.) Issues in Educational Research: Qualitative Methods; Burgess, R. (ed.) (1993) Educational Research and Evaluation for Policy and Practice; Burgess, R. (ed.) (1985) Issues in Educational Research; Cuff, E. G. and Payne, G. (1979) Perspectives in Sociology; Day, C., Pope, M. and Denicola, P. (eds) (1990) Insights into Teachers’ Thinking and Practice; Gorard, S. (2002) Fostering scepticism: the importance of warranting claims. Evaluation and Research in Education, 16 (3), pp. 136–49; Hammersley, M. (2000) Taking Sides in Social Research: Essays on Bias and Partisanship; Hammersley, M. (2015) On ethical principles for social research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18 (4), pp. 433–49; Hammersley, M. and Atkinson, P. (1983) Ethnography: Principles and Practice; Hitchcock, G. and Hughes, D. (1995) Research and the Teacher (second edition); Hong, E., Mason, E., Peng, Y. and Lee, N. (2015) Effects of homework motivation and worry anxiety on homework achievement in Acknowledgements mathematics and English. Educational Research and Evaluation, 21 (7–8), pp. 491–514; Morrison, K. R. B. (2009) Causation in Educational Research; Piggot- Irvine, E., Rowe, W. and Ferkins, L. (2015) Conceptualizing indicator-domains for evaluating action research. Educational Action Research, 23 (4), pp. 545–66; Polkinghorne, D. E. (1995) Narrative configuration in qualitative analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 8 (1) pp. 5–23; Powney, J. and M. Watts (1987) Interviewing in Educational Research; Rex, J. (1974) Approaches to Sociology; Simons, H. and Usher, R. (eds) (2000) Situated Ethics in Educational Research; Walford, G. (ed.) (1994) Researching the Powerful in Education; Walford, G. (2001) Doing Qualitative Educational Research: A Personal Guide to the Research Process; Walford, G. (2012) Researching the powerful in education: a re-assessment of the problems. International Journal for Research and Method in Education, 35 (2), pp. 111–18; Zuber-Skerritt, O. (1996) New Directions in Action Research. University of Chicago Press, for words from Whyte, W. F. (1993) Street Corner Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, for words from Lansing, J. B., Ginsburg, G. P. and Braaten, K. (1961) An Investigation of Response Error. Studies in Consumer Savings, No. 2. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Bureau of Economic and Business Research. Disclaimer: The publishers have made every effort to contact authors/copyright holders of works reprinted in the eighth edition of Research Methods in Education. We would welcome correspondence from those individuals/ companies whom we have been unable to trace. xxvii Part 1 The context of educational research This part introduces readers to different research traditions, with the advice that ‘fitness for purpose’ must be the guiding principle: different research paradigms for different research purposes. A major message in this part is that the nature and foundations of educational research have witnessed a proliferation of paradigms over time. From the earlier days of either quantitative or qualitative research have arisen the several approaches introduced here. This part commences by introducing positivist and scientific contexts of research and some strengths and weaknesses of these for educational research, followed by post-positivist views of research. As an alternative paradigm, the cluster of approaches that can loosely be termed interpretive, naturalistic, phenomenological, interactionist and ethnographic are brought together, and their strengths and weaknesses for educational research are examined. Postmodernist and poststructuralist approaches are also introduced, and these lead into an introduction to complexity theory in educational research. The paradigm of mixed methods research is introduced, and its foundations, strengths, weaknesses, contribution to and practices in educational research are discussed. Critical theory as a paradigm of educational research is discussed, and its implications for the research are indicated in several ways, resonating with curriculum research, participatory research, feminist research, postcolonial research and queer theory. These are concerned not only with understanding a situation or phenomenon but with changing it, often with an explicit political agenda. Critical theory links the conduct of educational research with politics and policy making, and this is reflected in the discussions of research and evaluation, noting how some educational research has become evaluative in nature. This part includes a new chapter on the role of theory in educational research, indicating its several meanings, its origins and roles in educational research, and what makes a theory interesting and useful. It also includes the discussion of causation in educational research and key elements in understanding and working with causation. The term research itself has many meanings. We restrict its usages here to those activities and undertakings aimed at developing a science of behaviour, the word science itself implying both normative and interpretive perspectives. Accordingly, when we speak of social research, we have in mind the systematic and scholarly application of the principles of a science of behaviour to the problems of people within their social contexts, and when we use the term educational research, we likewise have in mind the application of these same principles to the problems of teaching and learning within education and to the clarification of issues having direct or indirect bearing on these concepts. 1 The nature of enquiry CHAPTER 1 Setting the field This large chapter explores the context of educational research. It sets out several foundations on which different kinds of empirical research are constructed: OO OO OO OO OO OO the search for understanding paradigms of educational research scientific and positivistic methodologies naturalistic and interpretive methodologies post-positivism, post-structuralism and postmodernism complexity theory in educational research Educational researchers cannot simply ‘read off ’ the planning and conduct of research as though one were reading a recipe for baking a cake. Nor is the planning and conduct of research the laboratory world or the field study of the natural scientist. Rather, it is to some degree an art, an iterative and often negotiated process and one in which there are typically trade-offs between what one would like to do and what is actually possible. This book is built on that basis: educational research, far from being a mechanistic exercise, is a deliberative, complex, subtle, challenging, thoughtful activity and often a messier process than researchers would like it to be. This book provides some tools for such deliberation and planning, and hopefully some answers, but beyond that it is for the researcher to consider how to approach, plan, conduct, validate and evaluate the research, how to develop and test theory, how to study and investigate educational matters, how to balance competing demands on the research, and so on. There is no one best way to plan and conduct research, just as there is no one single ‘truth’ to be discovered. Life is not that easy, unidimensional or straightforwardly understood, just as there are no simple dichotomies in educational research (e.g. quantitative or qualitative, objective or subjective). Rather, we live in a pluralistic world with many purposes and kinds of research, many realities and lived experiences to catch, many outcomes, theories and explanations, many discoveries to be made, and many considerations and often contradictions or sensitivities to be addressed in the planning and conduct of the research. Whilst arguing against simple foundationalism, this chapter sets out some conceptions of research which researchers may find helpful in characterizing and deliberating about their studies. The chapter considers paradigms and their possible contribution to educational research, positivism, post-positivism, post-structuralism, postmodernism and interpretive approaches. 1.1 Introduction Our analysis takes an important notion from Hitchcock and Hughes (1995, p. 21), who suggest that ontological assumptions (assumptions about the nature of reality and the nature of things) give rise to epistemological assumptions (ways of researching and enquiring into the nature of reality and the nature of things); these, in turn, give rise to methodological considerations; and these, in turn, give rise to issues of instrumentation and data collection. Added to ontology and epistemology is axiology (the values and beliefs that we hold). This view moves us beyond regarding research methods as simply a technical exercise to being concerned with understanding the world; this is informed by how we view our world(s), what we take understanding to be, what we see as the purposes of understanding and what is deemed valuable. 1.2 The search for understanding People have long been concerned to come to grips with their environment and to understand the nature of the phenomena it presents to their senses. The means by which they set out to achieve these ends may be classified into three broad categories: experience, reasoning and research (Mouly, 1978). Far from being independent and mutually exclusive, however, these categories are complementary and overlapping, features most readily in evidence where solutions to complex problems are sought. In our endeavours to come to terms with day-to-day living, we are heavily dependent upon experience and authority. However, as tools for uncovering ultimate truth, they have limitations. The limitations of personal 3 the context of educational research experience in the form of common-sense knowing, for instance, can quickly be exposed when compared with features of the scientific approach to problem solving. Consider, for example, the striking differences in the way in which theories are used. Laypeople base them on haphazard events and use them in a loose and uncritical manner. When they are required to test them, they do so in a selective fashion, often choosing only that evidence which is consistent with their hunches and ignoring that which is counter to them. Scientists, by contrast, construct their theories carefully and systematically. Whatever hypotheses they formulate have to be tested empirically so that their explanations have a firm basis in fact. And there is the concept of control distinguishing the layperson’s and the scientist’s attitude to experience. Laypeople may make little or no attempt to control any extraneous sources of influence when trying to explain an occurrence. Scientists, on the other hand, only too conscious of the multiplicity of causes for a given occurrence, adopt definite techniques and procedures to isolate and test the effect of one or more of the alleged causes. Finally, there is the difference of attitude to the relationships among phenomena. Laypeople’s concerns with such relationships may be loose, unsystematic and uncontrolled; the chance occurrence of two events in close proximity is sufficient reason to predicate a causal link between them. Scientists, however, display a much more serious professional concern with relationships and only as a result of rigorous experimentation, investigation and testing will they postulate a relationship between two phenomena. People attempt to comprehend the world around them by using three types of reasoning: deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning and the combined inductive-deductive approach. Deductive reasoning is based on the syllogism, which was Aristotle’s great contribution to formal logic. In its simplest form the syllogism consists of a major premise based on an a priori or self-evident proposition, a minor premise providing a particular instance, and a conclusion. Thus: All planets orbit the sun; The earth is a planet; Therefore the earth orbits the sun. The assumption underlying the syllogism is that through a sequence of formal steps of logic, from the general to the particular, a valid conclusion can be deduced from a valid premise. Its chief limitation is that it can handle only certain kinds of statement. The syllogism formed the basis of systematic reasoning from the time of its inception until the Renaissance. Thereafter its effectiveness was diminished because it was no longer related to 4 observation and experience and became merely a mental exercise. One of the consequences of this was that empirical evidence as the basis of proof was superseded by authority and the more authorities one could quote, the stronger one’s position became. The history of reasoning was to undergo a dramatic change in the 1600s when Francis Bacon began to lay increasing stress on the observational basis of science. Being critical of the model of deductive reasoning on the grounds that its major premises were often preconceived notions which inevitably bias the conclusions, he proposed in its place the method of inductive reasoning by means of which the study of a number of individual cases would lead to a hypothesis and eventually to a generalization. Mouly (1978) explains it by suggesting that Bacon’s basic premise was that, with sufficient data, even if one does not have a preconceived idea of their significance or meaning, nevertheless important relationships and laws will be discovered by the alert observer. Of course, there are limits to induction as the accumulation of a series of examples does not prove a theory; it only supports it. Just because all the swans that I have ever seen are white, it does not prove a theory that all swans are white – one day I might come across a black swan, and my theory is destroyed. Induction places limits on prediction. Discoveries of associations of regularities and frequent repetitions may have limited predictive value. We are reminded of Bertrand Russell’s (1959) story of the chicken who observed that he was fed each day by the same man, and, because this had happened every day, it would continue to happen, i.e. the chicken had a theory of being fed, but, as Russell remarks, ‘the man who has fed the chicken every day throughout its life at last wrings its neck instead’ (p. 35), indicating the limits of prediction based on observation. Or, to put it more formally, theory is underdetermined by empirical evidence (Phillips and Burbules, 2000, p. 17). Indeed Popper (1980) notes that the essence of science, what makes a science a science, is the inherent falsifiability of the propositions (in contrast to the views of the method of science as being one of verifiability, as held by logical positivists). This is not to discard induction: it is often the starting point for science. Rather, it is to caution against assuming that it ‘proves’ anything. Bacon’s major contribution to science was that he was able to rescue it from the stranglehold of the deductive method whose abuse had brought scientific progress to a standstill. He thus directed the attention of scientists to nature for solutions to people’s problems, demanding empirical evidence for verification. Logic and authority in themselves were no longer regarded as conclusive means of the nature of enquiry: setting the field proof and instead became sources of hypotheses about the world and its phenomena. Bacon’s inductive method was eventually followed by the inductive-deductive approach which combines Aristotelian deduction with Baconian induction. Here the researcher is involved in a back-and-forth process of induction (from observation to hypothesis, from the specific to the general) and deduction (from hypothesis to implications) (Mouly, 1978). Hypotheses are tested rigorously and, if necessary, revised. Although both deduction and induction have their weaknesses, their contributions to the development of science are enormous, for example: (1) the suggestion of hypotheses; (2) the logical development of these hypotheses; and (3) the clarification and interpretation of scientific findings and their synthesis into a conceptual framework. A further means by which we set out to discover truth is research. This has been defined by Kerlinger (1970) as the systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena. Research has three characteristics in particular, which distinguish it from the first means of problem solving identified earlier, namely, experience. First, whereas experience deals with events occurring in a haphazard manner, research is systematic and controlled, basing its operations on the inductive-deductive model outlined above. Second, research is empirical. The scientist turns to experience for validation. As Kerlinger puts it, subjective, personal belief must have a reality check against objective, empirical facts and tests. And third, research is self-correcting. Not only does the scientific method have built-in mechanisms to protect scientists from error as far as is humanly possible, but also their procedures and results are open to public scrutiny by fellow professionals. Incorrect results in time will be found and either revised or discarded (Mouly, 1978). Research is a combination of both experience and reasoning and, as far as the natural sciences are concerned, is to be regarded as the most successful approach to the discovery of truth (Borg, 1963).1 1.3 Conceptions of social reality The views of social science that we have mentioned represent strikingly different ways of looking at social reality and are constructed on correspondingly different ways of interpreting it. We can perhaps most profitably approach these conceptions of the social world by examining the explicit and implicit assumptions underpinning them. Our analysis is based on the work of Burrell and Morgan (1979), who identified four sets of such assumptions. First, there are assumptions of an ontological kind – assumptions which concern the very nature or essence of the social phenomena being investigated. Thus, the authors ask, is social reality external to individuals – imposing itself on their consciousness from without – or is it the product of individual consciousness? Is reality of an objective nature, or the result of individual cognition? Is it a given ‘out there’ in the world, or is it created by one’s own mind? Is there a world which exists independent of the individual and which the researcher can observe, discovering relationships, regularities, causal explanations, and which can be tested empirically and repeatedly (i.e. under similar conditions) (cf. Pring, 2015, p. 64)? These questions spring directly from what philosophy terms the nominalist– realist debate. The former view holds that objects of thought are merely words and that there is no independently accessible thing constituting the meaning of a word. The realist position, however, contends that objects have an independent existence and are not dependent for it on the knower. The fact that I can see a dog is not simply because of my perception or cognition but because a dog exists independent of me. The second set of assumptions identified by Burrell and Morgan are of an epistemological kind. These concern the very bases of knowledge – its nature and forms, how it can be acquired and how communicated to other human beings. How one aligns oneself in this particular debate profoundly affects how one will go about uncovering knowledge of social behaviour. The view that knowledge is hard, objective and tangible will demand of researchers an observer role, together with an allegiance to the methods of natural science; to see knowledge as personal, subjective and unique, however, imposes on researchers an involvement with their subjects and a rejection of the ways of the natural scientist. To subscribe to the former is to be positivist; to the latter, anti-positivist or post-positivist. The third set of assumptions concern human nature and, in particular, the relationship between human beings and their environment. Since the human being is both its subject and object of study, the consequences for social science of assumptions of this kind are far- reaching. Two images of human beings emerge from such assumptions – the one portrays them as responding mechanically and deterministically to their environment, i.e. as products of the environment, controlled like puppets; the other, as initiators of their own actions with free will and creativity, producing their own environments. The difference is between determinism and voluntarism respectively (Burrell and Morgan, 1979), between structure and agency. Human action involves 5 the context of educational research some combination of these two, polarized here for the sake of conceptual clarity. It follows from what we have said so far that the three sets of assumptions identified above have direct implications for the methodological concerns of researchers, since the contrasting ontologies, epistemologies and models of human beings will, in turn, suggest different research methods. Investigators adopting an objectivist (or positivist) approach to the social world and who treat it like the world of natural phenomena as being real and external to the individual will choose from a range of options such as surveys, experiments and the like. Others favouring the more subjectivist (or anti-positivist) approach and who view the social world as being of a much more personal and humanly created kind will select from a comparable range of recent and emerging techniques – accounts, participant observation, interpretive approaches and personal constructs, for example. Where one subscribes to the view which treats the social world like the natural world – as if it were an external and objective reality – then scientific investigation will be directed at analysing the relationships and regularities between selected factors in that world. It will be concerned with identifying and defining elements and discovering ways in which their relationships can be expressed. Hence, methodological issues, of fundamental importance, are thus the concepts themselves, their measurement and the identification of underlying themes in a search for universal laws which explain and govern that which is being observed (Burrell and Morgan, 1979). An approach characterized by procedures and methods designed to discover general laws may be referred to as nomothetic. Here is not the place to debate whether social life is ‘law-like’ (i.e. can be explained by universal laws) in the same way as that mooted in the natural sciences (but see Kincaid, 2004) or whether social life is quintessentially different from the natural sciences such that ‘law-like’ accounts are simply a search for the impossible and untenable. However, if one favours the alternative view of social reality which stresses the importance of the subjective experience of individuals in the creation of the social world, then the search for understanding focuses upon different issues and approaches them in different ways. The principal concern is with an understanding of the way in which individuals and social groups create, modify and interpret the world in which they find themselves. As Burrell and Morgan (1979) observe, emphasis here is placed on explanation and understanding of the unique and the particular individual cases (however defined: see Chapter 19 on case study, in which emphasis is placed on the denotation of what is the case: an individual, a group, a class, an institution etc.) rather than the general and the universal. In its emphasis on the particular and individual case, this approach to understanding individual (however defined) behaviour may be termed idiographic. In this review of Burrell and Morgan’s analysis of the ontological, epistemological, human and methodological assumptions underlying two ways of conceiving social reality, we have laid the foundations for a more extended study of the two contrasting perspectives evident in the practices of researchers investigating human behaviour and, by adoption, educational problems. Figure 1.1 summarizes these assumptions along a subjective/objective dimension. It identifies the four A scheme for analysing assumptions about the nature of social science The subjectivist approach to social science The objectivist approach to social science Nominalism ← Ontology → Realism Anti-positivism ← Epistemology → Positivism Voluntarism ← Human nature → Determinism Idiographic ← Methodology → Nomothetic Figure 1.1 The subjective-objective dimension Source: Burrell and Morgan (1979) 6 the nature of enquiry: setting the field sets of assumptions by using terms we have adopted in the text and by which they are known in the literature of social philosophy. Each of the two perspectives on the study of human behaviour outlined above has profound implications for research in classrooms and schools. The choice of problem, the formulation of questions to be answered, TABLE 1.1 the characterization of students and teachers, methodological concerns, the kinds of data sought and their mode of treatment, all are influenced by the viewpoint held. Some idea of the considerable practical implications of the contrasting views can be gained by examining Table 1.1, which compares them with respect to a number of critical issues within a broadly societal and ALTERNATIVE BASES FOR INTERPRETING SOCIAL REALITY Conceptions of social reality Dimensions of comparison Objectivist Subjectivist Philosophical basis Realism: the world exists and is knowable as it really is. Organizations are real entities with a life of their own. Idealism: the world exists but different people construe it in very different ways. Organizations are invented social reality. The role of social science Discovering the universal laws of society and human conduct within it. Discovering how different people interpret the world in which they live. Basic units of social reality The collectivity: society or organizations. Individuals acting singly or together. Methods of understanding Identifying conditions or relationships which Interpretation of the subjective meanings permit the collectivity to exist. Conceiving which individuals place upon their action. what these conditions and relationships are. Discovering the subjective rules for such action. Theory A rational edifice built by scientists to explain human behaviour. Sets of meanings which people use to make sense of their world and behaviour within it. Research Experimental or quasi-experimental validation of theory. The search for meaningful relationships and the discovery of their consequences for action. Methodology Abstraction of reality, especially through mathematical models and quantitative analysis. The representation of reality for purposes of comparison. Analysis of language and meaning. Society Ordered. Governed by a uniform set of values and made possible only by those values. Conflicted. Governed by the values of people with access to power. Organizations Goal oriented. Independent of people. Instruments of order in society serving both society and the individual. Dependent upon people and their goals. Instruments of power which some people control and can use to attain ends which seem good to them. Organizational pathologies Organizations get out of kilter with social values and individual needs. Given diverse human ends, there is always conflict among people acting to pursue them. Prescription for change Change the structure of the organization to meet social values and individual needs. Find out what values are embodied in organizational action and whose they are. Change the people or change their values if you can. Source: Adapted from Barr Greenfield (1975) 7 the context of educational research organizational framework. Implications of the two perspectives for educational research unfolds in the course of the text. 1.4 Paradigms Educational research has absorbed several competing views of the social sciences – the scientific view and an interpretive view – and several others that we explore in this book, including critical theory and feminist theory. Some views hold that the social sciences are essentially the same as the natural sciences and are therefore concerned with discovering natural and universal laws regulating and determining individual and social behaviour. The interpretive view, however, while sharing the rigour of the natural sciences and the concern of social science to describe and explain human behaviour, emphasizes how people differ from inanimate natural phenomena and, indeed, from each other. These contending views – and also their corresponding reflections in educational research – stem in the first instance from different conceptions of social realities and of individual and social behaviour. We examine these in a little more detail. Since the groundbreaking work of Kuhn (1962), approaches to methodology in research have been informed by discussions of ‘paradigms’ and communities of scholars. A paradigm is a way of looking at or researching phenomena, a world view, a view of what counts as accepted or correct scientific knowledge or way of working, an ‘accepted model or pattern’ (Kuhn, 1962, p. 23), a shared belief system or set of principles, the identity of a research community, a way of pursuing knowledge, consensus on what problems are to be investigated and how to investigate them, typical solutions to problems, and an understanding that is more acceptable than its rivals. A notable example of this is the old paradigm that placed the Earth at the centre of the universe, only to be replaced by the Copernican heliocentric model, as evidence and explanation became more persuasive of the new paradigm. Importantly, one has to note that the old orthodoxy retained its value for generations because it was supported by respected and powerful scientists and, indeed, others (witness the attempts made by the Catholic Church to silence Galileo in his advocacy of the heliocentric model of the universe). Another example is where the Newtonian view of the mechanical universe has been replaced by the Einsteinian view of a relativistic, evolving universe. More recently still, the idea of a value-free, neutral, objective, positivist science has been replaced by a post-positivist, critical realist view of science with its hallmarks of conjecture 8 and refutation (Popper, 1980) and with the ability for falsification being the distinguishing feature of science. Further, social science has recognized the importance of the (subjective) value systems of researchers, phenomenology, subjectivity, the need for reflexivity in research (discussed later in this book), the value of qualitative and mixed methods approaches to research, and the contribution of critical theory and feminist approaches to research methodologies and principles. Paradigms are not simply methodologies (Hammersley, 2013, p. 15); they are ways of looking at the world, different assumptions about what the world is like and how we can understand or know about it. This raises the question of whether paradigms can live together, whether they are compatible or, since they constitute fundamentally different ways of looking at the world, they are incommensurate (which raises questions for mixed methods research – see Chapter 2). At issue here is the significance of regarding approaches to research as underpinned by different paradigms, an important characteristic of which is their incommensurability with each other (i.e. one cannot hold two distinct paradigms simultaneously as there are no common principles, standards or measures). As more knowledge is acquired to challenge an existing paradigm, such that the original paradigm cannot explain a phenomenon as well as the new paradigm, there comes about a ‘scientific revolution’, a paradigm shift, in which the new paradigm replaces the old as the orthodoxy – the ‘normal science’ – of the day. Kuhn’s (1962) notions of paradigms and paradigm shifts link here objects of study and communities of scholars, where the field of knowledge or paradigm is seen to be only as good as the evidence and the respect in which it is held by ‘authorities’. Part 1 sets out several paradigms of educational research and these are introduced in Chapters 1 to 3. Social science research is marked by paradigmatic pluralism and multiple ways of construing paradigms. For example, Pring (2015) contrasts two paradigms (pp. 63–74). The first paradigm espouses the view that there is an objective reality which exists independent of the individual and comprises causally interacting elements which are available for observation; that different sciences (e.g. social, physical) can be used to define that reality once consensus has been reached on what that objective reality is; that the research is replicable and cumulative, i.e. a scientifically rooted body of knowledge can be gathered and checked for correspondence to the world as it is (the correspondence theory of truth) (pp. 63–4). Such a view resonates with Hammersley’s (2013) summary of quantitative research which is characterized by hypothesis testing, numerical the nature of enquiry: setting the field data, ‘procedural objectivity’, generalization, the identification of ‘systematic patterns of association’ and the isolation and control of variables (pp. 10–11). The second paradigm, by contrast, espouses the view that the world consists of ideas, i.e. a social construction, and that researchers are part of the world which they are researching, that meanings are negotiated between participants (including the researcher), that an objective test of truth is replaced by a consensus theory of truth, that ideas of the world do not exist independently of those who hold them (i.e. require a redefinition of ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’), that multiple realities exist and that what is being researched is context-specific (Pring, 2015, pp. 65–6). Such a view accords with Hammersley’s definition of qualitative research as that which uses less structured data, which emphasizes the central place of subjectivity in the research process and which studies ‘a small number of naturally occurring cases in detail’ using verbal rather than statistical analysis (Hammersley, 2013, p. 12). However, Pring’s (2015) point is not simply to set out these two paradigms, but to argue that they constitute a false dualism that should be rejected, as they artificially compel the researcher to make an either/or choice of paradigms and, thereby, misrepresent the world as multiply meaningful and both independent of and part of the researcher, not only a social construction. He argues (p. 69) that, just as an independent physical world must exist in order for researchers to construe it, the same can be said of the social world – there must be independent actors and social worlds in order for apperception and social construction of it to make sense. Pring cautions against adopting a priori either a quantitative or qualitative view of the world as this massively over-simplifies the real world, which is complex and complicated. Rather, how we pursue the research depends on what the research is about, and this recognizes that social constructions vary from social group to social group and humans can be both the object and subject of research (2015, p. 73). Pring is not alone in characterizing different paradigms of educational research. For example, Creswell (2013) notes four ‘philosophical worldviews’ (pp. 7ff.): post-positivism, constructivism, advocacy/participatory and pragmatism. These are discussed in Chapters 2 and 3. Here we note that the advocacy/participatory paradigm concerns the disempowered and marginalized, and it studies oppression and lack of voice; this brings it under the umbrella of critical approaches which we discuss in Chapter 3, including gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, socio-economic status and differentials of power that prop up inequality. Lather (2004) sets out four paradigms: prediction (positivism); understanding (interpretive approaches); emancipatory (critical theoretical approaches); and deconstruction (post-structuralist). We discuss these in Chapters 1 to 3. Lukenchuk (2013) identifies six paradigms which, she notes, are not exhaustive (pp. 66ff.): OO OO OO OO OO OO Empirical-analytic (empiricist; scientific; concerned with prediction and control; quantitative; experimental; correlational; causal; explanatory; probabilistic; fallibilistic; concerned with warrants for knowledge claims; quantitative); Pragmatic (focus on ‘what works’; trial and error; problem-centred; practical; experimental; action oriented; utility oriented; practitioner research; qualitative and quantitative); Interpretive (hermeneutic and existential understanding; meaning-making; phenomenological; qualitative; naturalistic; constructivist; interactionist; verstehen approaches; ethnographic; qualitative); Critical (ideology-critical; concerned with analysis of power and ideology; consciousness-raising; emancipatory and concerned with advocacy/participatory approaches; transformatory; politically oriented and activist; qualitative and quantitative); Post-structuralist (anti-foundation knowledge; deconstructionist; interpretation of life as discourse and texts; transformative; qualitative); Transcendental (asserts reason, intuition, mysticism, revelation as ways of knowing: mind, body, soul and spirit; life as directed by an ‘internal moral compass’; foundational; qualitative). This is not to say that paradigms necessarily drive the research, as research is driven by the purposes of the research. Indeed we can ask whether we need paradigmatic thinking at all in order to do research. Rather, it is to say that the purposes and nature of the research may be clarified by drawing on one or more of these paradigms; the paradigms can clarify and organize the thinking about the research. Further, it is not to say that these paradigms each have an undisputed coherence, unity or unproblematic singularity of conception. Rather, they are characterizations, ideal types, typifications and simplifications for ease of initial understanding, recognizing that this blurs the many variations that lie within each of them, and, indeed, may overlook the overlaps between them; each paradigm is not all of a single type and they are by no means mutually exclusive. To consider them as mutually exclusive is to prolong the unnecessary ‘paradigm wars’ to which Gage (1989) alluded so compellingly. 9 the context of educational research Because of its significance for the epistemological basis of social science and its consequences for educational research, we devote discussion in this chapter to the debate on positivism and anti-positivism/post- positivism, and on alternative paradigms and rationales for understanding educational research. 1.5 Positivism Although positivism has been a recurrent theme in the history of western thought from the Ancient Greeks to the present, it is historically associated with the nineteenth-century French philosopher, Auguste Comte, who was the first thinker to use the word for a philosophical position (Beck, 1979) and who gave rise to sociology as a distinct discipline. His positivism turns to observation and reason as means of understanding behaviour, i.e. empirical observation and verification; explanation proceeds by way of scientific description. In his study of the history of the philosophy and methodology of science, Oldroyd (1986) says that, in this view, social phenomena could be researched in ways similar to natural, physical phenomena, i.e. generating laws and theories that could be investigated empirically. Comte’s position was to lead to a general doctrine of positivism which held that all genuine knowledge is based on sensory experience and can only be advanced by means of observation and experiment: the scientific method. Following in the empiricist tradition, it limited enquiry and belief to what can be firmly established and in thus abandoning metaphysical and speculative attempts to gain knowledge by reason alone, the movement developed a rigorous orientation to social facts and natural phenomena to be investigated empirically (Beck, 1979). Taking account of this, matters of values were out of court for the positivist, as they were not susceptible to observation evidence, i.e. there is a separation between facts and values. With its emphasis on observational evidence and the scientific method, positivism accords significance to sensory experience (empiricism), observational description (e.g. ruling our inferences about actors’ intentions, thoughts or attitudes), operationalism, ‘methodical control’, measurement, hypothesis testing and replic ability through the specification of explicit and transparent procedures for conducting research (Hammersley, 2013, pp. 23–4). Hammersley notes that the terms ‘positivism’ and ‘empiricism’ are often regarded as synonymous with each other (p. 23), but to equate positivism simply with quantitative approaches is misguided, as qualitative data are equally well embraced within empiricism. Indeed he notes that ethnographers and 10 discourse analysts rely on careful observational data (pp. 24–5). Though the term positiv