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Encyclopedia of Psychology: 8 Volume Set Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief 4128 pages Main Topics Abortion Abreaction Academia Europaea Academic Assessment-Intervention Link Academic Assessment of Performance Academic Intervention Accidents Ach, Narziss K. Achievement Motivation Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Action Research Actuarial Prediction Addictive Personality Adjective Checklist Adler, Alfred Adolescence: Puberty and Biological Maturation Adolescence: Social Patterns, Achievements, and Problems Adolescence: Adolescent Thought Processes Adoption Adulthood and Aging: Biological Processes and Physical Development Adulthood and Aging: Cognitive Processes and Development Adulthood and Aging: Personality Process and Development Adulthood and Aging: Social Processes and Development Aerospace Systems Aesthetics Affect Affective Universals Affiliation African American Psychology Ageism Agency: An Overview Agency: Agency and Control Theory Agnosias Alcoholics Anonymous Alcoholism Alienation Allocentrism-Idiocentrism Allport, Floyd Henry Allport, Gordon Willard Altered States of Consciousness Alternative Dispute Resolution Alternative Schools Altruism Alzheimer's Disease American Association for the Advancement of Science American Board of Professional Psychology American Educational Research Association American Indian Psychology American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences American Psychiatric Association American Psychological Association: History American Psychological Association: Structure American Psychological Association of Graduate Students American Psychological Foundation American Psychological Society Amnesia Analysis of Counts Analysis of Variance Anastasi, Anne Angell, James Rowland Anger Anhedonia Animal Learning and Behavior: History of the Field Animal Learning and Behavior: Theoretical Issues Animal Learning and Behavior: Methods of Study Anorexia Anthropology Anthropometry Antianxiety Medication Antidepressants Antipsychotic Medication Antisocial Behavior Antisocia; l Personality Disorder Anxiety Anxiety Disorders Aphasia Applied Behavior Analysis Apprenticeship Aptitude Tests Arab States: Egypt and the Arab States Arab States: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq Arab States: Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Arab States: Yemen, Oman, and Sudan Archetypes Archival Research Aristotle Arousal Arthritis Artifact: Artifact in Research Artifact: Artifact in Assessment Artificial Intelligence Art Therapy Asch, Solomon E. Asian American Psychology Assessment Association for Behavior Analysis Association for the Advancement of Psychology Associationism Asthma Athletes Athletic Coaching Attachment Attachment Theory Attention: An Overview Attention: Models of Attention Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Attitudes: An Overview Attitudes: Attitude Structure Attitudes: Attitude Change Attitudes: Attitude Measurement Attraction Attribution Theories Auditory Impairment Auditory Pattern Recognition Australia Austria Authoritarianism Autistic Disorder Automaticity Aversion Therapy Aviation Psychology Avoidance Learning Back-Translation Bacon, Francis Bain, Alexander Baldwin, James Mark Baltic Countries Barker, Roger G. Bartlett, Frederic C. Bayley, Nancy Beach, Frank A. Beck Depression Inventory Beebe-Center, John Gilbert Beers, Clifford Whittingham Behavioral Genetics Behavioral Teratology Behavior Analysis Behaviorism and Neobehaviorism Behavior Therapy Békésy, Georg von Bekhterev, Vladimir Mikhailovich Belgium Bender–Gestalt Visual Motor Test Bentley, Madison Benussi, Vittorio Bereavement Programs Berkeley, George Bernard, Claude Bias and Equivalence Bilingualism Binet, Alfred Bingham, Walter Van Dyke Biofeedback Biological Psychology Biomechanics and Kinematics Bipolar Disorder Biran, Maine de Birth Order Bisexuality Bleuler, Eugen Boas, Franz Body Image Bolivia Borderline Personality Disorder Boredom Boring, Edwin Garrigues Bowlby, John Braid, James Brain Brain Development Brain Imaging Techniques Brain Injury and Recovery Brainstorming Brainwashing Brazil Brentano, Franz Brett, George S. Breuer, Josef Bridgman, Percy Williams Brief Therapy British Association for the Advancement of Science British Psychological Society Broadbent, Donald E. Broca, Paul Bronfenbrenner, Urie Brown, Roger William Brunswik, Egon Buccola, Gabriele Bühler, Charlotte M. Bühler, Karl Bulimia Bullying Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook Burt, Cyril Lodowic Buytendijk, Frederik J. J. Bystander Phenomenon Calkins, Mary Whiton Campbell, Angus Campbell, Donald Thomas Canada Canadian Psychological Association Cancer Cannon, Walter Bradford Career: Career Choice Career: Career Development Career: Career Assessment Career: Career Interventions Career Counseling Careers in Psychology Carmichael, Leonard Carr, Harvey A. Case Law Case Study Category Accessibility Catharsis Cathexis Cattell, James McKeen Cattell, Raymond B. Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Charcot, Jean-Martin Child Abuse and Neglect Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Child Behavior Checklist Child Custody Children's Eyewitness Testimony China Christianity and Psychology Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Circadian Rhythms: An Overview Circadian Rhythms: Circadian Rhythm Disorders Citizen Participation Claparède, Édouard Clark, Kenneth Bancroft Classical Conditioning Classrooms: Processes and Management Classrooms: Technology Client-Centered Therapy Clinical Geropsychology Clinical Psychology: History of the Field Clinical Psychology: Theories Clinical Psychology: Assessment Clinical Psychology: Interventions Cocaine Cognition Cognitive Anthropology Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Cognitive Consistency Theories Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Electrophysiology Cognitive Maps Cognitive Psychology: History of the Field Cognitive Psychology: Theories Cognitive Psychology: Research Methods Cognitive Science Society Cognitive Styles: Intelligence Cognitive Styles: Personality Cognitive Therapy Cognitive Understanding Levels Cohort Effects Collectivism and Individualism College Teaching and Learning Colombia Color Vision Combat Commitment Community Ecology Community Prevention and Intervention: Prevention with Young Children Community Prevention and Intervention: Prevention with School-Aged Children Community Prevention and Intervention: Prevention with Adults Community Prevention and Intervention: Prevention of Depression Community Psychology: History of the Field Community Psychology: Theories Community Psychology: Methods of Study Community Psychology: Prevention and Intervention Comparative Psychology Competency Compliance Compromise Formation Compulsive Gambling Computerized Assessment Computerized Psychotherapy Computer Learning Comte, Auguste Concepts: An Overview Concepts: Structure Concepts: Learning Concepts: Combinations Conceptual Change Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de Conduct Disorder Confidentiality Conflict Resolution Conformity Connectionism Consciousness and Unconsciousness: An Overview Consciousness and Unconsciousness: Processes Consciousness and Unconsciousness: Cross-Cultural Experience Constructivism Constructivist Psychotherapy Construct Validity Consumerism of Psychological Services Consumer Products Design Consumer Psychology Content Analysis Conversation Cook, Stuart W. Coombs, Clyde H. Cooperation and Competition Coping Coronary Heart Disease Cost-Benefit Analysis Counseling Process and Outcome Counseling Psychology: History of the Field Counseling Psychology: Theories Counseling Psychology: Assessments and Interventions Counterfactual Thought Countertransference Couples Therapy Covert Conditioning Creativity: An Overview Creativity: Research on the Processes of Creativity Criminality Criminal Responsibility Crisis Intervention Critical Psychiatry Cross-Cultural Communication Cross-Cultural Counseling Cross-Cultural Psychology: History of the Field Cross-Cultural Psychology: Theories and Methods of Study Cross-Cultural Test Adaptation Cross-Cultural Training Crowd Behavior Crowding Cults Cultural Disintegration Cultural Diversity Cultural Pluralism Cultural Psychology Culture: Cultural Foundations of Human Behavior Culture: Culture and Mental Health Culture: Culture and Development Culture-Bound Disorders Culture Shock Cumulative Record Curiosity Curriculum Development Dallenbach, Karl M. Darwin, Charles R. Dashiell, John Frederick Data Analysis Data Collection: Field Research Data Collection: Laboratory Research Day Care Daydreams Day Treatment Deafness and Hearing Loss Death and Dying Deception Decision Making Defense Mechanisms Deindividuation Deinstitutionalization Delboeuf, Joseph-Rémi-Léopold Delgado, Honorio Delinquency Delusions Demand Characteristics Depressants, Sedatives, and Hypnotics Depression Depth Perception Dermatological Disorders de Sanctis, Sante Descartes, René Dessoir, Max Determinants of Intelligence: Heritability of Intelligence Determinants of Intelligence: Socialization of Intelligence Determinants of Intelligence: Culture and Intelligence Determinants of Intelligence: Schooling and Intelligence Determinants of Intelligence: Teaching of Intelligence Determinants of Intelligence: Nutrition and Intelligence Developmental Agenda Developmental Disorders Developmental Psychology: History of the Field Developmental Psychology: Theories Developmental Psychology: Research Methods Developmental Science Dewey, John Diabetes Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Dieting Differential Aging Differential Psychology Direct Observation Discipline Discrimination Disruptive Behavior Disorders Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Identity Disorder Divorce Dix, Dorothea Lynde Doctoral Degree Doctor of Psychology Degree Doctor-Patient Relationship Dolezal, Jan Domestic Violence Donders, Franciscus Cornelis Down Syndrome Dreams: Physiology Dreams: Theories and Research Dreams: Cross-Cultural Perspectives Drever, James Drive Driving and Highway Safety Drug Abuse Drugs Drugs and Intelligence Duncker, Karl Dunlap, Knight Durkheim, Émile Dyslexia Early Childhood Eastern Religions and Philosophies Eating Disorders Ebbinghaus, Hermann Eclectic Psychotherapy Ecological Systems Theory Ecuador Educational Counseling Educational Psychology Educational Testing Service Edwards, Jonathan Ego Ego Psychology Theory Ehrenfels, Christian von Eidetic Imagery Elder Abuse and Neglect Elder Care Electroconvulsive Therapy Elementary Cognitive Tasks Elementary Education Ellis, Henry Havelock Emotion: An Overview Emotion: Theories Emotion: Methods of Study Emotional Learning Empathic Accuracy Empathy Employee Assistance Programs Employee Training Employment Discrimination Empowerment Encopresis Endocrine Systems Endorphins Endstage Renal Disease Enemy Image England Enuresis Environmental Design Research Environmental Psychology Epidemiology Epilepsy Epistemology Epistemology of Practice Erikson, Erik H. Estes, William Kaye Ethics: An Overview Ethics: Ethics in Research Ethics: Ethics in Practice Ethics: Ethics in Publication Ethnic and Racial Identity: Ethnic Identity Ethnic and Racial Identity: Racial Identity Ethnocentrism Ethnocultural Psychotherapy Ethnography Ethnopedagogy Ethology European Federation of Professional Psychologists' Associations European Science Foundation Evolutionary Psychology Exceptional Students Excitement Exercise and Physical Activity Exhibitionism Existentialism Expectancy Effects Experiential Psychotherapy Experimental Neurosis Experimental Psychology Expert Testimony Exploratory Data Analysis Extraversion and Introversion Eyewitness Testimony Eysenck, Hans Jurgen Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Factor Analysis False Memory Family Psychology: History of the Field Family Psychology: Theories of Family Dynamics Family Psychology: Assessments and Interventions Family Therapy Family Violence Fantasy Fathering Fear and Terror Fechner, Gustav Theodor Federation of Behavioral, Psychological, and Cognitive Sciences Feminism: Feminism and Philosophy Feminism: Feminist Psychology Feminism: Feminist Psychotherapy Ferenczi, Sandor Fernberger, Samuel W. Ferrari, Giulio Cesare Festinger, Leon Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetishism Fibromyalgia Syndrome Field Dependence and Independence Field Study Field Theory Finland Fisher, Ronald Aylmer Five-Factor Model of Personality Flanagan, John C. Flooding Flourens, Pierre Flournoy, Théodore Flow Focus Group Forensic Psychology Forgetting Foster Care Fraisse, Paul France Frankl, Viktor Emil Franz, Shepherd Ivory Frenkel-Brunswik, Else Freud, Anna Freud, Sigmund Friendship Fromm, Erich Fromm-Reichmann, Frieda Frontal Lobe Disorders Functionalism Galen Galton, Francis Game Theory Gangs Gemelli, Agostino Gender, Sex, and Culture: Gender and Culture Gender, Sex, and Culture: Sex and Culture Gender, Sex, and Culture: Sex Differences and Gender Differences Gender Constancy Gender Identity Gender Roles Gender Schema Gender Socialization General Systems Theory and Philosophy Generativity Genetic Counseling Genetic Disorders Genius Genocide Germain, José Germany Gerontology Gesell, Arnold Lucius Gestalt Psychology Gestalt Therapy Ghiselli, Edwin E. Gibson, Eleanor J. Gibson, James Jerome Giftedness Gilbreth, Lillian Giner de los Ríos, Francisco Goals God Concepts Goddard, Henry Herbert Goldstein, Kurt Goodenough, Florence Laura Government Regulation: Federal Regulation Government Regulation: State Regulation Graham, Clarence Henry Grandparenting Greece Grief and Loss Griffith, Coleman Roberts Group Cohesiveness Grouping and Tracking Group Performance Groups: Groups and Group Structure Groups: Group Processes Group Therapy Groupthink Guilford, Joy Paul Guilt Gulliksen, Harold Guthrie, Edwin R. Guttman Scale Habituation Hall, Granville Stanley Hall, Marshall Hallucinations Hallucinogens Hamilton, William Hamilton Rating Scale Handwriting Analysis Harlow, Harry Frederick Hartley, David Hathaway, Starke R. Hawthorne Effect Head, Henry Headaches Head Injury Head Start Health Belief Model Health Promotion Health Psychology: History of the Field Health Psychology: Assessments and Interventions Hearing: Biological Organization Hearing: Behavioral and Functional Aspects Hebb, Donald Olding Heider, Fritz Hellenistic Psychology Helmholtz, Hermann von Helson, Harry Hemispheric Functions Henning, Hans Herbart, Johann Friedrich Hering, Ewald Hermeneutics Heterosexism Heterosexuality Heymans, Gerardus Hispanic Psychology History Hobbes, Thomas Hobbs, Nicholas Höffding, Harald Hollingworth, Harry L. Hollingworth, Leta Stetter Holt, Edwin Bisell Holzkamp, Klaus Homelessness Homophobia Homosexuality Hong Kong Hooker, Evelyn Hopkins Symptom Checklist Hormone Replacement Therapy Horney, Karen D. Hospice Hotline Services Hovland, Carl Iver Hull, Clark Leonard Human Behavior and the Natural Environment Human-Computer Interface Design Human Error Analysis Human Factors Psychology Humanistic Psychology Human Origins Human Performance Theory Human Resources Research Organization Hume, David Humor and Laughter Hunt, J. McVicker Hunt, William Alvin Hunter, Thomas Alexander Hunter, Walter S. Husserl, Edmund Hypertension Hypnosis Hypochondriasis Hypothesis Testing Id Identity Illusory Correlation Imagination Immune System Implicit Memory Impression Formation Impression Management Impulsivity Incest India Individual Differences Industrial and Organizational Psychology: History of the Field Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Theories and Methods of Study Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Assessments and Interventions Infancy: Biological Processes Infancy: Perception and Motor Development Infancy: Learning and Cognitive Development Infancy: Emotions and Temperament Infancy: Early Experience and Socialization Informal Learning Information Display Information Processing Theories Informed Consent Ingenieros, Jose Inpatient Treatment Insomnia Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan Instructional Environment Instructional Theories Instructional Treatments Integrative Psychotherapy Intelligence Interamerican Society of Psychology Interdependence: Interdependence Structure Interdependence: Interdependence Theory Interest Intergroup Relations International Association of Applied Psychology International Classification of Diseases International Congress of Psychology International Council of Psychologists International Psychology International Relations International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development International Test Commission International Union of Psychological Science Interpersonal Psychotherapy Intervention Interventions Based in Religious Congregations Intimacy Intuition Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Functional Disorders Islam and Psychology Israel Italy Itard, Jean-Marie-Gaspard Item Response Theory Jaensch, Erich R. James, William Janet, Pierre Japan Jastrow, Joseph Jealousy and Envy Jennings, Herbert Spencer Job Loss and Unemployment Job Satisfaction Job Stress Jones, Edward Ellsworth Jones, Mary Cover Joy Judaism and Psychology Judd, Charles Hubbard Jung, Carl Gustav Juries Justice Just World Belief Kaila, Eino Kant, Immanuel Kantor, Jacob R. Katona, George Katz, David Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Keller, Fred Simmons Kelley, Truman Lee Kelly, George Alexander Kiesow, Federico Kinesthesis Kinsey, Alfred C. Kirkbride, Thomas S. Klein, Melanie Klemm, Otto August Klineberg, Otto Klüver, Heinrich Koch, Sigmund Koffka, Kurt Kohlberg, Lawrence Köhler, Wolfgang Korea Kraepelin, Emil Krech, David Kretschmer, Ernst Kries, Johannes Von Krueger, Felix Külpe, Oswald Kuo, Zing-Yang Labeling Ladd, George Trumbull Ladd-Franklin, Christine La Mettrie, Julien Offray de Langfeld, Herbert Sidney Language: An Overview Language: Language Acquisition Language: Language and Brain Systems Language: Language Development, Syntax, and Communication Lashley, Karl Spencer Latent Learning Lavater, Johann Caspar Law and Psychology Law of Effect Leadership Learned Helplessness Learning: An Overview Learning: Molecular and Cellular Aspects Learning: Conditioning Approach Learning: Cognitive Approach for Humans Learning: Cognitive Approach for Animals Learning, Transfer of Learning and Memory: In Humans Learning and Memory: In Animals Learning and Motivation Learning Disabilities Learning Skills Learning Technologies Learning Theories Le Bon, Gustave Lehrman, Daniel Sanford Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Lewin, Kurt Libido Licensure Life Course Theory Life Span Psychology Theory Likert Scale Lindner, Gustav Adolf Lipps, Theodor Literacy Literature Locke, John Locus of Control Loeb, Jacques Logotherapy Lombroso, Cesare Lomov, Boris Fydorovich Loneliness Longitudinal Research Long-Term Potentiation Lorenz, Konrad Lotze, Hermann Love: An Overview Love: Spiritual Conceptions of Love Luria, Alexander R. Mach, Ernst Machine Design Mainstreaming and Inclusion Malingering Malpractice Managed Care Mandated Reporting Marbe, Karl Marginalization Marijuana Marriage Marx, Karl Masculine and Feminine Cultures Maslow, Abraham Harold Mathematical Psychology Matsumoto, Matataro Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education May, Rollo McClelland, David C. McCosh, James McDougall, William McGeoch, John A. Mead, George Herbert Meaning of Life Measures of Association Measures of Intelligence: Intelligence Tests Measures of Intelligence: Biological Theories Measures of Intelligence: Cognitive Theories Measures of Intelligence: Legal Issues Media Effects Medical Technology Design Meditation Meinong, Alexius Melton, Arthur Memory: An Overview Memory: Coding Processes Memory: Constructive Processes Memory: Memory Systems Memory: Memory and Aging Memory: Brain Systems Menopause Menstruation Mental Health Care Mental Health Law Mental Imagery Mental Models Mental Retardation Mental Workload Mentoring Programs Mesmer, Franz Anton Messer, August Meta-Analysis Metaphysics Meumann, Ernst Mexico Meyer, Adolf Meyerson, Ignace Michotte, Albert Edouard Middle Childhood: Physical and Biological Development Middle Childhood: Cognitive Development Middle Childhood: Education and Schooling Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Middle Childhood: Socialization and Social Contexts Migrants Miles, Walter Richard Milgram, Stanley Milieu Therapy Military Culture Military Psychology Military Service Mill, James Mill, John Stuart Miller, George Armitage Miller, Neal Elgar Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Minority Psychology Mnemonic Devices Mnemonists Modernization Montessori, Maria Mood Mood Disorders Moral Development Moral Discourse Morgan, Clifford Thomas Morgan, Conwy Lloyd Morphology Motion Perception Motivation: An Overview Motivation: Physiological Aspects Motivation: Assessment Motora, Yujiro Motor System Mouchet, Enrique Mowrer, O. Hobart Müller, Georg Elias Müller, Johannes Peter Müller-Lyer, Franz Carl Multicultural Counseling Multicultural Education Multimodal Therapy Multiple Intelligences Multiple Regression Multiple Task Performance Münsterberg, Hugo Murchison, Carl Murphy, Gardner Murray, Henry Alexander Music Music Perception Music Therapy Mutual-Help and Self-Help Myers, Charles S. Mysticism Narcissism Narcissistic Personality Disorder Narcolepsy Narrative Psychology Narrative Therapy National Academy of Sciences National Institute of Mental Health National Mental Health Association National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology National Science Foundation Natural Selection Nature and Nurture Theories Negotiation NEO Personality Inventory Netherlands Neuromuscular Disorders Neuron Neuropsychology: Theories Neuropsychology: Testing Neuropsychology: Interventions Neuroscience Newcomb, Theodore Mead Newell, Allen Newton, Isaac New Zealand Nietzsche, F. W. Nightmares Night Terrors Nissen, Henry Wieghorst Nomothetic and Idiographic Orientations Nonhuman Communication Nonhuman Intelligence Nonparametric Statistics Nonrandomized Designs Nonverbal Communication Non-Western Therapies Norms North Africa Northern Ireland Norway NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science Nutrition Obedience Obesity Object Relations Theories Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Oedipus Complex Ogden, Robert Morris Olds, James Operant Conditioning: An Overview. Operant Conditioning: Operant Conditioning Chamber Opiates Oppositional Defiant Disorder Optimism and Pessimism Organizational Management Organizational Theories Organizations Osgood, Charles Egerton Pain: Mechanisms Pain: Management Pakistan Pan, Shu Panic Disorder Paranoia or Delusional Disorder Paranoid Personality Disorder Paraprofessionals Parapsychology Parent-Child Relationship: Childhood Parent-Child Relationship: Adolescence Parent-Child Relationship: Adulthood Parent Management Training Parsons, Frank Pastoral Counseling Pattern Recognition Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Peace Peak Experiences Pearson, Karl Pediatric Psychology Pedophilia Peer Counseling Peirce, Charles S. Perception and Action Perceptual Constancies Perceptual Organization Performing Arts Personality Personality and Intelligence Personality Development: Infancy and Early Childhood Personality Development: Middle Childhood and Adolescence Personality Development: Adulthood and Aging Personality Disorders Personality Psychology: History of the Field Personality Psychology: Theories Personality Psychology: Methods of Study Personality Traits Person-Machine Systems Personnel Selection: Techniques and Instruments Personnel Selection: Selection and the Law Peru Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich Phenomenological Psychology Phenomenology Philosophy: An Overview Philosophy: Philosophy of Mind Philosophy: Philosophy of Science Phonetics Phonology Phrenology Physical Disabilities Piaget, Jean Piéron, Henri Pillsbury, Walter B. Pinel, Philippe Pintner, Rudolf Piotrowski, Zygmunt A. Pitch Perception Placebo Effect in Research Design Plato Play Play Therapy Police Psychology Political Behavior Political Decision Making Political Leadership Pornography Porter, Noah Portugal Postman, Leo Joseph Postmodern Psychology Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Poverty: Childhood Poverty Poverty: Adulthood Poverty Power Power Motivation Practical Intelligence Practitioner Model Pragmatics Pregnancy Prejudice Preschool Education Prescription Privileges Pressey, Sidney Leavitt Prevention: An Overview Prevention: Prevention for Infants and Young Children Prevention: Prevention for School-Aged Children and Adolescents Prevention: Prevention for Adults Preyer, Wilhelm Prince, Morton Prisoners of War Prisons and Correctional Institutions Privacy Private Practice Prodigies Professional Consultation Professional Organizations Projective Techniques Propaganda Proprioception Prosocial Behavior Prosocial Development in Childhood and Adolescence Psi Beta Psi Chi Psyche and Soul Psychiatry Psychoanalysis: History of the Field Psychoanalysis: Theories Psychoanalysis: Methods of Study Psychoanalysis: Psychoanalysis and Philosophy Psychoanalysis: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapies Psychobiography Psycholinguistics: An Overview Psycholinguistics: Syntax and Grammar Psycholinguistics: Semantics Psycholinguistics: Discourse Comprehension Psycholinguistics: Linguistic Determinism Psychology: Definition Psychology: Classical Antiquity Psychology: The Middle Ages Psychology: Renaissance through the Enlightenment Psychology: Nineteenth Century through Freud Psychology: Early Twentieth Century Psychology: Post-World War II Psychology of Men Psychometrics Psychometric Society Psychoneuroendocrinology Psychoneuroimmunology Psychonomic Society Psychopathology Psychopharmacology: Pharmacotherapy Psychopharmacology: Ethnopsychopharmacology Psychophysics Psychosexual Stages Psychosis Psychosomatic Illness Psychosurgery Psychotherapy: Research Psychotherapy: Clinical Practice Psychotherapy: Approaches Psychoticism Public Health Public Policy Public Service Punishment: Research Punishment: Developmental Perspectives Purkinje, Johannes Qualitative Research Quality of Life Quetelet, Lambert Adolphe Jacques Racism Ramón y Cajal, Santiago Randomized Experiments Rank, Otto Ranschburg, Pal Rapaport, David Rape Rasch Model Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Raynaud's Disease Reactance Reaction Time Reading Refugees Regional Psychological Associations: Regional Psychological Associations in the United States Regional Psychological Associations: Regional Psychological Associations in Canada Rehabilitation Psychology Reid, Thomas Relaxation Training Reliability Religion and Psychology: An Overview Religion and Psychology: Theories and Methods Religion and Psychotherapy: An Overview Religion and Psychotherapy: Beliefs and Training of Psychotherapists Religious Experience: Belief and Faith Religious Experience: Religious Experiences and Practices Religious Symbol, Myth, and Ritual Religious Values and Mental Health Replication in Research Representational Tools Repressed Memory Repression Reproductive System Republic of Ireland Research Dissemination Research Methods: History of the Field Research Methods: Concepts and Practices Residential Treatment Programs Resilience Retirement Retrieval Processes Reversal Theory Révèsz, Geza Ribot, Théodule Armand Richter, Curt Paul Right to Refuse Treatment Rigidity Rivers, William Halse Robotics Rogers, Carl Ranson Role Theory Romanes, George John Rorschach, Hermann Rorschach Test Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Royce, Josiah Rubin, Edgar Rumors Rural Communities Rush, Benjamin Russia and the Former Soviet Republics Sadness Sampling Sanford, Edmund Clark Santayana, George Savant Syndrome Scale Development Scene Perception Schachter, Stanley Schedules of Reinforcement Schema Schizophrenia Schlosberg, Harold School-Based Collaboration and Teaming School Consultation School Dropout School Effectiveness and Improvement School Psychology School Readiness School Refusal School Suspension and Expulsion School Transitions Schopenhauer, Arthur Schumann, Friedrich Scientist-Practitioner Model SCL-90-R Scotland Scott, Walter Dill Scripture, Edward Wheeler Sears, Pauline S. Sears, Robert R. Seashore, Carl Emil Seasonal Affective Disorder Sechenov, Ivan Mikhailovich Secondary Education Seguin, Edouard Self-Concept and Self-Representation Self-Consciousness Self-Disclosure Self-Efficacy Self-Esteem Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Self-Regulation Self-Report Semantic Differential Sensation Seeking Sensory Stores Sensory Systems Sexism Sex Segregation Sex Stratification Sex Therapy Sexual Conditioning Sexual Disorders Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual Harassment Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexual Masochism Sexual Orientation Sexual Sadism Shakow, David Shame Shepard, Roger N. Sherif, Muzafer Sherrington, Charles Scott Shyness Sibling Relationships Sign Languages Simarro, Luis Simon, Herbert Alexander Simon, Théodore Single-Case Experimental Design Situated Cognition Situation Awareness Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire Skinner, Burrhus Frederic Sleep Sleep Apnea Sleep Disorders Sleeptalking Sleepwalking Small, Willard S. Smell Smoking Social Cognition Social-Cognitive Theory Social Comparison Social Competence Programs Social Desirability Social Distance Social Facilitation Social Gerontological Theories Social Identity Social Influence Theory Social Justice Social Motivation Social Network Analysis: Definition and History Social Network Analysis: Concepts, Applications, and Methods Social Neuroscience Social Phobia Social Psychology: Methods of Study Social Psychology: Applied Social Psychology Social Representations Social Settings Social Skills Training Social Support Society for Neuroscience Society for Psychotherapy Research Society for Research in Child Development Society of Experimental Psychologists Society of Experimental Social Psychology Sociohistorical Process Sociolinguistics Socrates Solomon, Richard Lester Somatoform Disorders South Africa South America, South Cone Zone of Southeast Asia Spain Spatial Vision Spearman, Charles Edward Special Education Specific Phobia Speech and Language Disorders Speech Production Spence, Kenneth Wartinbee Spencer, Herbert Sperry, Roger Wolcott Spinoza, Baruch (Benedictus de) Sport Performance Interventions Sport Psychology: History of the Field Sport Psychology: Research Sport Psychology: Assessment Sport Psychology: Social Psychology Perspectives Spranger, Eduard Standardized Tests Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale Statistical Significance Stellar, Eliot Stereotypes Stern, Louis William Stevens, Stanley Smith Stigma Stimulants Stone, Calvin P. Stout, George Frederick Stratton, George M. Stress: Definition and Physiology Stress: Measurement Stress: Impact on Health Strong, Edward Kellogg, Jr. Strong Interest Inventory Student Characteristics Stumpf, Carl Subliminal Perception Sub-Saharan Africa Suburban Communities Suicide Sullivan, Harry Stack Sully, James Sumner, Francis Cecil Super, Donald Edwin Superego Suppes, Patrick Survey Methodology Sweden Switzerland Symbolic Interaction Theory Sympathy Synapse Systematic Desensitization System Error Analysis Systems Theory Taine, Hippolyte Taiwan Talent Taste: Biological Organization Taste: Behavioral and Functional Aspects Taste Aversion Learning Tavistock Institute Teachers: Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness Teachers: Teacher Relationships Team Training Technical and Professional Education Technology: Technology and Communication Technology: Technology and Disabilities Temperament Terman, Lewis Madison Terminal Decline Territoriality Terrorism Testing Test Utility Teuber, Hans-Lukas Thematic Apperception Test Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology Theory of Mind Theory of Reasoned Action Therapeutic Communities Thibaut, John W. Thinking: An Overview Thinking: Problem Solving Thinking: Reasoning Thomson, Godfrey Hilton Thorndike, Edward Lee Thurstone, Louis Leon Time Perception Tinbergen, Nikolaas Titchener, Edward Bradford Token Economy Tolman, Edward Chace Touch: Biological Organization Touch: Behavioral and Functional Aspects Training: An Overview Training: Special Training Issues Transference Transpersonal Psychology Transportation Systems Design Transsexualism Transvestism Treatment Trichotillomania Troland, Leonard Thompson Turkey Tversky, Amos Twelve-Step Programs Twins Tyler, Leona E. Underwood, Benton J. Unions United States Department of Veterans Affairs Unobtrusive Measures Upham, Thomas Cogswell Urban Communities Validity Values Varona y Pera, Enrique José Venezuela Veterans Violence and Aggression Violence Risk Assessment Virtual Communities Virtual Reality Vision and Sight: Structure and Function Vision and Sight: Behavioral and Functional Aspects Vision and Sight: Age-Related Changes, Optical Factors, and Neural Processes Visual Adaptation Visual and Design Arts Visual Illusions Visual Impairment: Physical Causes Visual Impairment: Psychological Implications Visual Search Vives, Juan Luis Volition Voluntary and Involuntary Hospitalization Voyeurism Vygotsky, Lev Semenovich Wales War and Conflict: Effects on General Population War and Conflict: Effects on Military Personnel Ward, James Warden, Carl John Warren, Howard Crosby Washburn, Margaret Floy Watson, John B. Watt, Henry Jackson Weber, Ernst Heinrich Wechsler, David Wechsler Intelligence Tests Wechsler Memory Scale Weiss, Albert Paul Wellness and Illness Werner, Heinz Wertheimer, Max Wever, Ernest Glen Wheeler, Raymond H. Whipple, Guy M. Wisdom Witasek, Stephan Witmer, Lightner Wolpe, Joseph Women's Health Issues Woodworth, Robert Sessions Woolley, Helen Thompson Work Work Adjustment Theory Work Conditions Working Alliance Working Memory Work Performance World Federation for Mental Health World Health Organization Writing Wundt, Wilhelm Maximilian Xenophobia Yerkes, Robert Mearns Young, Paul Thomas Zhang, Yao-xiang Zubin, Joseph A ABORTION. The medical or surgical termination of a pregnancy, abortion is one of the oldest, most com monly practiced, and most controversial medical pro cedures currently performed in the United States. It has been a legal procedure in all states since Roe v. Wade ( 1 9 73). when the Supreme Court ruled that the abortion decision was protected by a woman's right to privacy. The Court also noted that the state has legiti mate interests in protecting both the pregnant woman's health and potential human life, interests that grow and reach a compelling pOint at later states of gestation. Subsequent Supreme Court decisions have eroded the broad abortion rights articulated in Roe, while at the same time upholding the general principle of that decision. For example, in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services ( 1 989), and Planned Parent hood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey ( 1 992), the Court significantly expanded the states' ability to place restrictions on access to abortion, so long as these re strictions do not impose an "undue burden" on women seeking abortions. Approximately 1 .5 million legal abortions have been performed each year in the United States since Roe v. Wade. resulting in the annual termination of about 25% of known pregnancies. Most abortions (more than 90'XI) are performed in the first trimester of pregnancy; less than 1 % are performed at more than 20 weeks. The abortion rate in the United States has been grad ually declining since the early 1 980s. This decline may be due to a variety of factors. They include the de creased availability of abortion services; increased ha rassment by antiabortion activists; the increased cost of obtaining an abortion; reluctance of providers to perform abortions at more than 1 3 weeks gestation; changing attitudes toward abortion and unwed moth erhood; exclusion of abortion from Medicaid coverage; and legislative barriers such as the implementation of waiting periods and parental consent rules. Role of Psychologists The American Psychological Association (APA) and in dividual psychologists have had a long history of in volvement in matters related to psychological factors associated with abortion and in disseminating results of research on abortion-related issues. In 1 969, the APA Council of Representatives adopted a resolution that identified termination of unwanted pregnancies as a mental health and child welfare issue, resolving that termination of pregnancy be considered a civil right of the pregnant woman. In 1 980, APA passed a resolution supporting the right to conduct scientific research on abortion. In 1989, APA passed a resolution to initiate a public awareness effort to correct the record on the scientific findings of abortion research, and appointed a panel of experts to review the best scientific studies of abortion outcomes. The report of this panel was pub lished in 1 990 in Science. Individual psychologists conduct crisis pregnancy counseling, help women and girls decide how to resolve an unwanted pregnancy, and counsel women who have had an abortion and who report associated distress. Psychological researchers conduct and disseminate re search on attitudes toward abortion. psychological re sponses to abortion. and predictors of those responses. Psychologists also serve as expert witnesses in court cases dealing with abortion-related issues. Characteristics of Abortion Patients Demographic characteristics of women obtaining abor tions are derived from national surveys of abortion pro viders. According to the Alan Guttmacher Institute. the majority of women obtaining abortions are young (55% are younger than 25) and never married (66%). The majority have had one or more children (55%). but no prior abortions (53%). Based on total numbers, more White women (61%) than African American or HisI 2 ABORTION panic women obtain abortions. However, the abortion rate for White women is lower than it is for minority women. Black women are approximately three times as likely to have an abortion as White women and His panic women are roughly two times as likely to do so. Abortion rates are also disproportionately higher among women who are disadvantaged economically because of poverty or lack of education. Many of these demographic factors are intercorrelated, making it dif ficult to attribute differences in abortion rates to any single variable. The most common reasons women report for ob taining an abortion are concern that having a baby at that point would interfere with work, school, or other responsibilities; the inability to afford a baby financially; and partner-related reasons. Motivations to have an abortion differ substantially among different subgroups of women. Adult mothers, for example, are more likely than nonmothers to cite as reasons for obtaining an abortion, completion of childbearing along with re sponsibilities to others, including other children. Controversy over Psychological Consequences of Abortion Contemporary debates over abortion often focus on psy chological issues. One controversy centers on whether abortion is psychologically damaging to women. This controversy became a public policy debate in 1 9 8 7. when President Ronald Reagan directed Surgeon General C. Everett Koop to prepare a report on the psy chological and physical health effects of abortion. After reviewing the evidence. Koop declined to issue such a report. Rather. in a letter to President Reagan, the surgeon-general concluded that "the scientific studies do not provide conclusive data on the health effects of abortion on women." Individuals on both sides of the abortion debate dis agree with Koop's conclusion. Prolife advocates argue that over time, many or most women who have an abortion suffer psychological damage as a result. Ad vocates of this view have lobbied the American Psy chiatric Association to recognize postabortion syn drome as a psychiatric diagnostic category. Support for this position is based on clinical case studies that derive from two separate sources: ( 1 ) women who have sought professional help for psychological problems following their abortions; (2) women who were specifically solic ited as participants because they identified themselves in advance as having suffered psychological trauma fol lowing abortion. In addition to relying on samples of women who identified themselves as experiencing post abortion adjustment problems, many of these studies fail to distinguish between whether the abortion was performed legally or illegally and whether it was per formed in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. Because of these methodological issues. this group of studies is likely to be biased in the direction of over estimating the prevalence of postabortion problems among women who obtain legal, first trimester abor tions. Psychological experts, including the panel convened by the APA. argue in contrast that the very best sci entific studies show that freely chosen abortion, partic ularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. does not pose a significant mental health risk for most women. This conclusion is derived from studies based on random samples of women who have arrived at a doctor's office. clinic. or hospital for an abortion. They are asked to participate in a study and are then interviewed on the day of their abortion and/or some time afterward. These studies generally find that most women do not report psychological distress after an abortion and that the highest rates of distress are generally reported prior to the abortion. The conclusion that abortion does not pose a mental health risk for most women is also de rived from epidemiological studies of large populations of women whose prior abortion history is known. These studies generally find no higher incidence of psycho logical problems among women who have had an abor tion than among women who have not. Although these studies also have methodological limitations. they are generally much sounder scientifically than those used to support the argument that severe negative reactions to abortion are common. Part of the difficulty in drawing firm conclusions about the psychological effects of abortion results from the fact it is impossible to separate the effects of abor tion from the effects of experiencing an unwanted preg nancy. Both of these are potentially stressful events. Ul timately, the mental health risks of abortion must be compared to the mental health risks of its alternatives motherhood or adoption. However, no well-controlled studies are available that compare all three groups, per haps because relatively few women choose the adoption alternative. In contrast, a number of well-designed studies have compared the psychological well-being of women who have had abortions to the well-being of women who have carried an unintended pregnancy to term and kept the child. The measures of well-being that were used in these studies include self-esteem. anx iety. incidence of psychiatric disorder. progress in school. and economic status. All of these studies have reached the same conclusion-that the well-being of women who have abortions is generally either better than, or not significantly different from. that of women who carry an unplanned pregnancy to term and keep the baby. Although most women do not experience Significant psychological distress following an abortion, some do. The reactions of these women should not be dismissed as inconsequential and deserve attention from psychol ogists. It is important to remember. however. that dis- ABORTION tress that occurs after an abortion is not necessarily caused by the abortion. even though it may be attrib uted to this event. Furthermore. it is important to dis tinguish between feelings such as sadness and regret that can be experienced after any difficult life choice. and significant mental health outcomes. such as de pression or psychosis. Women who feel a sense of sad ness. loss. or regret over an abortion may not neces sarily experience a psychological disorder following an abortion. Predictors of Psychological Responses to Abortion Adjustment to abortion can best be conceptualized within a stress and coping framework. From this per spective. the discovery of an unintended pregnancy can be a stressful life event. and abortion may be used as one means of coping with this stress. However. the abortion procedure may represent an additional source of stress that also requires coping efforts. Just as there is variation in how individuals react to other types of life stressors. so too is there variation in how women react to abortion. Research indicates that many of the same personal and social resources and liabilities that predict adaptation to other types of life stressors also predict adaptation to unwanted pregnancy and abor tion. Personal Factors. Women's general personality characteristics and their specific attitudes and feelings about pregnancy and abortion are important predictors of their mental health following abortion. Especially important in this regard is a woman's mental health before she discovered that she was pregnant. Women who are already experiencing psychological problems before they discover a pregnancy are far more likely than others to experience psychological problems at a later time, regardless of whether they choose to have an abortion. Hence. it is often inappropriate to conclude that psychological problems present after an abortion were caused by the abortion. Women who have high expectations (or self-efficacy) concerning their own ability to cope with an abortion. or who initially appraise the abortion as less stressful, show higher postabortion adaptation than do women who have lower expectations. Women's personality characteristics also predict adaptation to abortion. Women with personality characteristics such as high self-esteem, an optimistic outlook. and an internal locus of control initially appraise their abortions as less stressful. have higher coping expectations. use more adaptive postabortion coping strategies, are more sat isfied with their abortion decision. and have better men tal health postabortion than do women who lack these personality resources. Women who have difficulty reaching the decision to have the abortion, or who re port that the abortion conflicts with their personal or religious beliefs, report more postabortion adaptation problems. This is also true of women who report high levels of commitment to the pregnancy and those who report that the pregnancy was meaningful and in tended. The strategies that women use to cope after having an abortion can also affect their postabortion adapta tion. Coping refers to the cognitive and behavioral ef forts that people engage in to manage stressful events and/or the emotions related to those events. Coping strategies that are associated with better postabortion mental health include trying to accept the abortion, grow from it, and/or reframe it in a more positive light. Coping strategies associated with decreases in post abortion mental health include trying to cope with abortion-related emotions by avoiding thoughts of the abortion. denying it or dwelling on it. Social and Cultural Factors. Unwanted preg nancy and abortion occur in a social context and this context can also exert an important influence on ad aptation to abortion. One important aspect of the social context is how others close to the woman react to her abortion decision. Women who perceive high levels of social support from their conception partner, parents, and/or friends for their abortion decision are more sat isfied with their decision and have better mental health postabortion than women who lack perceived social support from close others. Social conflict with close oth ers. in contrast. can be a significant source of addi tional stress and can result in poorer postabortion men tal health. The larger cultural context within which abortion occurs can also affect women's adaptation to abortion. Publicized opposition to abortion may cause women who obtain abortions to feel vulnerable to being stig matized and shamed by others. Feelings of stigma may lead women to avoid talking with others about their experience. Exposure to antiabortion picketing at abor tion clinics can also negatively affect women's adjust ment. Women who are exposed to aggressive antiabor tion picketing or who are blocked as they enter a clinic to obtain an abortion are more upset by the picketers and are more vulnerable to depreSSion immediately postabortion than are women not exposed to these en counters. Legal Controversies Surrounding Abortion Opponents and supporters of the right to abortion have frequently clashed in the courts on a variety of issues since the historic Roe v. Wade decision. One controversy centers on so-called partial-birth abortions. or abor tions that take place after the fetus is viable. Although such abortions are extremely rare, as of 1998 many states have adopted bans on them. Another controversy centers on "informed consent." Many states have 3 4 ABORTION passed legislation mandating that prior t o the proce dure women be informed of the physical and/or psy chological risks of obtaining an abortion. The nature of these risks. however. is controversial. as noted above. Furthermore. true informed consent cannot be ob tained without also informing women of the risks as sociated with childbearing. Some of the most contentious legal issues surround ing abortion focus on minors. In 1976 the Supreme Court of the United States decided in Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth that minors have a con stitutional right to privacy in obtaining an abortion. but that minors' rights to privacy may not be as com pelling as those of adults. and accordingly. that states may infringe on those rights given a "significant state interest" in doing so. By 1997. a majority of the u.s. states had enacted statutes requiring minors to either involve parents in abortion decisions (by notifying them of the abortion or by obtaining their consent) or to petition a judge for permission to obtain the abortion without parental notification (commonly referred to as a j udicial bypass) . In making these decisions to constrain the ability of minors to obtain an abortion. the Supreme Court made several assumptions. First. the Court assumed that mi nors would be especially at risk for severe. negative. postabortion sequelae and that such sequelae are not an issue in carrying a pregnancy to term. There is no evidence. however. to support these assumptions. Sec ond. the Court voiced concern that minors would be too immature to make a sound. well-reasoned decision without the benefit of input from an adult. Psycholog ical research on cognitive development and decision making skills. however, suggests that by about the age of 14. most young people are similar to adults in their ability to reason abstractly about and make decisions concerning relatively complex hypothetical scenarios. Finally. at the heart of the parental consent laws is the idea that parental consultation is desirable and in the best interests of the minor and her family. Even when no law exists that mandates parental involve ment. the majority of minors do consult with at least one parent prior to making an abortion decision. Fac tors that make it less likely that a minor will consult with parents include ( 1 ) the fear that parents will be hurt. unsympathetic. or even violent in response; (2) the minor lives independently or already has children; (3) she has experienced a chaotic home environment characterized by substance abuse. violence, or sexual abuse; or (4) she suspects that her parents will force her into making a speCific, undesired decision regarding resolution of the pregnancy. Critics of consent laws argue that minors who come from supportive family backgrounds will consult with parents without such consultation being legally man- dated, and that girls who come from unsupportive, dys functional. or violent homes will not benefit from the forced disclosure of their pregnancy. Research is con sistent with this view. Women who disclose to others who do not support or who oppose their abortion de cision are more distressed postabortion than women who do not disclose or who disclose to others who are supportive. Critics of consent laws further argue that these laws create delays in seeking care among a group of women who are already unlikely to seek prompt medical care, thereby increasing the rate of later-term abortions and the rate of teen parenthood. Another legal controversy surrounding abortion fo cuses on laws and injunctions against antiabortion demonstrators. Prolife demonstrators in the United States frequently picket abortion clinics and attempt to dissuade women from entering. They sometimes engage in more violent activities such as clinic blockades, bomb threats, stalking of clinic personnel, and murder. Abor tion rights activists have sought through legal means to restrict the scope and impact of antiabortion dem onstrators at facilities where abortions are performed. Many communities have enacted injunctions mandat ing that demonstrators remain a specified distance from women entering clinics. In 1 994, President Clinton signed into law a bill that makes it a federal crime to use force, the threat of force, or physical obstruction to intimidate abortion clinic workers or clients of clinics. [See also Women's Health Issues.] Bibliography Comprehensive Sources Beckman, 1. }., & Harvey, S. M. (Eds.). ( 1 998). The new civil war: The psychology. culture, and politics of abortion. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. A broad overview of the SOciopolitical, cultural, and interpersonal contexts in which abortion currently oc curs in the United States. Also includes information on issues involved in counseling women who have had abortions. Wilmoth, G. (Ed.) . ( 1992). Psychological perspectives on abortion and its alternatives. Journal of Social Issues, 48(3), 1 2 1 6. This special issue of }SI presents ten ar ticles, mostly written by psychological experts on abor tion. The articles discuss research, policy, and judicial issues related to abortion and present evidence about many aspects of the debate about the consequences of abortion. This is an excellent source of information about psychological perspectives on abortion. - Abortion Rates and Characteristics of A bortion Patients Henshaw. S. K. (1995). Factors hindering access to abor tion services. Family Planning Perspectives. 27, 54-59. Henshaw, S. K., & Kost, K. (I996). Abortion patients in 1 994-1995: Characteristics and contraceptive use. Fam- ABREACTION ily Planning Perspectives. 28. 140-147. Describes char acteristics of u.s. abortion patients. using data collected by the Allan Guttmacher Institute. Torres. A . . & Forrest. J. D. (1988). Why do women have abortions? Family Planning Perspectives. 20. 169-176. Psychological Responses to Abortion Adler. N. Eoo David. H. P.. Major. B. N .. Roth. S. R Russo. N. E. & Wyatt. G. E. ( 1990). Psychological responses af ter abortion. Science. 248. 41-43. Presents conclusions of the APA panel convened to review the scientific ev idence on the psychological consequences of abortion. Gilchrist. A. C .. Hannaford. P. C .. Frank. P. . & Kay. C. R. ( 1995). Termination of pregnancy and psychiatric mor bidity. British Journal of Psychiatry. 167. 243-248. Re port of a prospective cohort study of 13.261 women with unplanned pregnancy recruited by their family doctors in the United Kingdom. Compares the rate of psychiatric disorder following childbirth versus termi nation of the pregnancy. Russo. N. Foo & Zierk. K. L. (1992). Abortion. childbearing. and women's well-being. Professional Psychology: Re search and Practice. 23 (4) . 269-280. Report of an em pirical study examining the relationship of the experi ence of abortion to self-esteem in a national sample of 5.295 U.S. women who were followed from 1979 to .• 1987· Zabin. L. Soo Hirsch. M. Boo & Emerson. M. R. (1989). When urban adolescents choose abortion: Effects on educa tion. psychological status. and subsequent pregnancy. Family Planning Perspectives. 21. 248-255. Report of an empirical study in which low-income African American adolescents were followed from the day they came to a clinic tor a pregnancy test until two years later. Com pared the psychological outcomes. educational out comes. and subsequent pregnancy of girls who were initially pregnant and had an abortion. with those of girls who were pregnant and kept the child. and girls who were not initially pregnant. Postabortion SelrHelp De Puy. Coo & Dovitch. D. ( 1997). The healing choice: Your gUide to emotional recovery after an abortion. New York: fireside Books. This is a nonjudgmental self-help guide for women who have experienced abortion and who are experiencing distress. It is written by two psychother apists and is based on their interviews with forty women who had experienced one or more abortions and five men. Predictors of Psychological Responses to Abortion Adler. N. Eoo David. H. P.. Major. B. N .. Roth. S. H .. Russo. N. F.. & Wyatt. G. E. ( 1992). Psychological factors in abortion: A review. American Psychologist. 47. 1 1 94r 204. Overview of the predictors of psychological re sponses to abortion written by members of the APA panel appointed to review the scientific literature. Major. Boo Richards. Coo Cooper. M. Loo Cozzarelli. C .. & Zu bek. J. (1998). Personal resilience. cognitive appraisals. and coping: An integrative model of adjustment to abortion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 74. 735-752. Report of an empirical study which ex amined the impact of personality. appraisals. and post abortion coping strategies on postabortion mental health among 442 women who had first trimester abor tions. Adolescents and Abortion Ambuel. B. (1995). Adolescents. unintended pregnancy and abortion: The struggle for a compassionate social policy. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 4. I S. A recent review of psychological research addressing whether adolescents are capable of giving informed consent for an abortion. The author also discusses the pros and cons of mandating parental involvement in minors' abortion decisions. Henshaw. S. K . . & Kost. K. (1992). Parental involvement in minors' abortion decisions. Family Planning Perspectives. 24. 1 96-213. Based on a nationally representative sam ple of unmarried minors having an abortion. the au thors present statistics regarding the number who told family members about the intended abortion. their rea sons for disclosure or nondisclosure. and the reactions of family members who were told or found out about the minors' decision to abort the pregnancy. Antiabortion Picketing Cozzarelli. C .. & Major. B. (1998). The impact of antiabor tion activities on women seeking abortions. In L. J. Beckman & S. M. Harvey (Eds.). The new civil war: The psychology. culture. and politics of abortion (pp. 8I-I04). Washington. DC: American Psychological Association. Reviews research on antiabortion activities and on the relationship between exposure to antiabortion picketing and women's postabortion mental health. Brenda Major and Catherine Cozzarelli ABREACTION refers to a clinical phenomenon in which experiences of traumas are recollected. often af ter a period in which they have not occupied conscious attention. During recollection. the experience is one of reliving the memory. Intense emotions are often felt and expressed. Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer used this term in their book. Studies on Hysteria (r893-18 9Sir9SS) . They reported that abreaction might be brought about by the therapist's hypnotic suggestion that a patient remember what instigated the onset of a symptom. These tech niques were part of a method aimed at evoking re pressed memories. Catharsis. the discharge of emo tional potentials by speaking of the related ideas and feelings. was believed to be a curative process. Freud later modified these early psychoanalytic con cepts. He reported that reduction of defensiveness against recollection, and working through topics. was 5 6 A C A D E M I A E U R O P AEA a central part of an overall process of change from a more symptomatic to a less symptomatic state. In other words, abreaction alone did not produce lasting change. In contemporary psychotherapeutic practices, abre action is no longer a central goal of technique. Even in posttraumatic stress syndromes, recollection of what happened is only a first step in a larger scope of work. When a person suffers from intrusive and avoidant symptoms as part of a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the goals are (I) to differentiate reality from fantasy; (2) to increase the individual's sense of per sonal relationship to what has really happened; (3) to modify pathological defensiveness against acknowledg ing implications to the self; and (4) to work through closely connected issues of identity, relationships, and future life plans. In the contemporary setting, abreaction refers to a phenomenon in which the patient may be startled by the intensity of his or her emotional reaction upon rec ollection and review of episodes of the past. The patient may enter a state in which he or she feels a loss of self control due to the magnitude of emotion. It is impor tant in such instances to increase control. This can be done by expanding concepts into coherent stories about what happened, and by translating images and somatic sensations into words. The working-through process, then, is an aspect of social communication plus an in ternal connection of ideas that had been previously dis sociated or inhibited from contemplation. After the intense emotional experiences of an abre action, even one with expression of negative and dis tressing emotions, a person may feel exhilarated. Be cause of such reactions, abreaction may seem like a "breakthrough," a decisively curative moment. and thus it may be overvalued. While such experiences may be one step in a working through and a progressive coping with past traumas, it is important not to over estimate the therapeutic value of abreactive phe nomena. [See also Catharsis; Consciousness and Unconscious ness; Memory; and Psychotherapy.] Bibliography Bibring, E. ( 1 954). Psychoanalysis and the dynamic psy chotherapies. Journal oj the American Psychoanalytic As sociation, 2, 745-770. Breuer. J., & Freud, S. ( 1955) Studies on hysteria. In J. Stra chey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition oj the com plete psychological works oj Sigmund Freud (Vol. 2). Lon don: Hogarth Press. (Original works published 1 8931 895) Freud. S. ( 1958) Remembering, repeating and working through. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition oj the complete psychological works oj Sigmund Freud (Vol. 12, PP. 146-156). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1914) Horowitz, M. ( 1997). Stress response syndromes (3rd ed.) Northvale, NJ: Aronson. Horowitz, M .. Marmar, C .. Weiss, D .. et al. ( 1984). Brief psychotherapy of bereavement reactions: The relation ship of process to outcome. Archives oj General Psychi atry, 41, 438-448. Mardi Horowitz ACADEMIA EUROPAEA. Founded in 1 9 8 8 to promote learning, education, and research, the Academia Eu ropaea is an international. nongovernmental associa tion of individual scientists and scholars involved in a wide range of disciplines, including the physical sci ences and technology, the biological sciences and med icine, mathematics, the humanities, the social and cog nitive sciences, economics, and law. As of September 1999, the organization included some 1 ,800 members from 33 European and 5 non-European countries. The purposes and objectives of the Academia Euro paea are (I) to promote and support excellence in Eu ropean scholarship, research, and education; (2) to pro mote the development of a European identity in scholarship and research and to conduct analyses of issues relevant to Europe; (3) to provide independent advice on matters of scholarly interest or concern to legislatures, governments, universities, the communi cations media, and to professional, industrial. and com mercial organizations in Europe; (4) to encourage in terdisciplinary and international studies and research, with particular reference to European issues; (5) to en courage and assist collaboration between scholars and centers of scholarship in Europe and to promote col laboration in education and training; and (6) to en courage and assist the mobility of scholars and stu dents in Europe. The Academia has three membership categories: Or dinary, Honorary, and Foreign. The great majority of the Academia's membership is in the Ordinary cate gory. There are about 50 foreign members. The election of new members is based on nominations from the ex isting membership. The Academia Europaea is governed by a council of 12 members elected at the annual meeting, and by a president, three vice presidents, and a treasurer who form a board. Each member of the Academia is placed in one of 12 interdisciplinary sections, which them selves have a chair and committee. As an independent body, the Academia Europaea re ceives financial support from its members and from other sources, including government ministries and re search funding councils in several European countries, A C A D E M I C A S S E S S M EN T I NTERVENTION L I N K the European Commission, private foundations, chari ties, banks, and industries. The Academia is established as a charity under United Kingdom law. Psychology is well represented in the membership of the Academia Europaea, which includes Paul Baltes, Alan Baddeley, Pieter Drenth, Uta Frith, Willem Levelt, David Magnusson, Lea Pulkkinen, Michael Rutter, Klaus Scherer. Hans Spada, and many others. Initially, psychology formed a subject group within the Acade mia, but. as a result of a reorganization into more in terdisciplinary sections, psychology is now included within the behavioral sciences section. A three-day scientific meeting is held each year, cen tered upon a series of interdisciplinary symposia on a wide range of subjects. Among the many issues which have been addressed are the following: the responsibil ity of the individual scholar to society, human origins; European linguistic diversity and unity; brain and cog nition; climatic change in recent millennia; the classical heritage: and nonlinearity and chaotic behavior. Many of the papers have subsequently been published. The Erasmus Lecture and Medal were introduced in [992 to provide an opportunity for Academia members and others to hear a renowned scholar. The Erasmus lecturers to date have been Janos Kornai, Ernst Mest macker. Lawrence Freedman, Alain Touraine, Hubert Markl. Paul Crutzen, Peter Burke, and Raoul van Cae negen. The Academia Europaea organizes special working groups and workshops to address topics of scientific or academic interest. Two major themes have been edu cation and the impact of information technology on society. Workshops have included Psychosocial Prob lems Among Young People; Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century; The Idea of Progress; Teaching Science to Children; The Quality of Life in Old Age; The Impact of Electronic Publishing; and Interdisciplinarity and the Organization of Knowledge. External sponsor ship is sought to conduct these workshops, and usually the results are published. Psychosocial Disorq.ers in Young People: Time Trends and Their Causes, edited by M . Rutter and D. Smith, is one such publication. Since 1 993 the Academia has organized a system for giving prize awards to young scientists from the repub lics of the Commonwealth of Independent States, on the basis of open competitions assessed by international experts. In addition, since 1 995 prizes have been pro vided for young scientists from the Baltic republics. The Academia issues a semiannual newsletter, The Tree, and a quarterly journal. the European Review, which is distributed to all members and is also available on subscription from Cambridge University Press. The European Review includes high-quality papers, fre quently of an interdisciplinary character, and articles related to other Academia activities. One of the principles underlying the foundation of the Academia was the need for independent advice to public and private bodies. With its membership ap proaching 2,000 eminent scientists and scholars from many disciplines, able to offer independent comment free from any national or organizational bias, the Ac ademia is well placed to offer advice on scientific or academic matters in Europe. The following are examples of policy advice provided by the Academia Europaea: In 1990 and 1991 the Academia was invited by the Conference of European Science Ministers to advise on research on the human genome in Europe. The Aca demia created an international expert group that pre pared a report and presented it to European ministers. This study took place at a time when many of the im plications of genome research, and the scale of the task, were poorly understood. The Academia's report helped to clarify some of these issues at a high level. The European Science and Technology Assembly (ESTA) advises the European Commission on matters related to its scientific programs. About forty of the one hundred members of ESTA are also members of the Academia. In 1996 the Academia was invited by the Netherlands Research Organisation (NWO) to organize a workshop on current developments in the management of higher education and to advise on policy implications for the Netherlands. Also in I996 the State Committee of the Ukraine for Science and Technology invited the Academia to con duct an evaluation of the quality of science in the Ukraine, and to participate in an advisory committee on the reorganization of the country's science and re search. Bibliography Academia Europaea. (I998). Directory. London: Author. The Academia Europaea Directory is reissued periodi cally with current information about the Academia. Peur J. Colyer ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. See Academic Assess ment of Performance; and Exceptional Students. ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT INTERVENTION LINK. The benefits of linking assessment to instruction are that students' motivation for and involvement in learn ing may increase through enhanced performance feed- 7 8 A C A D E M I C A S S E S S MENT I N T E R V E N T I O N L I N K back. Teachers are informed o f their students' progress and difficulties; they are able to evaluate the effective ness of their instruction accurately; and they may be more responsive to students and improve the quality of their instructional programs. In considering alternative assessment approaches to maximize the assessment-intervention link, educators should use the following seven criteria. Assessment methods (I) must provide teachers with information about whether skills and learning strategies have been acquired; (2) must provide teachers with information about whether students can apply and integrate skills and strategies in novel, authentic contexts; (3) must provide teachers with information about student growth to help teachers formatively evaluate the ef fectiveness of instructional programs and determine when adjustments are necessary; (4) must produce de tailed analyses of student performance, which are linked to specific instructional actions; (5) must be fea sible for routine administration, scoring, and interpre tation; (6) should communicate to teachers and stu dents what is important to learn; and ( 7) should produce information that meets well-agreed-on stan dards for accuracy and meaningfulness. Curriculum-Based Measuremeut The purpose of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is to provide teachers with reliable, valid, and effcient procedures for obtaining student performance data to evaluate instructional programs and to answer broad questions about the effectiveness of an instructional program in producing growth over time and in com parison to other instructional approaches. Curriculum-based measurement incorporates three key features: (r) the measurement methods are stan dardized (Le., the behaviors and procedures for mea suring those behaviors are prescribed); (2) the focus of measurement is long term, so that the testing methods. diffculty level, and constructs are constant across long time periods, such as one school year; and (3) the mea surement methods are used to index student growth over time. In using CBM, teachers establish broad, long-term outcomes for students. such as performing mathemat ics competently at the third-grade level. In assessment systems that are based on mastery learning, a skills hi erarchy comprising the third-grade curriculum is spec ifed and student performance is measured one skill at a time. By contrast, in CBM the teacher relies on es tablished methods for measuring student proficiency across multiple skills embedded in the entire third grade curriculum. Specifically. the teacher creates a pool of equivalent assessment tasks, each of which samples key problem types from the third-grade curric ulum in the same proportion. Each week, students complete one or two assessments. At the beginning of the year, students might answer a few problems cor rectly; as the year progresses and the curriculum is taught. however, performance should gradually im prove. Because each assessment task is of eqUivalent diffi culty and incorporates all types of problems to be learned that year, CBM produces two types of infor mation. First, a total score is graphed over time to rep resent global progress; the purpose of the graphed pres entation of total scores is to allow teachers and students to evaluate growth formatively. Second, an analysis of the student's performance on the curricu lum skills is conducted to allow teachers to engage in problem solving to determine how to improve instruc tion. Streugths and Limitations Because CBM incorporates standard measurement techniques, which demonstrate reliability and validity, it provides an accurate and meaningful database. In addition. because of regular administration of assess ments that tap long-term goals. the graphed informa tion summarizes overall progress on the year's curric ulum. The information can be used to evaluate progress formatively and to determine when an instructional change is warranted. In addition. the performance analysis offers detailed information about student per formance on specific skills and can be used to determine how to improve instruction. Research has also documented that CBM can be linked to instruction in ways that enhance teacher planning. The measurement framework is not tied to any particular instructional paradigm. Curriculum based measurement does not dictate any particular se quence with which to introduce skills; it does not com mit students to mastery of any skills before addressing subsequent material; and it allows teachers to use dif ferent methods with the same child to determine which approach is most beneficial. In addition. the scoring criteria are open and clear so that students know how they are evaluated and can set personal learning goals. Furthermore. the structure of assessments can help teachers identify instructional content. The assessment demands are also relatively manageable for teachers in typical classroom settings. for three reasons: ( I ) the assessments are brief; (2) the assessment focus remains constant across long periods of time. so that teachers do not shift assessments for different students at different times; (3) computer pro grams have been developed to administer assessments and to analyze the information automatically. thus free ing teachers from administration. scoring. and man agement tasks. Despite these strengths. there is controversy about the extent to which CBM indexes skill application and integration. On the one hand. CBM is designed to assess A C AD E M I C A S S E S S M ENT-I N T E R V E N T I O N L I N K a grade-level curriculum broadly. with multiple skills represented on every assessment task. It therefore avoids isolated testing of skills and requires a significant degree of skill transfer. On the other hand. especially in mathematics. curriculum-based measurement fails to embed the assessment in complex. real-life situa tions. Performance Assessment Performance assessment is characterized by three key features: ( I ) the tasks require students to construct. rather than select. responses: (2) the formats create op portunities for teachers to observe student performance on tasks reflecting real-world requirements; and (3) the scoring methods reveal patterns in students' learning and thinking. The major purposes of performance as sessment are to direct teachers and students toward well-integrated learning outcomes and to enhance teachers' capacity to design superior instructional plans that lead better student learning. Varieties of performance assessment are described in the literature. and a wide range of methods are imple mented in classrooms. Because performance assess ment is relatively new. underdeveloped. and yet to be studied. however. practitioners must operationalize vague design features into specific assessment methods on their own. These operationalizations. understand ably. take on various forms. some of which better ap proximate the conceptual and theoretical underpin nings of performance assessment. Strengths and Limitations Performance assessment is not a clearly defined. readily usable technology. And although rhetoric suggests per formance assessment's potential contribution to in structional planning. research examining that contri bution is not yet available. What follows. therefore. is an analysis of performance assessment's potential strengths and limitations. A major advantage of performance assessment is its deliberate focus on authentic performance that requires students to integrate many skills in age-appropriate, real-world situations. A second advantage of perfor mance assessment is that what teachers and students see on assessment tasks corresponds closely to desired instructional goals. Teachers are able to use perfor mance assessment information to direct instruction. To the extent that scoring rubrics are clear. concrete. and visible to students. pupils use assessment information to establish and achieve personal learning goals. Providing inSights into students' strategies is a major goal of performance assessment. Teachers should also be able to formulate useful diagnostic decisions on the basis of the assessment information. Performance as sessment permits teachers to identify the strategies stu dents use with complicated problems. This focus on strategies yields rich descriptions with clear connec tions to instructional ideas. As with any assessment method. however. teachers' capacities vary considera bly in noting information about students' strategiC be havior and relating those descriptions to instructional techniques. Teachers often experience difficulty in di agnostic planning. even when the assessment method and the conceptual framework for learning are simple. Consequently. despite the potential for performance as sessment to yield rich. detailed analyses of student per formance that connect to instructional methods. work is required to identify the means by which this will be achieved. Despite these strengths. major concerns about per formance assessment exist. When a child fails to dem onstrate skill application and integration in the context of a complex performance task. for example. it is not possible to identify whether failure is a function of poor strategies for generalizing learned skills or whether the child has not mastered the skill in isolation. Moreover. the methods by which formative evalua tion decisions are derived from performance assessment are unclear. Such decisions require scoring methods for describing progress and procedures for designing alter nate forms. Initial work suggests there is diffculty in achieving comparability among performance assess ments. In addition. performance assessment requires large amounts of teacher time for designing and administer ing assessment tasks and for scrutinizing performance to identify learning patterns and connect patterns to teaching strategies. Therefore. constraints on teacher time need to be considered. especially in light of in creasing diversity of student skills. Finally. some have suggested that it may be neces sary to rethink the technical standards by which the quality of performance assessments is judged. One pro posal for evaluating the accuracy and meaningfulness of performance-assessment information includes the following outcome criteria: ( I ) intended and unin tended effects on the ways teachers and students spend time and think about goals; (2) fairness for different populations of learners; (3) accuracy of generalizations to broader achievement domains; (4) consistency of as sessment content with key features of the knowledge domain; (5) comprehensiveness of content coverage; and (6) costs and efficiency. [See also Academic Assessment of Performance; Ac ademic Intervention; and Intervention.] Bibliography Archbald. D. A . & Newmann. F. M. (1988). Beyond stan . dardized testing: Assessing academic achievement in the sec ondary school. Reston. VA: National Association of Sec ondary School Principals. 9 10 A C A D E M I C A S S E S S M ENT OF P E R F O R M A N C E Baker. E . L . (1991. April). Expectations and evidence for al ternative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Asso ciation, Chicago. Baker. E. L .. O'Neil. H. F.. & Linn. R. L. ( 1993). Policy and validity prospects for performance-based assessment. American Psychologist, 48, 1210-1218. Baxter, G. p' , Shavelson, R. J., Goldman, S. R., & Pine, J. (1992). Evaluation of procedure-based scoring for hands-on science assessment. Journal of Educational Measurement. 29. 1-17. Brewer, R. (1991, April). Authentic assessment: The rhetoric and the reality. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago. Elliott, S. N. ( 1995). Performance assessment of students' achievement: Research and practice. Paper prepared for the Board on Testing and Assessment. National Re search Council, National Academy of Sciences. Fuchs. L. s. ( 1994). Connecting performance assessment to instruction. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Chil dren. Fuchs, L. S., & Deno. S. L. ( 1991). Paradigmatic distinctions between instructionally relevant measurement models. Exceptional Children, 57. 48 8-S0L Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D.. Hamlett, C. L .. Phillips. N. R .. & Bentz, J. ( 1995). Classwide curriculum-based measure ment: Helping general educators meet the challenge of student diversity. Exceptional Children, 61, 440-451. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Stecker, P. M. (I990). The role of skills analysis in curriculum-based measurement in math. School Psychology Review, 19, 622. Fuchs. L. S. , Fuchs. 0.. Hamlett, C. L.. & Stecker. P. M. (I99I). Effects of curriculum based measurement and consultation on teacher planning and student achieve ment in mathematics operations. American Educational Research Journal, 28. 6I7-64I. Linn, R. L. (I991). Dimensions of thinking: Implications for testing. In B. F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Educational values and cognitive instruction: Implications for reform (pp. I79-208). Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum. Linn, R. L .. Baker. E. L., & Dunbar, S. B. (I99I). Complex, performance-based assessment: Expectations and vali dation criteria. Educational Researcher. 3, 1 5-21. Marston, D. (I989). A curriculum-based measurement ap proach to assessing academic performance: What is it and why do it. Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing. special children. New York: Guilford Press. Research for Better Schools. (I988). Special education in America's cities: A descriptive study. Philadelphia: Au thor. Sammons. K. B., Kobett. B.. Heiss, J.. & Fennell, F. S. (I992). Linking instruction and assessment in the mathematics classroom. Arithmetic Teacher. February. I I-IS· Shavelson, R. J. , Baxter, G. p', & Pine. J. (I992). Perfor mance assessments: Political rhetoric and measurement reality. Educational Researcher, 21. 22-27. Shepard, L. A. ( 1989). Why we need better assessments. Educational Leadership, 46, 7-12. Stiggins, R. J., Griswald, M., & Green, K. R. (I988, April). Measuring thinking skills through classroom assessment. Paper presented at the I988 annual meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education. New Orleans. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (I992, February). Testing in American schools: Asking the right questions (OTA-SET SI9). Washington, DC: U.S. Govern ment Printing Office. (ED 340 770) Wiggins, G. (I989). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 70, 7037I3· Lynn S. Fuchs ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE. The assessment of academic performance has long been a routine part of all educational processes. Defined as "the process of collecting data for the purpose of ( r ) specifying and verifying problems and (2) making de cisions about students" (Salvia & Ysseldyke, r99S, p. 5), assessment of academic performance aims to assist pro fessionals in making decisions about referral. screening, classification, instructional planning, and student pro gress. Typically. the most common method of academic performance assessment is through teacher-designed tests. These informal metrics identify specific objectives that have previously been taught, and evaluate the de gree to which students have mastered these objectives. Beyond these routine, everyday classroom-based as sessment procedures. schools have commonly relied on larger scale evaluation of student performance. Evalu ation procedures can be focused on specific individuals or entire groups of students. When focused on individ uals, the assessment methods are designed to make de cisions about an individual student's performance, typ ically determining the actual acquisition, retention, and progress of skill development against expected levels of performance. When focused on groups, the decisions are more related to the outcomes of program evalua tion, examining the degree to which schools or school districts as a whole are meeting wide-scale, district defined objectives. Methods of asseSSing academic performance can be categorized into one of four types: standardized norm referenced tests, criterion-referenced tests, perfor mance-based assessment, and curriculum-based assess ment. Norm-referenced tests are designed to determine a student's standing relative to similar age/grade peers. The results of the measure are usually reported in some form of standard scores and can be helpful in estab lishing a student's performance against a sample drawn from a target population. Criterion-referenced tests are designed to determine the acquisition of specific skills against a preestablished standard. Teacher-made tests ACADEMIC A S S E S S MENT OF P E R F O R M A N C E are some of the best examples of these types of mea sures. Scores on these measures are usually reported in the percentage of skills mastered. Performance-based assessment measures are designed to provide indica tions of a student's learned skills as demonstrated through material that is produced under conditions that simulate events occurring in the environment where the skill needs to be produced. Included among these measures would be lab demonstrations, artistic performances, writing samples, job evaluation systems, and other types of skills that demonstrate learning through the integration and application of the knowl edge. Curriculum-based assessment represents attempts to assess a student's performance using expected cur riculum objectives as the data for evaluation. There are multiple models of curriculum-based assessment (e.g., Fuchs & Deno. 1991; Shapiro. 1 996; Shapiro & Elliott. I999), but all models are focused on evaluating student progress in an ongoing manner directly from a curric ulum. Standardized Norm-Referenced Tests Each assessment method brings different issues re lated to psychometric properties. Of all measures, standardized norm-referenced tests possess probably the strongest reliability and validity. These measures often contain well-developed and representative norms that provide opportunities to compare student perfor mance on the measure against a sample that repre sents similar age/grade peers across the country. If a measure is well developed, it usually contains a sam ple that is representative of the U.S. distribution by race, socioeconomic level, and other personal charac teristics that are known to have correlated influence on the skills being assessed. Test publishers in devel oping and marketing these measures are careful to establish that the measures have high levels of test retest reliability (usually correlations >.90), as well as demonstrating excellent concurrent validity. For ex ample, the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery (Woodcock & Johnson, 1989) provides norm referenced assessment data in areas that include skills ranging from letter-word identification through sci ence, social studies. and humanities. The Wechsler In dividual Achievement Test (1992) provides assessment of basic areas of reading. mathematics, and spelling. These types of measures contain numerous subtest scores as well as overall global achievement scores, al lowing the user to obtain data on specific subskill de velopment as well as more generally developed areas such as basic reading or math. Although standardized norm-referenced tests tend to have some of the best and well-documented psycho metric properties of all academic assessment measures, these tests have frequently been the subject of substan- tial criticism. Among the many criticisms of the tests is whether what is tested in published norm-referenced measures overlaps with what is being taught within the curriculum. Several studies have shown that the degree of overlap between the test content and the curriculum for some individual norm-referenced achievement tests is questionable (e.g. , Bell, Lentz, & Graden, 1 992; Good & Salvia, 198 8 ; Martens. Steele, Massey. & Diskin, 1 995; Shapiro & Derr, 1987; Shriner & Salvia, 1988). There is another substantive concern regarding the limited links between norm-referenced tests and instructional design. Given the range of skills and ages which these measures assess, it is difficult to derive clear directions for instructional targets from the results. Clearly, norm referenced measures were never designed with instruc tional development in mind, and using these measures in this way is at cross-purposes with the tests' inten tion. Norm-referenced tests are also potentially influ enced by practice effects. As a result, repeated use of the measures over short periods of time can confound real improvement in the learning of skills with simple practice effects. For these and other reasons, educators have sought alternative measures that, while possibly not measuring up to the psychometric properties of norm-referenced tests, try to address some of the crit icisms. Criterion-Referenced Tests These measures are designed to determine whether or not students are mastering identified instructional ob jectives. As such, when a teacher gives a test that is based on the teaching of a unit on, for example. "Pre cursors to the Civil War." he or she is using a criterion referenced approach to evaluation. When assessing overall student achievement, these measures are used less often than norm-referenced achievement tests. However, there are a few excellent. well-developed criterion-referenced measures such as the KeyMath Revised (Connolly, 1 9 8 8 ) and the Brigance Diagnostic Inventories (Brigance, 1 9 76). For example, the Brigance Diagnostic Inventories are a multiple skill battery of tests that examine a very large number of skill se quences. Measures at the preschool ages are arranged in a developmental hierarchy and those for school-aged children are presented in a grade-level fashion. This ap proach proVides a normative reference for performance; however, the measures are not designed as norm referenced tests. Psychometrically, no data on reliability or validity are provided; however, the content validity of the measure appears very strong. Other individually administered criterion-referenced achievement tests, such as the Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS; Sonnenschein. 1 9 83), provide stronger indications of the measure's reliability and va lidity. However. the primary value of these measures II 12 A C A D E M I C A S S E S S MENT OF P E R F O R M A N C E lies i n their use i n the selection o f appropriate targets for intervention development. Performance-Based Assessment One of the significant criticisms of standardized mea sures is their failure to evaluate the depth of one's thinking. Additionally, these measures are viewed as ar tificial and not representative of the types of activities that acquisition of the skills would require. Perfor mance-based assessments are defined as, "testing meth ods that require students to create an answer or prod uct that demonstrates their knowledge or skills" (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1992, p. 16). The measures are designed to be authentic an alogues of real-life problems. Data obtained through these measures involve examining how students con struct their responses. The idea is to determine the strength and depth of the students' learning and think ing processes. Although the primary purpose of performance-based assessment has been to drive in structional intervention. it has increasingly been adopted as a general method for large-scale, schoolwide assessment. Performance-based assessment has a long history in the workplace and the military. In schools, performance assessment is a natural extension of attempts to de velop measures that truly assess the student's capability to demonstrate the application and integration of ac quired knowledge. The measures are designed to select tasks that are aligned with curriculum objectives; allow students to know the scoring criteria before they begin work on the task; and provide clear examples of ex emplary performance on the task. They are also de signed to encourage self-assessment and provide scor ing mechanisms that are linked to the standards expected according to the student's age as well as com parisons to others completing the same task. Psychometrically, performance-assessment methods present important challenges. Typically, the measure ment tools of performance assessment require individ uals, trained as "experts" in the domain being evalu ated. to read or observe the student's performance and rate their product or behavior on an established scale or rubric. For example. if the performance measure asked a student to describe the steps to be taken in designing a science experiment, a typical scoring rubric might have the rater score the student's performance on a numerical scale. Each point of the scale would be anchored to specific behaviors. The development of the scale requires very careful attention to issues of content and discriminant validity. The interrater agreement properties of the rubric must be carefully considered. Attempts to minimize error due to subjective impres sions are considered the highest priority in the use of these measures. Curriculum-Based Assessment Another alternative approach to assessing academic performance that has been developing since the mid1980s. is curriculum-based assessment (CBA). Defined as " a procedure for determining the instructional needs of a student based on the student's ongoing perfor mance within existing course content" (Tucker, 1985, p. 200), CBA attempts to determine the degree to which a student is succeeding in the school instruction. Two general approaches to CBA have been identified (Fuchs & Deno, 1992). Specific subskill mastery methods of CBA are similar to other criterion-referenced assess ments and examine the degree to which students are mastering identified curriculum skill objectives. These methods use nonstandardized. teacher-developed met rics and are quite useful for developing effective inter vention strategies. Those methods described by Gickling and Rosenfield (I995). and Howell. Fox, and Morehead ( 1993) are good illustrations of this methodology. General outcome measurement approaches to CBA use standardized measurements across skill areas. Mea sures are selected from curriculum materials that are linked to identified. long-term curriculum objectives. For example. students might be asked to complete twice each week a sheet of math problems that are derived from all objectives of that grade. As instruction pro gresses. a student's increase in acquired skills is re flected in a gradually improved performance over time. By repeating these measures frequently and graphically displaying the results. student performance that ceases to progress can be identified. These data then cue the teacher that changes in the instructional processes are needed. The best example of this approach to CBA is curriculum-based measurement (CBM). Described by Deno and his colleagues (e.g .. Deno. Marston. & Mirkin. 1982; Deno. Mirkin. & Chiang. I 9 8 2). CBM has been found to have strong psychometric properties. Corre lations with standardized norm-referenced assessment measures range from . 70 to .95 (Shinn. 1989). and have been shown to be very sensitive to student per formance over time (Fuchs. Fuchs. Hamlett. Walz. & Germann. 1993). Additionally. CBM measures have been shown to be useful for instructional planning as well as evaluation (e.g .. Fuchs. Fuchs. Phillips. Hamlett. & Karns. 1995). Students with Disabilities Recently. concerns have been raised about how stu dents with disabilities are considered in district-wide evaluations of academic achievement. For example. Jayanthi. Havekost, Bursuck. Epstein. and Polloway ( 1994). in a national survey of district policies con cerning standardized and nonstandardized testing, ACADEMIC A S S E S SMENT OF P E R F O R M A N C E found that between 5 5 and 60% of the responding dis tricts required some type of accommodations for stu dents with disabilities. In a related national survey. Jay anthi. Epstein. Polloway. and Bursuck (1996) examined the perceptions of general education teachers regarding adaptations for testing commonly used for students with disabilities. These adaptations included among others ( I ) giving individual help with directions; (2) reading test questions to students; (3) simplifying word ing of test questions; and (4) providing extra space on tests for answering. A total of 66.6% of the teachers sampled indicated that it was not fair to make testing adaptations only for students with disabilities. These and other issues related to the evaluation of academic outcomes for students with disabilities have been examined by the National Center on Educational Outcomes. Exclusion of students with disabilities in large-scale district-wide assessment projects places the consideration of these students in school reform efforts in jeopardy (Ysseldyke & Thurlow. 1993). A large num ber of recommendations for strategies to include these students in such assessment projects are made by the center. Included among these recommendations are the types. level. and methods for adaptations as well as al terative assessment strategies to better measure out comes for students who cannot participate in general large scale assessments. [See also Academic Assessment-Intervention Link; and Academic Intervention.] Bibliography Bell. P. E. Lentz. E E .. & Graden. J. L. ( 1992). Effects of curriculum-test overlap on standardized test scores: Identifying systematic confounds in educational deci sion making. School Psychology Review. 21. 644-655. Brigance. A. H. ( 1976). Diagnostic inventory of basic skills. North Billerica. MA: Curriculum Associates. Connolly. A. ( 1988). KeyMath Diagnostic Arithmetic Test Revised. Circle Pines. MN: American Guidance Service. Deno. S. L .. Marston. D .. & Mirkin. P. K. ( 1982). Valid mea surement procedures for continuous evaluation of writ ten expression. Exceptional Children. 48. 368-371. Deno. S. L. . Mirkin. P. K.. & Chiang. B. ( 1982). Identifying valid measures of reading. Exceptional Children. 49. 3647· Fuchs. L. S . & Deno. S. L. ( 1991). Paradigmatic distinctions between instructionally relevant measurement models. Exceptional Children. 57. 48 8-500. Fuchs. L. S .. & Deno. S. L. ( 1992). Effects of curriculum within curriculum based measurement. Exceptional Children 58. 232-243. Fuchs. L. S.. Fuchs. D. . Hamlett. C. L.. Walz. L.. & Ger mann. G. ( 1993). Formative evaluation of academic progress: How much growth can we expect? School Psy cllOlogy Review. 22. 27-48. . Fuchs. L . S.. Fuchs. D.. Phillips. N. B . . Hamlett. C . L .. & Karns. K. ( 1995). Acquisition and transfer effects of claswide peer-asssted learning strategies in mathemat ics for students with varying learning histories. School Psychology Review. 24. 604-630. Gickling, E. E.. & Rosenfield, S. (1995). Best practices in curriculum-based assessment. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.). Best practices in school psychology (Vol. 3 , pp. 5 8 7-595). Washington. DC: National Association of School Psychologists. Good, R. H .. III. & Salvia. J. (1988). Curriculum bias in published. norm-referenced reading tests: Demonstrable effects. School Psychology Review. 17. 5 1-60. Howell. K. w.. Fox. S. L.. Morehead. M. K. (1993). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove. CA: Brooks/Cole. Jayanthi, M .. Bursuck. w.. Havekost. D. M ..