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Encyclopedia of Psychology

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Encyclopedia of Psychology: 8 Volume Set
Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief

4128 pages

Main Topics
Academia Europaea
Academic Assessment-Intervention Link
Academic Assessment of Performance
Academic Intervention
Ach, Narziss K.
Achievement Motivation
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Action Research
Actuarial Prediction
Addictive Personality
Adjective Checklist
Adler, Alfred
Adolescence: Puberty and Biological
Adolescence: Social Patterns,
Achievements, and Problems
Adolescence: Adolescent Thought
Adulthood and Aging: Biological
Processes and Physical Development
Adulthood and Aging: Cognitive
Processes and Development
Adulthood and Aging: Personality
Process and Development
Adulthood and Aging: Social Processes
and Development
Aerospace Systems
Affective Universals
African American Psychology
Agency: An Overview
Agency: Agency and Control Theory
Alcoholics Anonymous
Allport, Floyd Henry
Allport, Gordon Willard
Altered States of Consciousness
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Alternative Schools
Alzheimer's Disease
American Association for the
Advancement of Science

American Board of Professional
American Educational Research
American Indian Psychology
American Institutes for Research in the
Behavioral Sciences
American Psychiatric Association
American Psychological Association:
American Psychological Association:
American Psychological Association of
Graduate Students
American Psychological Foundation
American Psychological Society
Analysis of Counts
Analysis of Variance
Anastasi, Anne
Angell, James Rowland
Animal Learning and Behavior: History
of the Field
Animal Learning and Behavior:
Theoretical Issues
Animal Learning and Behavior: Methods
of Study
Antianxiety Medication
Antipsychotic Medication
Antisocial Behavior
Antisocia; l Personality Disorder
Anxiety Disorders
Applied Behavior Analysis
Aptitude Tests
Arab States: Egypt and the Arab States
Arab States: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan,
and Iraq
Arab States: Saudi Arabia and Kuwait
Arab States: Yemen, Oman, and Sudan
Archival Research
Artifact: Artifact in Research

Artifact: Artifact in Assessment
Artificial Intelligence
Art Therapy
Asch, Solomon E.
Asian American Psychology
Association for Behavior Analysis
Association for the Advancement of
Athletic Coaching
Attachment Theory
Attention: An Overview
Attention: Models of Attention
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Attitudes: An Overview
Attitudes: Attitude Structure
Attitudes: Attitude Change
Attitudes: Attitude Measurement
Attribution Theories
Auditory Impairment
Auditory Pattern Recognition
Autistic Disorder
Aversion Therapy
Aviation Psychology
Avoidance Learning
Bacon, Francis
Bain, Alexander
Baldwin, James Mark
Baltic Countries
Barker, Roger G.
Bartlett, Frederic C.
Bayley, Nancy
Beach, Frank A.
Beck Depression Inventory
Beebe-Center, John Gilbert
Beers, Clifford Whittingham
Behavioral Genetics
Behavioral Teratology
Behavior Analysis
Behaviorism and Neobehaviorism
Behavior Therapy
Békésy, Georg von
Bekhterev, Vladimir Mikhailovich

Bender–Gestalt Visual Motor Test
Bentley, Madison
Benussi, Vittorio
Bereavement Programs
Berkeley, George
Bernard, Claude
Bias and Equivalence
Binet, Alfred
Bingham, Walter Van Dyke
Biological Psychology
Biomechanics and Kinematics
Bipolar Disorder
Biran, Maine de
Birth Order
Bleuler, Eugen
Boas, Franz
Body Image
Borderline Personality Disorder
Boring, Edwin Garrigues
Bowlby, John
Braid, James
Brain Development
Brain Imaging Techniques
Brain Injury and Recovery
Brentano, Franz
Brett, George S.
Breuer, Josef
Bridgman, Percy Williams
Brief Therapy
British Association for the Advancement
of Science
British Psychological Society
Broadbent, Donald E.
Broca, Paul
Bronfenbrenner, Urie
Brown, Roger William
Brunswik, Egon
Buccola, Gabriele
Bühler, Charlotte M.
Bühler, Karl
Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook
Burt, Cyril Lodowic
Buytendijk, Frederik J. J.
Bystander Phenomenon
Calkins, Mary Whiton
Campbell, Angus
Campbell, Donald Thomas
Canadian Psychological Association
Cannon, Walter Bradford
Career: Career Choice
Career: Career Development
Career: Career Assessment
Career: Career Interventions
Career Counseling
Careers in Psychology
Carmichael, Leonard
Carr, Harvey A.
Case Law
Case Study
Category Accessibility

Cattell, James McKeen
Cattell, Raymond B.
Center for Advanced Study in the
Behavioral Sciences
Center for Epidemiologic Studies
Depression Scale
Charcot, Jean-Martin
Child Abuse and Neglect
Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy
Child Behavior Checklist
Child Custody
Children's Eyewitness Testimony
Christianity and Psychology
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Circadian Rhythms: An Overview
Circadian Rhythms: Circadian Rhythm
Citizen Participation
Claparède, Édouard
Clark, Kenneth Bancroft
Classical Conditioning
Classrooms: Processes and
Classrooms: Technology
Client-Centered Therapy
Clinical Geropsychology
Clinical Psychology: History of the Field
Clinical Psychology: Theories
Clinical Psychology: Assessment
Clinical Psychology: Interventions
Cognitive Anthropology
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive Consistency Theories
Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Electrophysiology
Cognitive Maps
Cognitive Psychology: History of the
Cognitive Psychology: Theories
Cognitive Psychology: Research
Cognitive Science Society
Cognitive Styles: Intelligence
Cognitive Styles: Personality
Cognitive Therapy
Cognitive Understanding Levels
Cohort Effects
Collectivism and Individualism
College Teaching and Learning
Color Vision
Community Ecology
Community Prevention and Intervention:
Prevention with Young Children
Community Prevention and Intervention:
Prevention with School-Aged Children
Community Prevention and Intervention:
Prevention with Adults
Community Prevention and Intervention:
Prevention of Depression
Community Psychology: History of the
Community Psychology: Theories
Community Psychology: Methods of
Community Psychology: Prevention and

Comparative Psychology
Compromise Formation
Compulsive Gambling
Computerized Assessment
Computerized Psychotherapy
Computer Learning
Comte, Auguste
Concepts: An Overview
Concepts: Structure
Concepts: Learning
Concepts: Combinations
Conceptual Change
Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de
Conduct Disorder
Conflict Resolution
Consciousness and Unconsciousness:
An Overview
Consciousness and Unconsciousness:
Consciousness and Unconsciousness:
Cross-Cultural Experience
Constructivist Psychotherapy
Construct Validity
Consumerism of Psychological Services
Consumer Products Design
Consumer Psychology
Content Analysis
Cook, Stuart W.
Coombs, Clyde H.
Cooperation and Competition
Coronary Heart Disease
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Counseling Process and Outcome
Counseling Psychology: History of the
Counseling Psychology: Theories
Counseling Psychology: Assessments
and Interventions
Counterfactual Thought
Couples Therapy
Covert Conditioning
Creativity: An Overview
Creativity: Research on the Processes
of Creativity
Criminal Responsibility
Crisis Intervention
Critical Psychiatry
Cross-Cultural Communication
Cross-Cultural Counseling
Cross-Cultural Psychology: History of
the Field
Cross-Cultural Psychology: Theories
and Methods of Study
Cross-Cultural Test Adaptation
Cross-Cultural Training
Crowd Behavior
Cultural Disintegration
Cultural Diversity
Cultural Pluralism
Cultural Psychology
Culture: Cultural Foundations of Human

Culture: Culture and Mental Health
Culture: Culture and Development
Culture-Bound Disorders
Culture Shock
Cumulative Record
Curriculum Development
Dallenbach, Karl M.
Darwin, Charles R.
Dashiell, John Frederick
Data Analysis
Data Collection: Field Research
Data Collection: Laboratory Research
Day Care
Day Treatment
Deafness and Hearing Loss
Death and Dying
Decision Making
Defense Mechanisms
Delboeuf, Joseph-Rémi-Léopold
Delgado, Honorio
Demand Characteristics
Depressants, Sedatives, and Hypnotics
Depth Perception
Dermatological Disorders
de Sanctis, Sante
Descartes, René
Dessoir, Max
Determinants of Intelligence: Heritability
of Intelligence
Determinants of Intelligence:
Socialization of Intelligence
Determinants of Intelligence: Culture
and Intelligence
Determinants of Intelligence: Schooling
and Intelligence
Determinants of Intelligence: Teaching
of Intelligence
Determinants of Intelligence: Nutrition
and Intelligence
Developmental Agenda
Developmental Disorders
Developmental Psychology: History of
the Field
Developmental Psychology: Theories
Developmental Psychology: Research
Developmental Science
Dewey, John
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders
Differential Aging
Differential Psychology
Direct Observation
Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dix, Dorothea Lynde
Doctoral Degree
Doctor of Psychology Degree
Doctor-Patient Relationship
Dolezal, Jan

Domestic Violence
Donders, Franciscus Cornelis
Down Syndrome
Dreams: Physiology
Dreams: Theories and Research
Dreams: Cross-Cultural Perspectives
Drever, James
Driving and Highway Safety
Drug Abuse
Drugs and Intelligence
Duncker, Karl
Dunlap, Knight
Durkheim, Émile
Early Childhood
Eastern Religions and Philosophies
Eating Disorders
Ebbinghaus, Hermann
Eclectic Psychotherapy
Ecological Systems Theory
Educational Counseling
Educational Psychology
Educational Testing Service
Edwards, Jonathan
Ego Psychology Theory
Ehrenfels, Christian von
Eidetic Imagery
Elder Abuse and Neglect
Elder Care
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Elementary Cognitive Tasks
Elementary Education
Ellis, Henry Havelock
Emotion: An Overview
Emotion: Theories
Emotion: Methods of Study
Emotional Learning
Empathic Accuracy
Employee Assistance Programs
Employee Training
Employment Discrimination
Endocrine Systems
Endstage Renal Disease
Enemy Image
Environmental Design Research
Environmental Psychology
Epistemology of Practice
Erikson, Erik H.
Estes, William Kaye
Ethics: An Overview
Ethics: Ethics in Research
Ethics: Ethics in Practice
Ethics: Ethics in Publication
Ethnic and Racial Identity: Ethnic
Ethnic and Racial Identity: Racial
Ethnocultural Psychotherapy

European Federation of Professional
Psychologists' Associations
European Science Foundation
Evolutionary Psychology
Exceptional Students
Exercise and Physical Activity
Expectancy Effects
Experiential Psychotherapy
Experimental Neurosis
Experimental Psychology
Expert Testimony
Exploratory Data Analysis
Extraversion and Introversion
Eyewitness Testimony
Eysenck, Hans Jurgen
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
Factor Analysis
False Memory
Family Psychology: History of the Field
Family Psychology: Theories of Family
Family Psychology: Assessments and
Family Therapy
Family Violence
Fear and Terror
Fechner, Gustav Theodor
Federation of Behavioral, Psychological,
and Cognitive Sciences
Feminism: Feminism and Philosophy
Feminism: Feminist Psychology
Feminism: Feminist Psychotherapy
Ferenczi, Sandor
Fernberger, Samuel W.
Ferrari, Giulio Cesare
Festinger, Leon
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fibromyalgia Syndrome
Field Dependence and Independence
Field Study
Field Theory
Fisher, Ronald Aylmer
Five-Factor Model of Personality
Flanagan, John C.
Flourens, Pierre
Flournoy, Théodore
Focus Group
Forensic Psychology
Foster Care
Fraisse, Paul
Frankl, Viktor Emil
Franz, Shepherd Ivory
Frenkel-Brunswik, Else
Freud, Anna
Freud, Sigmund
Fromm, Erich
Fromm-Reichmann, Frieda
Frontal Lobe Disorders
Galton, Francis

Game Theory
Gemelli, Agostino
Gender, Sex, and Culture: Gender and
Gender, Sex, and Culture: Sex and
Gender, Sex, and Culture: Sex
Differences and Gender Differences
Gender Constancy
Gender Identity
Gender Roles
Gender Schema
Gender Socialization
General Systems Theory and
Genetic Counseling
Genetic Disorders
Germain, José
Gesell, Arnold Lucius
Gestalt Psychology
Gestalt Therapy
Ghiselli, Edwin E.
Gibson, Eleanor J.
Gibson, James Jerome
Gilbreth, Lillian
Giner de los Ríos, Francisco
God Concepts
Goddard, Henry Herbert
Goldstein, Kurt
Goodenough, Florence Laura
Government Regulation: Federal
Government Regulation: State
Graham, Clarence Henry
Grief and Loss
Griffith, Coleman Roberts
Group Cohesiveness
Grouping and Tracking
Group Performance
Groups: Groups and Group Structure
Groups: Group Processes
Group Therapy
Guilford, Joy Paul
Gulliksen, Harold
Guthrie, Edwin R.
Guttman Scale
Hall, Granville Stanley
Hall, Marshall
Hamilton, William
Hamilton Rating Scale
Handwriting Analysis
Harlow, Harry Frederick
Hartley, David
Hathaway, Starke R.
Hawthorne Effect
Head, Henry
Head Injury

Head Start
Health Belief Model
Health Promotion
Health Psychology: History of the Field
Health Psychology: Assessments and
Hearing: Biological Organization
Hearing: Behavioral and Functional
Hebb, Donald Olding
Heider, Fritz
Hellenistic Psychology
Helmholtz, Hermann von
Helson, Harry
Hemispheric Functions
Henning, Hans
Herbart, Johann Friedrich
Hering, Ewald
Heymans, Gerardus
Hispanic Psychology
Hobbes, Thomas
Hobbs, Nicholas
Höffding, Harald
Hollingworth, Harry L.
Hollingworth, Leta Stetter
Holt, Edwin Bisell
Holzkamp, Klaus
Hong Kong
Hooker, Evelyn
Hopkins Symptom Checklist
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Horney, Karen D.
Hotline Services
Hovland, Carl Iver
Hull, Clark Leonard
Human Behavior and the Natural
Human-Computer Interface Design
Human Error Analysis
Human Factors Psychology
Humanistic Psychology
Human Origins
Human Performance Theory
Human Resources Research
Hume, David
Humor and Laughter
Hunt, J. McVicker
Hunt, William Alvin
Hunter, Thomas Alexander
Hunter, Walter S.
Husserl, Edmund
Hypothesis Testing
Illusory Correlation
Immune System
Implicit Memory
Impression Formation
Impression Management

Individual Differences
Industrial and Organizational
Psychology: History of the Field
Industrial and Organizational
Psychology: Theories and Methods of
Industrial and Organizational
Psychology: Assessments and
Infancy: Biological Processes
Infancy: Perception and Motor
Infancy: Learning and Cognitive
Infancy: Emotions and Temperament
Infancy: Early Experience and
Informal Learning
Information Display
Information Processing Theories
Informed Consent
Ingenieros, Jose
Inpatient Treatment
Institute for Social Research at the
University of Michigan
Instructional Environment
Instructional Theories
Instructional Treatments
Integrative Psychotherapy
Interamerican Society of Psychology
Interdependence: Interdependence
Interdependence: Interdependence
Intergroup Relations
International Association of Applied
International Classification of Diseases
International Congress of Psychology
International Council of Psychologists
International Psychology
International Relations
International Society for the Study of
Behavioural Development
International Test Commission
International Union of Psychological
Interpersonal Psychotherapy
Interventions Based in Religious
Irritable Bowel Syndrome and
Functional Disorders
Islam and Psychology
Itard, Jean-Marie-Gaspard
Item Response Theory
Jaensch, Erich R.
James, William
Janet, Pierre
Jastrow, Joseph
Jealousy and Envy
Jennings, Herbert Spencer
Job Loss and Unemployment
Job Satisfaction
Job Stress

Jones, Edward Ellsworth
Jones, Mary Cover
Judaism and Psychology
Judd, Charles Hubbard
Jung, Carl Gustav
Just World Belief
Kaila, Eino
Kant, Immanuel
Kantor, Jacob R.
Katona, George
Katz, David
Kaufman Assessment Battery for
Keller, Fred Simmons
Kelley, Truman Lee
Kelly, George Alexander
Kiesow, Federico
Kinsey, Alfred C.
Kirkbride, Thomas S.
Klein, Melanie
Klemm, Otto August
Klineberg, Otto
Klüver, Heinrich
Koch, Sigmund
Koffka, Kurt
Kohlberg, Lawrence
Köhler, Wolfgang
Kraepelin, Emil
Krech, David
Kretschmer, Ernst
Kries, Johannes Von
Krueger, Felix
Külpe, Oswald
Kuo, Zing-Yang
Ladd, George Trumbull
Ladd-Franklin, Christine
La Mettrie, Julien Offray de
Langfeld, Herbert Sidney
Language: An Overview
Language: Language Acquisition
Language: Language and Brain
Language: Language Development,
Syntax, and Communication
Lashley, Karl Spencer
Latent Learning
Lavater, Johann Caspar
Law and Psychology
Law of Effect
Learned Helplessness
Learning: An Overview
Learning: Molecular and Cellular
Learning: Conditioning Approach
Learning: Cognitive Approach for
Learning: Cognitive Approach for
Learning, Transfer of
Learning and Memory: In Humans
Learning and Memory: In Animals
Learning and Motivation
Learning Disabilities
Learning Skills
Learning Technologies
Learning Theories
Le Bon, Gustave

Lehrman, Daniel Sanford
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm
Lewin, Kurt
Life Course Theory
Life Span Psychology Theory
Likert Scale
Lindner, Gustav Adolf
Lipps, Theodor
Locke, John
Locus of Control
Loeb, Jacques
Lombroso, Cesare
Lomov, Boris Fydorovich
Longitudinal Research
Long-Term Potentiation
Lorenz, Konrad
Lotze, Hermann
Love: An Overview
Love: Spiritual Conceptions of Love
Luria, Alexander R.
Mach, Ernst
Machine Design
Mainstreaming and Inclusion
Managed Care
Mandated Reporting
Marbe, Karl
Marx, Karl
Masculine and Feminine Cultures
Maslow, Abraham Harold
Mathematical Psychology
Matsumoto, Matataro
Max Planck Institute for Human
Development and Education
May, Rollo
McClelland, David C.
McCosh, James
McDougall, William
McGeoch, John A.
Mead, George Herbert
Meaning of Life
Measures of Association
Measures of Intelligence: Intelligence
Measures of Intelligence: Biological
Measures of Intelligence: Cognitive
Measures of Intelligence: Legal Issues
Media Effects
Medical Technology Design
Meinong, Alexius
Melton, Arthur
Memory: An Overview
Memory: Coding Processes
Memory: Constructive Processes
Memory: Memory Systems
Memory: Memory and Aging
Memory: Brain Systems
Mental Health Care
Mental Health Law

Mental Imagery
Mental Models
Mental Retardation
Mental Workload
Mentoring Programs
Mesmer, Franz Anton
Messer, August
Meumann, Ernst
Meyer, Adolf
Meyerson, Ignace
Michotte, Albert Edouard
Middle Childhood: Physical and
Biological Development
Middle Childhood: Cognitive
Middle Childhood: Education and
Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional
Middle Childhood: Socialization and
Social Contexts
Miles, Walter Richard
Milgram, Stanley
Milieu Therapy
Military Culture
Military Psychology
Military Service
Mill, James
Mill, John Stuart
Miller, George Armitage
Miller, Neal Elgar
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Minority Psychology
Mnemonic Devices
Montessori, Maria
Mood Disorders
Moral Development
Moral Discourse
Morgan, Clifford Thomas
Morgan, Conwy Lloyd
Motion Perception
Motivation: An Overview
Motivation: Physiological Aspects
Motivation: Assessment
Motora, Yujiro
Motor System
Mouchet, Enrique
Mowrer, O. Hobart
Müller, Georg Elias
Müller, Johannes Peter
Müller-Lyer, Franz Carl
Multicultural Counseling
Multicultural Education
Multimodal Therapy
Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Regression
Multiple Task Performance
Münsterberg, Hugo
Murchison, Carl
Murphy, Gardner
Murray, Henry Alexander
Music Perception
Music Therapy

Mutual-Help and Self-Help
Myers, Charles S.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Narrative Psychology
Narrative Therapy
National Academy of Sciences
National Institute of Mental Health
National Mental Health Association
National Register of Health Service
Providers in Psychology
National Science Foundation
Natural Selection
Nature and Nurture Theories
NEO Personality Inventory
Neuromuscular Disorders
Neuropsychology: Theories
Neuropsychology: Testing
Neuropsychology: Interventions
Newcomb, Theodore Mead
Newell, Allen
Newton, Isaac
New Zealand
Nietzsche, F. W.
Night Terrors
Nissen, Henry Wieghorst
Nomothetic and Idiographic Orientations
Nonhuman Communication
Nonhuman Intelligence
Nonparametric Statistics
Nonrandomized Designs
Nonverbal Communication
Non-Western Therapies
North Africa
Northern Ireland
NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral
Object Relations Theories
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality
Oedipus Complex
Ogden, Robert Morris
Olds, James
Operant Conditioning: An Overview.
Operant Conditioning: Operant
Conditioning Chamber
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Optimism and Pessimism
Organizational Management
Organizational Theories
Osgood, Charles Egerton
Pain: Mechanisms
Pain: Management
Pan, Shu
Panic Disorder
Paranoia or Delusional Disorder
Paranoid Personality Disorder

Parent-Child Relationship: Childhood
Parent-Child Relationship: Adolescence
Parent-Child Relationship: Adulthood
Parent Management Training
Parsons, Frank
Pastoral Counseling
Pattern Recognition
Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
Peak Experiences
Pearson, Karl
Pediatric Psychology
Peer Counseling
Peirce, Charles S.
Perception and Action
Perceptual Constancies
Perceptual Organization
Performing Arts
Personality and Intelligence
Personality Development: Infancy and
Early Childhood
Personality Development: Middle
Childhood and Adolescence
Personality Development: Adulthood
and Aging
Personality Disorders
Personality Psychology: History of the
Personality Psychology: Theories
Personality Psychology: Methods of
Personality Traits
Person-Machine Systems
Personnel Selection: Techniques and
Personnel Selection: Selection and the
Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich
Phenomenological Psychology
Philosophy: An Overview
Philosophy: Philosophy of Mind
Philosophy: Philosophy of Science
Physical Disabilities
Piaget, Jean
Piéron, Henri
Pillsbury, Walter B.
Pinel, Philippe
Pintner, Rudolf
Piotrowski, Zygmunt A.
Pitch Perception
Placebo Effect in Research Design
Play Therapy
Police Psychology
Political Behavior
Political Decision Making
Political Leadership
Porter, Noah
Postman, Leo Joseph
Postmodern Psychology
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Poverty: Childhood Poverty

Poverty: Adulthood Poverty
Power Motivation
Practical Intelligence
Practitioner Model
Preschool Education
Prescription Privileges
Pressey, Sidney Leavitt
Prevention: An Overview
Prevention: Prevention for Infants and
Young Children
Prevention: Prevention for School-Aged
Children and Adolescents
Prevention: Prevention for Adults
Preyer, Wilhelm
Prince, Morton
Prisoners of War
Prisons and Correctional Institutions
Private Practice
Professional Consultation
Professional Organizations
Projective Techniques
Prosocial Behavior
Prosocial Development in Childhood
and Adolescence
Psi Beta
Psi Chi
Psyche and Soul
Psychoanalysis: History of the Field
Psychoanalysis: Theories
Psychoanalysis: Methods of Study
Psychoanalysis: Psychoanalysis and
Psychoanalysis: Psychoanalytic
Psycholinguistics: An Overview
Psycholinguistics: Syntax and Grammar
Psycholinguistics: Semantics
Psycholinguistics: Discourse
Psycholinguistics: Linguistic
Psychology: Definition
Psychology: Classical Antiquity
Psychology: The Middle Ages
Psychology: Renaissance through the
Psychology: Nineteenth Century through
Psychology: Early Twentieth Century
Psychology: Post-World War II
Psychology of Men
Psychometric Society
Psychonomic Society
Psychosexual Stages

Psychosomatic Illness
Psychotherapy: Research
Psychotherapy: Clinical Practice
Psychotherapy: Approaches
Public Health
Public Policy
Public Service
Punishment: Research
Punishment: Developmental
Purkinje, Johannes
Qualitative Research
Quality of Life
Quetelet, Lambert Adolphe Jacques
Ramón y Cajal, Santiago
Randomized Experiments
Rank, Otto
Ranschburg, Pal
Rapaport, David
Rasch Model
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Raynaud's Disease
Reaction Time
Regional Psychological Associations:
Regional Psychological Associations in
the United States
Regional Psychological Associations:
Regional Psychological Associations in
Rehabilitation Psychology
Reid, Thomas
Relaxation Training
Religion and Psychology: An Overview
Religion and Psychology: Theories and
Religion and Psychotherapy: An
Religion and Psychotherapy: Beliefs and
Training of Psychotherapists
Religious Experience: Belief and Faith
Religious Experience: Religious
Experiences and Practices
Religious Symbol, Myth, and Ritual
Religious Values and Mental Health
Replication in Research
Representational Tools
Repressed Memory
Reproductive System
Republic of Ireland
Research Dissemination
Research Methods: History of the Field
Research Methods: Concepts and
Residential Treatment Programs
Retrieval Processes
Reversal Theory
Révèsz, Geza
Ribot, Théodule Armand
Richter, Curt Paul
Right to Refuse Treatment
Rivers, William Halse

Rogers, Carl Ranson
Role Theory
Romanes, George John
Rorschach, Hermann
Rorschach Test
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques
Royce, Josiah
Rubin, Edgar
Rural Communities
Rush, Benjamin
Russia and the Former Soviet Republics
Sanford, Edmund Clark
Santayana, George
Savant Syndrome
Scale Development
Scene Perception
Schachter, Stanley
Schedules of Reinforcement
Schlosberg, Harold
School-Based Collaboration and
School Consultation
School Dropout
School Effectiveness and Improvement
School Psychology
School Readiness
School Refusal
School Suspension and Expulsion
School Transitions
Schopenhauer, Arthur
Schumann, Friedrich
Scientist-Practitioner Model
Scott, Walter Dill
Scripture, Edward Wheeler
Sears, Pauline S.
Sears, Robert R.
Seashore, Carl Emil
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Sechenov, Ivan Mikhailovich
Secondary Education
Seguin, Edouard
Self-Concept and Self-Representation
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Semantic Differential
Sensation Seeking
Sensory Stores
Sensory Systems
Sex Segregation
Sex Stratification
Sex Therapy
Sexual Conditioning
Sexual Disorders
Sexual Dysfunctions
Sexual Harassment
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexual Masochism
Sexual Orientation
Sexual Sadism
Shakow, David

Shepard, Roger N.
Sherif, Muzafer
Sherrington, Charles Scott
Sibling Relationships
Sign Languages
Simarro, Luis
Simon, Herbert Alexander
Simon, Théodore
Single-Case Experimental Design
Situated Cognition
Situation Awareness
Sixteen Personality Factor
Skinner, Burrhus Frederic
Sleep Apnea
Sleep Disorders
Small, Willard S.
Social Cognition
Social-Cognitive Theory
Social Comparison
Social Competence Programs
Social Desirability
Social Distance
Social Facilitation
Social Gerontological Theories
Social Identity
Social Influence Theory
Social Justice
Social Motivation
Social Network Analysis: Definition and
Social Network Analysis: Concepts,
Applications, and Methods
Social Neuroscience
Social Phobia
Social Psychology: Methods of Study
Social Psychology: Applied Social
Social Representations
Social Settings
Social Skills Training
Social Support
Society for Neuroscience
Society for Psychotherapy Research
Society for Research in Child
Society of Experimental Psychologists
Society of Experimental Social
Sociohistorical Process
Solomon, Richard Lester
Somatoform Disorders
South Africa
South America, South Cone Zone of
Southeast Asia
Spatial Vision
Spearman, Charles Edward
Special Education
Specific Phobia
Speech and Language Disorders
Speech Production
Spence, Kenneth Wartinbee
Spencer, Herbert
Sperry, Roger Wolcott
Spinoza, Baruch (Benedictus de)

Sport Performance Interventions
Sport Psychology: History of the Field
Sport Psychology: Research
Sport Psychology: Assessment
Sport Psychology: Social Psychology
Spranger, Eduard
Standardized Tests
Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale
Statistical Significance
Stellar, Eliot
Stern, Louis William
Stevens, Stanley Smith
Stone, Calvin P.
Stout, George Frederick
Stratton, George M.
Stress: Definition and Physiology
Stress: Measurement
Stress: Impact on Health
Strong, Edward Kellogg, Jr.
Strong Interest Inventory
Student Characteristics
Stumpf, Carl
Subliminal Perception
Sub-Saharan Africa
Suburban Communities
Sullivan, Harry Stack
Sully, James
Sumner, Francis Cecil
Super, Donald Edwin
Suppes, Patrick
Survey Methodology
Symbolic Interaction Theory
Systematic Desensitization
System Error Analysis
Systems Theory
Taine, Hippolyte
Taste: Biological Organization
Taste: Behavioral and Functional
Taste Aversion Learning
Tavistock Institute
Teachers: Assessment of Teacher
Teachers: Teacher Relationships
Team Training
Technical and Professional Education
Technology: Technology and
Technology: Technology and Disabilities
Terman, Lewis Madison
Terminal Decline
Test Utility
Teuber, Hans-Lukas
Thematic Apperception Test
Theoretical and Philosophical
Theory of Mind
Theory of Reasoned Action

Therapeutic Communities
Thibaut, John W.
Thinking: An Overview
Thinking: Problem Solving
Thinking: Reasoning
Thomson, Godfrey Hilton
Thorndike, Edward Lee
Thurstone, Louis Leon
Time Perception
Tinbergen, Nikolaas
Titchener, Edward Bradford
Token Economy
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Touch: Biological Organization
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Training: An Overview
Training: Special Training Issues
Transpersonal Psychology
Transportation Systems Design
Troland, Leonard Thompson
Tversky, Amos
Twelve-Step Programs
Tyler, Leona E.
Underwood, Benton J.
United States Department of Veterans
Unobtrusive Measures
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Urban Communities
Varona y Pera, Enrique José
Violence and Aggression
Violence Risk Assessment
Virtual Communities
Virtual Reality
Vision and Sight: Structure and Function
Vision and Sight: Behavioral and
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Vision and Sight: Age-Related Changes,
Optical Factors, and Neural Processes
Visual Adaptation
Visual and Design Arts
Visual Illusions
Visual Impairment: Physical Causes
Visual Impairment: Psychological
Visual Search
Vives, Juan Luis
Voluntary and Involuntary
Vygotsky, Lev Semenovich
War and Conflict: Effects on General
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Ward, James
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Watson, John B.
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Wechsler Intelligence Tests
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Wellness and Illness
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Women's Health Issues
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ABORTION. The medical or surgical termination of a
pregnancy, abortion is one of the oldest, most com­
monly practiced, and most controversial medical pro­
cedures currently performed in the United States. It
has been a legal procedure in all states since Roe v.
Wade ( 1 9 73). when the Supreme Court ruled that the
abortion decision was protected by a woman's right to
privacy. The Court also noted that the state has legiti­
mate interests in protecting both the pregnant
woman's health and potential human life, interests
that grow and reach a compelling pOint at later states
of gestation. Subsequent Supreme Court decisions
have eroded the broad abortion rights articulated in
Roe, while at the same time upholding the general
principle of that decision. For example, in Webster v.
Reproductive Health Services ( 1 989), and Planned Parent­
hood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey ( 1 992), the
Court significantly expanded the states' ability to place
restrictions on access to abortion, so long as these re­
strictions do not impose an "undue burden" on
women seeking abortions.
Approximately 1 .5 million legal abortions have been
performed each year in the United States since Roe v.
Wade. resulting in the annual termination of about 25%
of known pregnancies. Most abortions (more than
90'XI) are performed in the first trimester of pregnancy;
less than 1 % are performed at more than 20 weeks.
The abortion rate in the United States has been grad­
ually declining since the early 1 980s. This decline may
be due to a variety of factors. They include the de­
creased availability of abortion services; increased ha­
rassment by antiabortion activists; the increased cost
of obtaining an abortion; reluctance of providers to
perform abortions at more than 1 3 weeks gestation;
changing attitudes toward abortion and unwed moth­
erhood; exclusion of abortion from Medicaid coverage;
and legislative barriers such as the implementation of
waiting periods and parental consent rules.

Role of Psychologists

The American Psychological Association (APA) and in­
dividual psychologists have had a long history of in­
volvement in matters related to psychological factors
associated with abortion and in disseminating results
of research on abortion-related issues. In 1 969, the
APA Council of Representatives adopted a resolution
that identified termination of unwanted pregnancies as
a mental health and child welfare issue, resolving that
termination of pregnancy be considered a civil right of
the pregnant woman. In 1 980, APA passed a resolution
supporting the right to conduct scientific research on
abortion. In 1989, APA passed a resolution to initiate
a public awareness effort to correct the record on the
scientific findings of abortion research, and appointed
a panel of experts to review the best scientific studies
of abortion outcomes. The report of this panel was pub­
lished in 1 990 in Science.
Individual psychologists conduct crisis pregnancy
counseling, help women and girls decide how to resolve
an unwanted pregnancy, and counsel women who have
had an abortion and who report associated distress.
Psychological researchers conduct and disseminate re­
search on attitudes toward abortion. psychological re­
sponses to abortion. and predictors of those responses.
Psychologists also serve as expert witnesses in court
cases dealing with abortion-related issues.
Characteristics of Abortion Patients

Demographic characteristics of women obtaining abor­
tions are derived from national surveys of abortion pro­
viders. According to the Alan Guttmacher Institute. the
majority of women obtaining abortions are young (55%
are younger than 25) and never married (66%). The
majority have had one or more children (55%). but no
prior abortions (53%). Based on total numbers, more
White women (61%) than African American or HisI


panic women obtain abortions. However, the abortion
rate for White women is lower than it is for minority
women. Black women are approximately three times as
likely to have an abortion as White women and His­
panic women are roughly two times as likely to do so.
Abortion rates are also disproportionately higher
among women who are disadvantaged economically
because of poverty or lack of education. Many of these
demographic factors are intercorrelated, making it dif­
ficult to attribute differences in abortion rates to any
single variable.
The most common reasons women report for ob­
taining an abortion are concern that having a baby at
that point would interfere with work, school, or other
responsibilities; the inability to afford a baby financially;
and partner-related reasons. Motivations to have an
abortion differ substantially among different subgroups
of women. Adult mothers, for example, are more likely
than nonmothers to cite as reasons for obtaining an
abortion, completion of childbearing along with re­
sponsibilities to others, including other children.
Controversy over Psychological
Consequences of Abortion

Contemporary debates over abortion often focus on psy­
chological issues. One controversy centers on whether
abortion is psychologically damaging to women. This
controversy became a public policy debate in 1 9 8 7.
when President Ronald Reagan directed Surgeon­
General C. Everett Koop to prepare a report on the psy­
chological and physical health effects of abortion. After
reviewing the evidence. Koop declined to issue such a
report. Rather. in a letter to President Reagan, the
surgeon-general concluded that "the scientific studies
do not provide conclusive data on the health effects of
abortion on women."
Individuals on both sides of the abortion debate dis­
agree with Koop's conclusion. Prolife advocates argue
that over time, many or most women who have an
abortion suffer psychological damage as a result. Ad­
vocates of this view have lobbied the American Psy­
chiatric Association to recognize postabortion syn­
drome as a psychiatric diagnostic category. Support for
this position is based on clinical case studies that derive
from two separate sources: ( 1 ) women who have sought
professional help for psychological problems following
their abortions; (2) women who were specifically solic­
ited as participants because they identified themselves
in advance as having suffered psychological trauma fol­
lowing abortion. In addition to relying on samples of
women who identified themselves as experiencing post­
abortion adjustment problems, many of these studies
fail to distinguish between whether the abortion was
performed legally or illegally and whether it was per­
formed in the first or second trimester of pregnancy.
Because of these methodological issues. this group of

studies is likely to be biased in the direction of over­
estimating the prevalence of postabortion problems
among women who obtain legal, first trimester abor­
Psychological experts, including the panel convened
by the APA. argue in contrast that the very best sci­
entific studies show that freely chosen abortion, partic­
ularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. does not pose
a significant mental health risk for most women. This
conclusion is derived from studies based on random
samples of women who have arrived at a doctor's office.
clinic. or hospital for an abortion. They are asked to
participate in a study and are then interviewed on the
day of their abortion and/or some time afterward.
These studies generally find that most women do not
report psychological distress after an abortion and that
the highest rates of distress are generally reported prior
to the abortion. The conclusion that abortion does not
pose a mental health risk for most women is also de­
rived from epidemiological studies of large populations
of women whose prior abortion history is known. These
studies generally find no higher incidence of psycho­
logical problems among women who have had an abor­
tion than among women who have not. Although these
studies also have methodological limitations. they are
generally much sounder scientifically than those used
to support the argument that severe negative reactions
to abortion are common.
Part of the difficulty in drawing firm conclusions
about the psychological effects of abortion results from
the fact it is impossible to separate the effects of abor­
tion from the effects of experiencing an unwanted preg­
nancy. Both of these are potentially stressful events. Ul­
timately, the mental health risks of abortion must be
compared to the mental health risks of its alternatives­
motherhood or adoption. However, no well-controlled
studies are available that compare all three groups, per­
haps because relatively few women choose the adoption
alternative. In contrast, a number of well-designed
studies have compared the psychological well-being of
women who have had abortions to the well-being of
women who have carried an unintended pregnancy to
term and kept the child. The measures of well-being
that were used in these studies include self-esteem. anx­
iety. incidence of psychiatric disorder. progress in
school. and economic status. All of these studies have
reached the same conclusion-that the well-being of
women who have abortions is generally either better
than, or not significantly different from. that of women
who carry an unplanned pregnancy to term and keep
the baby.
Although most women do not experience Significant
psychological distress following an abortion, some do.
The reactions of these women should not be dismissed
as inconsequential and deserve attention from psychol­
ogists. It is important to remember. however. that dis-

tress that occurs after an abortion is not necessarily
caused by the abortion. even though it may be attrib­
uted to this event. Furthermore. it is important to dis­
tinguish between feelings such as sadness and regret
that can be experienced after any difficult life choice.
and significant mental health outcomes. such as de­
pression or psychosis. Women who feel a sense of sad­
ness. loss. or regret over an abortion may not neces­
sarily experience a psychological disorder following an
Predictors of Psychological
Responses to Abortion

Adjustment to abortion can best be conceptualized
within a stress and coping framework. From this per­
spective. the discovery of an unintended pregnancy can
be a stressful life event. and abortion may be used as
one means of coping with this stress. However. the
abortion procedure may represent an additional source
of stress that also requires coping efforts. Just as there
is variation in how individuals react to other types of
life stressors. so too is there variation in how women
react to abortion. Research indicates that many of the
same personal and social resources and liabilities that
predict adaptation to other types of life stressors also
predict adaptation to unwanted pregnancy and abor­
Personal Factors. Women's general personality
characteristics and their specific attitudes and feelings
about pregnancy and abortion are important predictors
of their mental health following abortion. Especially
important in this regard is a woman's mental health
before she discovered that she was pregnant. Women
who are already experiencing psychological problems
before they discover a pregnancy are far more likely
than others to experience psychological problems at a
later time, regardless of whether they choose to have
an abortion. Hence. it is often inappropriate to conclude
that psychological problems present after an abortion
were caused by the abortion.
Women who have high expectations (or self-efficacy)
concerning their own ability to cope with an abortion.
or who initially appraise the abortion as less stressful,
show higher postabortion adaptation than do women
who have lower expectations. Women's personality
characteristics also predict adaptation to abortion.
Women with personality characteristics such as high
self-esteem, an optimistic outlook. and an internal locus
of control initially appraise their abortions as less
stressful. have higher coping expectations. use more
adaptive postabortion coping strategies, are more sat­
isfied with their abortion decision. and have better men­
tal health postabortion than do women who lack these
personality resources. Women who have difficulty
reaching the decision to have the abortion, or who re­
port that the abortion conflicts with their personal or

religious beliefs, report more postabortion adaptation
problems. This is also true of women who report high
levels of commitment to the pregnancy and those who
report that the pregnancy was meaningful and in­
The strategies that women use to cope after having
an abortion can also affect their postabortion adapta­
tion. Coping refers to the cognitive and behavioral ef­
forts that people engage in to manage stressful events
and/or the emotions related to those events. Coping
strategies that are associated with better postabortion
mental health include trying to accept the abortion,
grow from it, and/or reframe it in a more positive light.
Coping strategies associated with decreases in post­
abortion mental health include trying to cope with
abortion-related emotions by avoiding thoughts of the
abortion. denying it or dwelling on it.
Social and Cultural Factors. Unwanted preg­
nancy and abortion occur in a social context and this
context can also exert an important influence on ad­
aptation to abortion. One important aspect of the social
context is how others close to the woman react to her
abortion decision. Women who perceive high levels of
social support from their conception partner, parents,
and/or friends for their abortion decision are more sat­
isfied with their decision and have better mental health
postabortion than women who lack perceived social
support from close others. Social conflict with close oth­
ers. in contrast. can be a significant source of addi­
tional stress and can result in poorer postabortion men­
tal health.
The larger cultural context within which abortion
occurs can also affect women's adaptation to abortion.
Publicized opposition to abortion may cause women
who obtain abortions to feel vulnerable to being stig­
matized and shamed by others. Feelings of stigma may
lead women to avoid talking with others about their
experience. Exposure to antiabortion picketing at abor­
tion clinics can also negatively affect women's adjust­
ment. Women who are exposed to aggressive antiabor­
tion picketing or who are blocked as they enter a clinic
to obtain an abortion are more upset by the picketers
and are more vulnerable to depreSSion immediately
postabortion than are women not exposed to these en­
Legal Controversies
Surrounding Abortion

Opponents and supporters of the right to abortion have
frequently clashed in the courts on a variety of issues
since the historic Roe v. Wade decision. One controversy
centers on so-called partial-birth abortions. or abor­
tions that take place after the fetus is viable. Although
such abortions are extremely rare, as of 1998 many
states have adopted bans on them. Another controversy
centers on "informed consent." Many states have




passed legislation mandating that prior t o the proce­
dure women be informed of the physical and/or psy­
chological risks of obtaining an abortion. The nature
of these risks. however. is controversial. as noted above.
Furthermore. true informed consent cannot be ob­
tained without also informing women of the risks as­
sociated with childbearing.
Some of the most contentious legal issues surround­
ing abortion focus on minors. In 1976 the Supreme
Court of the United States decided in Planned Parenthood
of Central Missouri v. Danforth that minors have a con­
stitutional right to privacy in obtaining an abortion.
but that minors' rights to privacy may not be as com­
pelling as those of adults. and accordingly. that states
may infringe on those rights given a "significant state
interest" in doing so. By 1997. a majority of the u.s.
states had enacted statutes requiring minors to either
involve parents in abortion decisions (by notifying them
of the abortion or by obtaining their consent) or to
petition a judge for permission to obtain the abortion
without parental notification (commonly referred to as
a j udicial bypass) .
In making these decisions to constrain the ability of
minors to obtain an abortion. the Supreme Court made
several assumptions. First. the Court assumed that mi­
nors would be especially at risk for severe. negative.
postabortion sequelae and that such sequelae are not
an issue in carrying a pregnancy to term. There is no
evidence. however. to support these assumptions. Sec­
ond. the Court voiced concern that minors would be
too immature to make a sound. well-reasoned decision
without the benefit of input from an adult. Psycholog­
ical research on cognitive development and decision­
making skills. however, suggests that by about the age
of 14. most young people are similar to adults in their
ability to reason abstractly about and make decisions
concerning relatively complex hypothetical scenarios.
Finally. at the heart of the parental consent laws is
the idea that parental consultation is desirable and in
the best interests of the minor and her family. Even
when no law exists that mandates parental involve­
ment. the majority of minors do consult with at least
one parent prior to making an abortion decision. Fac­
tors that make it less likely that a minor will consult
with parents include ( 1 ) the fear that parents will be
hurt. unsympathetic. or even violent in response; (2)
the minor lives independently or already has children;
(3) she has experienced a chaotic home environment
characterized by substance abuse. violence, or sexual
abuse; or (4) she suspects that her parents will force
her into making a speCific, undesired decision regarding
resolution of the pregnancy.
Critics of consent laws argue that minors who come
from supportive family backgrounds will consult with
parents without such consultation being legally man-

dated, and that girls who come from unsupportive, dys­
functional. or violent homes will not benefit from the
forced disclosure of their pregnancy. Research is con­
sistent with this view. Women who disclose to others
who do not support or who oppose their abortion de­
cision are more distressed postabortion than women
who do not disclose or who disclose to others who are
supportive. Critics of consent laws further argue that
these laws create delays in seeking care among a group
of women who are already unlikely to seek prompt
medical care, thereby increasing the rate of later-term
abortions and the rate of teen parenthood.
Another legal controversy surrounding abortion fo­
cuses on laws and injunctions against antiabortion
demonstrators. Prolife demonstrators in the United
States frequently picket abortion clinics and attempt to
dissuade women from entering. They sometimes engage
in more violent activities such as clinic blockades, bomb
threats, stalking of clinic personnel, and murder. Abor­
tion rights activists have sought through legal means
to restrict the scope and impact of antiabortion dem­
onstrators at facilities where abortions are performed.
Many communities have enacted injunctions mandat­
ing that demonstrators remain a specified distance from
women entering clinics. In 1 994, President Clinton
signed into law a bill that makes it a federal crime to
use force, the threat of force, or physical obstruction to
intimidate abortion clinic workers or clients of clinics.
[See also Women's Health Issues.]


Comprehensive Sources
Beckman, 1. }., & Harvey, S. M. (Eds.). ( 1 998). The new civil

war: The psychology. culture, and politics of abortion.
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
A broad overview of the SOciopolitical, cultural, and
interpersonal contexts in which abortion currently oc­
curs in the United States. Also includes information on
issues involved in counseling women who have had
Wilmoth, G. (Ed.) . ( 1992). Psychological perspectives on
abortion and its alternatives. Journal of Social Issues,
48(3), 1 2 1 6. This special issue of }SI presents ten ar­
ticles, mostly written by psychological experts on abor­
tion. The articles discuss research, policy, and judicial
issues related to abortion and present evidence about
many aspects of the debate about the consequences of
abortion. This is an excellent source of information
about psychological perspectives on abortion.

Abortion Rates and Characteristics of A bortion Patients
Henshaw. S. K. (1995). Factors hindering access to abor­
tion services. Family Planning Perspectives. 27, 54-59.
Henshaw, S. K., & Kost, K. (I996). Abortion patients in
1 994-1995: Characteristics and contraceptive use. Fam-


ily Planning Perspectives. 28. 140-147. Describes char­
acteristics of u.s. abortion patients. using data collected
by the Allan Guttmacher Institute.
Torres. A . . & Forrest. J. D. (1988). Why do women have
abortions? Family Planning Perspectives. 20. 169-176.

Psychological Responses to Abortion
Adler. N. Eoo David. H. P.. Major. B. N .. Roth. S. R Russo.
N. E. & Wyatt. G. E. ( 1990). Psychological responses af­
ter abortion. Science. 248. 41-43. Presents conclusions
of the APA panel convened to review the scientific ev­
idence on the psychological consequences of abortion.
Gilchrist. A. C .. Hannaford. P. C .. Frank. P. . & Kay. C. R.
( 1995). Termination of pregnancy and psychiatric mor­
bidity. British Journal of Psychiatry. 167. 243-248. Re­
port of a prospective cohort study of 13.261 women
with unplanned pregnancy recruited by their family
doctors in the United Kingdom. Compares the rate of
psychiatric disorder following childbirth versus termi­
nation of the pregnancy.
Russo. N. Foo & Zierk. K. L. (1992). Abortion. childbearing.
and women's well-being. Professional Psychology: Re­
search and Practice. 23 (4) . 269-280. Report of an em­
pirical study examining the relationship of the experi­
ence of abortion to self-esteem in a national sample of
5.295 U.S. women who were followed from 1979 to

Zabin. L. Soo Hirsch. M. Boo & Emerson. M. R. (1989). When
urban adolescents choose abortion: Effects on educa­
tion. psychological status. and subsequent pregnancy.
Family Planning Perspectives. 21. 248-255. Report of an
empirical study in which low-income African American
adolescents were followed from the day they came to a
clinic tor a pregnancy test until two years later. Com­
pared the psychological outcomes. educational out­
comes. and subsequent pregnancy of girls who were
initially pregnant and had an abortion. with those of
girls who were pregnant and kept the child. and girls
who were not initially pregnant.

Postabortion SelrHelp
De Puy. Coo & Dovitch. D. ( 1997). The healing choice: Your
gUide to emotional recovery after an abortion. New York:
fireside Books. This is a nonjudgmental self-help guide
for women who have experienced abortion and who are
experiencing distress. It is written by two psychother­
apists and is based on their interviews with forty
women who had experienced one or more abortions
and five men.

Predictors of Psychological Responses to Abortion
Adler. N. Eoo David. H. P.. Major. B. N .. Roth. S. H .. Russo.
N. F.. & Wyatt. G. E. ( 1992). Psychological factors in
abortion: A review. American Psychologist. 47. 1 1 94r 204. Overview of the predictors of psychological re­
sponses to abortion written by members of the APA
panel appointed to review the scientific literature.
Major. Boo Richards. Coo Cooper. M. Loo Cozzarelli. C .. & Zu­
bek. J. (1998). Personal resilience. cognitive appraisals.
and coping: An integrative model of adjustment to

abortion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
74. 735-752. Report of an empirical study which ex­
amined the impact of personality. appraisals. and post­
abortion coping strategies on postabortion mental
health among 442 women who had first trimester abor­

Adolescents and Abortion
Ambuel. B. (1995). Adolescents. unintended pregnancy
and abortion: The struggle for a compassionate social
policy. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 4. I­
S. A recent review of psychological research addressing
whether adolescents are capable of giving informed
consent for an abortion. The author also discusses the
pros and cons of mandating parental involvement in
minors' abortion decisions.
Henshaw. S. K . . & Kost. K. (1992). Parental involvement in
minors' abortion decisions. Family Planning Perspectives.
24. 1 96-213. Based on a nationally representative sam­
ple of unmarried minors having an abortion. the au­
thors present statistics regarding the number who told
family members about the intended abortion. their rea­
sons for disclosure or nondisclosure. and the reactions
of family members who were told or found out about
the minors' decision to abort the pregnancy.

Antiabortion Picketing
Cozzarelli. C .. & Major. B. (1998). The impact of antiabor­
tion activities on women seeking abortions. In L. J.
Beckman & S. M. Harvey (Eds.). The new civil war: The
psychology. culture. and politics of abortion (pp. 8I-I04).
Washington. DC: American Psychological Association.
Reviews research on antiabortion activities and on the
relationship between exposure to antiabortion picketing
and women's postabortion mental health.
Brenda Major and Catherine Cozzarelli

ABREACTION refers to a clinical phenomenon in
which experiences of traumas are recollected. often af­
ter a period in which they have not occupied conscious
attention. During recollection. the experience is one of
reliving the memory. Intense emotions are often felt
and expressed.
Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer used this term in
their book. Studies on Hysteria (r893-18 9Sir9SS) . They
reported that abreaction might be brought about by the
therapist's hypnotic suggestion that a patient remember
what instigated the onset of a symptom. These tech­
niques were part of a method aimed at evoking re­
pressed memories. Catharsis. the discharge of emo­
tional potentials by speaking of the related ideas and
feelings. was believed to be a curative process.
Freud later modified these early psychoanalytic con­
cepts. He reported that reduction of defensiveness
against recollection, and working through topics. was



a central part of an overall process of change from a
more symptomatic to a less symptomatic state. In other
words, abreaction alone did not produce lasting change.
In contemporary psychotherapeutic practices, abre­
action is no longer a central goal of technique. Even in
posttraumatic stress syndromes, recollection of what
happened is only a first step in a larger scope of work.
When a person suffers from intrusive and avoidant
symptoms as part of a posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD), the goals are (I) to differentiate reality from
fantasy; (2) to increase the individual's sense of per­
sonal relationship to what has really happened; (3) to
modify pathological defensiveness against acknowledg­
ing implications to the self; and (4) to work through
closely connected issues of identity, relationships, and
future life plans.
In the contemporary setting, abreaction refers to a
phenomenon in which the patient may be startled by
the intensity of his or her emotional reaction upon rec­
ollection and review of episodes of the past. The patient
may enter a state in which he or she feels a loss of self­
control due to the magnitude of emotion. It is impor­
tant in such instances to increase control. This can be
done by expanding concepts into coherent stories about
what happened, and by translating images and somatic
sensations into words. The working-through process,
then, is an aspect of social communication plus an in­
ternal connection of ideas that had been previously dis­
sociated or inhibited from contemplation.
After the intense emotional experiences of an abre­
action, even one with expression of negative and dis­
tressing emotions, a person may feel exhilarated. Be­
cause of such reactions, abreaction may seem like a
"breakthrough," a decisively curative moment. and
thus it may be overvalued. While such experiences may
be one step in a working through and a progressive
coping with past traumas, it is important not to over­
estimate the therapeutic value of abreactive phe­
[See also Catharsis; Consciousness and Unconscious­
ness; Memory; and Psychotherapy.]


Bibring, E. ( 1 954). Psychoanalysis and the dynamic psy­
chotherapies. Journal oj the American Psychoanalytic As­
sociation, 2, 745-770.
Breuer. J., & Freud, S. ( 1955) Studies on hysteria. In J. Stra­
chey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition oj the com­
plete psychological works oj Sigmund Freud (Vol. 2). Lon­
don: Hogarth Press. (Original works published 1 8931 895)
Freud. S. ( 1958) Remembering, repeating and working­
through. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard
edition oj the complete psychological works oj Sigmund

Freud (Vol. 12, PP. 146-156). London: Hogarth Press.

(Original work published 1914)
Horowitz, M. ( 1997). Stress response syndromes (3rd ed.)
Northvale, NJ: Aronson.
Horowitz, M .. Marmar, C .. Weiss, D .. et al. ( 1984). Brief
psychotherapy of bereavement reactions: The relation­
ship of process to outcome. Archives oj General Psychi­
atry, 41, 438-448.
Mardi Horowitz

ACADEMIA EUROPAEA. Founded in 1 9 8 8 to promote
learning, education, and research, the Academia Eu­
ropaea is an international. nongovernmental associa­
tion of individual scientists and scholars involved in a
wide range of disciplines, including the physical sci­
ences and technology, the biological sciences and med­
icine, mathematics, the humanities, the social and cog­
nitive sciences, economics, and law. As of September
1999, the organization included some 1 ,800 members
from 33 European and 5 non-European countries.
The purposes and objectives of the Academia Euro­
paea are (I) to promote and support excellence in Eu­
ropean scholarship, research, and education; (2) to pro­
mote the development of a European identity in
scholarship and research and to conduct analyses of
issues relevant to Europe; (3) to provide independent
advice on matters of scholarly interest or concern to
legislatures, governments, universities, the communi­
cations media, and to professional, industrial. and com­
mercial organizations in Europe; (4) to encourage in­
terdisciplinary and international studies and research,
with particular reference to European issues; (5) to en­
courage and assist collaboration between scholars and
centers of scholarship in Europe and to promote col­
laboration in education and training; and (6) to en­
courage and assist the mobility of scholars and stu­
dents in Europe.
The Academia has three membership categories: Or­
dinary, Honorary, and Foreign. The great majority of
the Academia's membership is in the Ordinary cate­
gory. There are about 50 foreign members. The election
of new members is based on nominations from the ex­
isting membership.
The Academia Europaea is governed by a council of
12 members elected at the annual meeting, and by a
president, three vice presidents, and a treasurer who
form a board. Each member of the Academia is placed
in one of 12 interdisciplinary sections, which them­
selves have a chair and committee.
As an independent body, the Academia Europaea re­
ceives financial support from its members and from
other sources, including government ministries and re­
search funding councils in several European countries,

the European Commission, private foundations, chari­
ties, banks, and industries. The Academia is established
as a charity under United Kingdom law.
Psychology is well represented in the membership of
the Academia Europaea, which includes Paul Baltes,
Alan Baddeley, Pieter Drenth, Uta Frith, Willem Levelt,
David Magnusson, Lea Pulkkinen, Michael Rutter,
Klaus Scherer. Hans Spada, and many others. Initially,
psychology formed a subject group within the Acade­
mia, but. as a result of a reorganization into more in­
terdisciplinary sections, psychology is now included
within the behavioral sciences section.
A three-day scientific meeting is held each year, cen­
tered upon a series of interdisciplinary symposia on a
wide range of subjects. Among the many issues which
have been addressed are the following: the responsibil­
ity of the individual scholar to society, human origins;
European linguistic diversity and unity; brain and cog­
nition; climatic change in recent millennia; the classical
heritage: and nonlinearity and chaotic behavior. Many
of the papers have subsequently been published.
The Erasmus Lecture and Medal were introduced in
[992 to provide an opportunity for Academia members
and others to hear a renowned scholar. The Erasmus
lecturers to date have been Janos Kornai, Ernst Mest­
macker. Lawrence Freedman, Alain Touraine, Hubert
Markl. Paul Crutzen, Peter Burke, and Raoul van Cae­
The Academia Europaea organizes special working
groups and workshops to address topics of scientific or
academic interest. Two major themes have been edu­
cation and the impact of information technology on
society. Workshops have included Psychosocial Prob­
lems Among Young People; Higher Education in the
Twenty-First Century; The Idea of Progress; Teaching
Science to Children; The Quality of Life in Old Age; The
Impact of Electronic Publishing; and Interdisciplinarity
and the Organization of Knowledge. External sponsor­
ship is sought to conduct these workshops, and usually
the results are published. Psychosocial Disorq.ers in Young
People: Time Trends and Their Causes, edited by M . Rutter
and D. Smith, is one such publication.
Since 1 993 the Academia has organized a system for
giving prize awards to young scientists from the repub­
lics of the Commonwealth of Independent States, on
the basis of open competitions assessed by international
experts. In addition, since 1 995 prizes have been pro­
vided for young scientists from the Baltic republics.
The Academia issues a semiannual newsletter, The
Tree, and a quarterly journal. the European Review,
which is distributed to all members and is also available
on subscription from Cambridge University Press. The
European Review includes high-quality papers, fre­
quently of an interdisciplinary character, and articles
related to other Academia activities.

One of the principles underlying the foundation of
the Academia was the need for independent advice to
public and private bodies. With its membership ap­
proaching 2,000 eminent scientists and scholars from
many disciplines, able to offer independent comment
free from any national or organizational bias, the Ac­
ademia is well placed to offer advice on scientific or
academic matters in Europe.
The following are examples of policy advice provided
by the Academia Europaea:
In 1990 and 1991 the Academia was invited by the
Conference of European Science Ministers to advise on
research on the human genome in Europe. The Aca­
demia created an international expert group that pre­
pared a report and presented it to European ministers.
This study took place at a time when many of the im­
plications of genome research, and the scale of the
task, were poorly understood. The Academia's report
helped to clarify some of these issues at a high level.
The European Science and Technology Assembly
(ESTA) advises the European Commission on matters
related to its scientific programs. About forty of the one
hundred members of ESTA are also members of the
In 1996 the Academia was invited by the Netherlands
Research Organisation (NWO) to organize a workshop
on current developments in the management of higher
education and to advise on policy implications for the
Also in I996 the State Committee of the Ukraine for
Science and Technology invited the Academia to con­
duct an evaluation of the quality of science in the
Ukraine, and to participate in an advisory committee
on the reorganization of the country's science and re­


Academia Europaea. (I998). Directory. London: Author.
The Academia Europaea Directory is reissued periodi­
cally with current information about the Academia.
Peur J. Colyer

ment of Performance; and Exceptional Students.

The benefits of linking assessment to instruction are
that students' motivation for and involvement in learn­
ing may increase through enhanced performance feed-



back. Teachers are informed o f their students' progress
and difficulties; they are able to evaluate the effective­
ness of their instruction accurately; and they may be
more responsive to students and improve the quality of
their instructional programs.
In considering alternative assessment approaches to
maximize the assessment-intervention link, educators
should use the following seven criteria. Assessment
methods (I) must provide teachers with information
about whether skills and learning strategies have been
acquired; (2) must provide teachers with information
about whether students can apply and integrate skills
and strategies in novel, authentic contexts; (3) must
provide teachers with information about student
growth to help teachers formatively evaluate the ef­
fectiveness of instructional programs and determine
when adjustments are necessary; (4) must produce de­
tailed analyses of student performance, which are
linked to specific instructional actions; (5) must be fea­
sible for routine administration, scoring, and interpre­
tation; (6) should communicate to teachers and stu­
dents what is important to learn; and ( 7) should
produce information that meets well-agreed-on stan­
dards for accuracy and meaningfulness.
Curriculum-Based Measuremeut

The purpose of curriculum-based measurement (CBM)
is to provide teachers with reliable, valid, and effcient
procedures for obtaining student performance data to
evaluate instructional programs and to answer broad
questions about the effectiveness of an instructional
program in producing growth over time and in com­
parison to other instructional approaches.
Curriculum-based measurement incorporates three
key features: (r) the measurement methods are stan­
dardized (Le., the behaviors and procedures for mea­
suring those behaviors are prescribed); (2) the focus of
measurement is long term, so that the testing methods.
diffculty level, and constructs are constant across long
time periods, such as one school year; and (3) the mea­
surement methods are used to index student growth
over time.
In using CBM, teachers establish broad, long-term
outcomes for students. such as performing mathemat­
ics competently at the third-grade level. In assessment
systems that are based on mastery learning, a skills hi­
erarchy comprising the third-grade curriculum is spec­
ifed and student performance is measured one skill at
a time. By contrast, in CBM the teacher relies on es­
tablished methods for measuring student proficiency
across multiple skills embedded in the entire third­
grade curriculum. Specifically. the teacher creates a
pool of equivalent assessment tasks, each of which
samples key problem types from the third-grade curric­
ulum in the same proportion. Each week, students
complete one or two assessments. At the beginning of

the year, students might answer a few problems cor­
rectly; as the year progresses and the curriculum is
taught. however, performance should gradually im­
Because each assessment task is of eqUivalent diffi­
culty and incorporates all types of problems to be
learned that year, CBM produces two types of infor­
mation. First, a total score is graphed over time to rep­
resent global progress; the purpose of the graphed pres­
entation of total scores is to allow teachers and
students to evaluate growth formatively. Second, an
analysis of the student's performance on the curricu­
lum skills is conducted to allow teachers to engage in
problem solving to determine how to improve instruc­
Streugths and Limitations

Because CBM incorporates standard measurement
techniques, which demonstrate reliability and validity,
it provides an accurate and meaningful database. In
addition. because of regular administration of assess­
ments that tap long-term goals. the graphed informa­
tion summarizes overall progress on the year's curric­
ulum. The information can be used to evaluate progress
formatively and to determine when an instructional
change is warranted. In addition. the performance
analysis offers detailed information about student per­
formance on specific skills and can be used to determine
how to improve instruction.
Research has also documented that CBM can be
linked to instruction in ways that enhance teacher
planning. The measurement framework is not tied to
any particular instructional paradigm. Curriculum­
based measurement does not dictate any particular se­
quence with which to introduce skills; it does not com­
mit students to mastery of any skills before addressing
subsequent material; and it allows teachers to use dif­
ferent methods with the same child to determine which
approach is most beneficial.
In addition. the scoring criteria are open and clear
so that students know how they are evaluated and can
set personal learning goals. Furthermore. the structure
of assessments can help teachers identify instructional
content. The assessment demands are also relatively
manageable for teachers in typical classroom settings.
for three reasons: ( I ) the assessments are brief; (2) the
assessment focus remains constant across long periods
of time. so that teachers do not shift assessments for
different students at different times; (3) computer pro­
grams have been developed to administer assessments
and to analyze the information automatically. thus free­
ing teachers from administration. scoring. and man­
agement tasks.
Despite these strengths. there is controversy about
the extent to which CBM indexes skill application and
integration. On the one hand. CBM is designed to assess


a grade-level curriculum broadly. with multiple skills
represented on every assessment task. It therefore
avoids isolated testing of skills and requires a significant
degree of skill transfer. On the other hand. especially
in mathematics. curriculum-based measurement fails
to embed the assessment in complex. real-life situa­
Performance Assessment

Performance assessment is characterized by three key
features: ( I ) the tasks require students to construct.
rather than select. responses: (2) the formats create op­
portunities for teachers to observe student performance
on tasks reflecting real-world requirements; and (3) the
scoring methods reveal patterns in students' learning
and thinking. The major purposes of performance as­
sessment are to direct teachers and students toward
well-integrated learning outcomes and to enhance
teachers' capacity to design superior instructional plans
that lead better student learning.
Varieties of performance assessment are described in
the literature. and a wide range of methods are imple­
mented in classrooms. Because performance assess­
ment is relatively new. underdeveloped. and yet to be
studied. however. practitioners must operationalize
vague design features into specific assessment methods
on their own. These operationalizations. understand­
ably. take on various forms. some of which better ap­
proximate the conceptual and theoretical underpin­
nings of performance assessment.
Strengths and Limitations

Performance assessment is not a clearly defined. readily
usable technology. And although rhetoric suggests per­
formance assessment's potential contribution to in­
structional planning. research examining that contri­
bution is not yet available. What follows. therefore. is
an analysis of performance assessment's potential
strengths and limitations.
A major advantage of performance assessment is its
deliberate focus on authentic performance that requires
students to integrate many skills in age-appropriate,
real-world situations. A second advantage of perfor­
mance assessment is that what teachers and students
see on assessment tasks corresponds closely to desired
instructional goals. Teachers are able to use perfor­
mance assessment information to direct instruction. To
the extent that scoring rubrics are clear. concrete. and
visible to students. pupils use assessment information
to establish and achieve personal learning goals.
Providing inSights into students' strategies is a major
goal of performance assessment. Teachers should also
be able to formulate useful diagnostic decisions on the
basis of the assessment information. Performance as­
sessment permits teachers to identify the strategies stu­
dents use with complicated problems. This focus on

strategies yields rich descriptions with clear connec­
tions to instructional ideas. As with any assessment
method. however. teachers' capacities vary considera­
bly in noting information about students' strategiC be­
havior and relating those descriptions to instructional
techniques. Teachers often experience difficulty in di­
agnostic planning. even when the assessment method
and the conceptual framework for learning are simple.
Consequently. despite the potential for performance as­
sessment to yield rich. detailed analyses of student per­
formance that connect to instructional methods. work
is required to identify the means by which this will be
Despite these strengths. major concerns about per­
formance assessment exist. When a child fails to dem­
onstrate skill application and integration in the context
of a complex performance task. for example. it is not
possible to identify whether failure is a function of poor
strategies for generalizing learned skills or whether the
child has not mastered the skill in isolation.
Moreover. the methods by which formative evalua­
tion decisions are derived from performance assessment
are unclear. Such decisions require scoring methods for
describing progress and procedures for designing alter­
nate forms. Initial work suggests there is diffculty in
achieving comparability among performance assess­
In addition. performance assessment requires large
amounts of teacher time for designing and administer­
ing assessment tasks and for scrutinizing performance
to identify learning patterns and connect patterns to
teaching strategies. Therefore. constraints on teacher
time need to be considered. especially in light of in­
creasing diversity of student skills.
Finally. some have suggested that it may be neces­
sary to rethink the technical standards by which the
quality of performance assessments is judged. One pro­
posal for evaluating the accuracy and meaningfulness
of performance-assessment information includes the
following outcome criteria: ( I ) intended and unin­
tended effects on the ways teachers and students spend
time and think about goals; (2) fairness for different
populations of learners; (3) accuracy of generalizations
to broader achievement domains; (4) consistency of as­
sessment content with key features of the knowledge
domain; (5) comprehensiveness of content coverage;
and (6) costs and efficiency.
[See also Academic Assessment of Performance; Ac­
ademic Intervention; and Intervention.]
Archbald. D. A . & Newmann. F. M. (1988). Beyond stan­

dardized testing: Assessing academic achievement in the sec­
ondary school. Reston. VA: National Association of Sec­
ondary School Principals.



Baker. E . L . (1991. April). Expectations and evidence for al­
ternative assessment. Paper presented at the annual
meeting of the American Educational Research Asso­
ciation, Chicago.
Baker. E. L .. O'Neil. H. F.. & Linn. R. L. ( 1993). Policy and
validity prospects for performance-based assessment.
American Psychologist, 48, 1210-1218.
Baxter, G. p' , Shavelson, R. J., Goldman, S. R., & Pine, J.
(1992). Evaluation of procedure-based scoring for
hands-on science assessment. Journal of Educational
Measurement. 29. 1-17.
Brewer, R. (1991, April). Authentic assessment: The rhetoric
and the reality. Paper presented at the annual meeting
of the American Educational Research Association,
Elliott, S. N. ( 1995). Performance assessment of students'
achievement: Research and practice. Paper prepared for
the Board on Testing and Assessment. National Re­
search Council, National Academy of Sciences.
Fuchs. L. s. ( 1994). Connecting performance assessment to
instruction. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Chil­
Fuchs, L. S., & Deno. S. L. ( 1991). Paradigmatic distinctions
between instructionally relevant measurement models.
Exceptional Children, 57. 48 8-S0L
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D.. Hamlett, C. L .. Phillips. N. R .. &
Bentz, J. ( 1995). Classwide curriculum-based measure­
ment: Helping general educators meet the challenge of
student diversity. Exceptional Children, 61, 440-451.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Stecker, P. M.
(I990). The role of skills analysis in curriculum-based
measurement in math. School Psychology Review, 19, 622.
Fuchs. L. S. , Fuchs. 0.. Hamlett, C. L.. & Stecker. P. M.
(I99I). Effects of curriculum based measurement and
consultation on teacher planning and student achieve­
ment in mathematics operations. American Educational
Research Journal, 28. 6I7-64I.
Linn, R. L. (I991). Dimensions of thinking: Implications
for testing. In B. F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Educational
values and cognitive instruction: Implications for reform
(pp. I79-208). Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum.
Linn, R. L .. Baker. E. L., & Dunbar, S. B. (I99I). Complex,
performance-based assessment: Expectations and vali­
dation criteria. Educational Researcher. 3, 1 5-21.
Marston, D. (I989). A curriculum-based measurement ap­
proach to assessing academic performance: What is it
and why do it. Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing.
special children. New York: Guilford Press.
Research for Better Schools. (I988). Special education in
America's cities: A descriptive study. Philadelphia: Au­
Sammons. K. B., Kobett. B.. Heiss, J.. & Fennell, F. S.
(I992). Linking instruction and assessment in the
mathematics classroom. Arithmetic Teacher. February.
Shavelson, R. J. , Baxter, G. p', & Pine. J. (I992). Perfor­
mance assessments: Political rhetoric and measurement
reality. Educational Researcher, 21. 22-27.
Shepard, L. A. ( 1989). Why we need better assessments.
Educational Leadership, 46, 7-12.

Stiggins, R. J., Griswald, M., & Green, K. R. (I988, April).
Measuring thinking skills through classroom assessment.
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National Council on Measurement in Education. New
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February). Testing in American schools: Asking the right
questions (OTA-SET SI9). Washington, DC: U.S. Govern­
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Lynn S.


assessment of academic performance has long been a
routine part of all educational processes. Defined as
"the process of collecting data for the purpose of ( r )
specifying and verifying problems and (2) making de­
cisions about students" (Salvia & Ysseldyke, r99S, p. 5),
assessment of academic performance aims to assist pro­
fessionals in making decisions about referral. screening,
classification, instructional planning, and student pro­
gress. Typically. the most common method of academic
performance assessment is through teacher-designed
tests. These informal metrics identify specific objectives
that have previously been taught, and evaluate the de­
gree to which students have mastered these objectives.
Beyond these routine, everyday classroom-based as­
sessment procedures. schools have commonly relied on
larger scale evaluation of student performance. Evalu­
ation procedures can be focused on specific individuals
or entire groups of students. When focused on individ­
uals, the assessment methods are designed to make de­
cisions about an individual student's performance, typ­
ically determining the actual acquisition, retention, and
progress of skill development against expected levels of
performance. When focused on groups, the decisions
are more related to the outcomes of program evalua­
tion, examining the degree to which schools or school
districts as a whole are meeting wide-scale, district­
defined objectives.
Methods of asseSSing academic performance can be
categorized into one of four types: standardized norm­
referenced tests, criterion-referenced tests, perfor­
mance-based assessment, and curriculum-based assess­
ment. Norm-referenced tests are designed to determine
a student's standing relative to similar age/grade peers.
The results of the measure are usually reported in some
form of standard scores and can be helpful in estab­
lishing a student's performance against a sample drawn
from a target population. Criterion-referenced tests are
designed to determine the acquisition of specific skills
against a preestablished standard. Teacher-made tests

are some of the best examples of these types of mea­
sures. Scores on these measures are usually reported in
the percentage of skills mastered. Performance-based
assessment measures are designed to provide indica­
tions of a student's learned skills as demonstrated
through material that is produced under conditions
that simulate events occurring in the environment
where the skill needs to be produced. Included among
these measures would be lab demonstrations, artistic
performances, writing samples, job evaluation systems,
and other types of skills that demonstrate learning
through the integration and application of the knowl­
edge. Curriculum-based assessment represents attempts
to assess a student's performance using expected cur­
riculum objectives as the data for evaluation. There are
multiple models of curriculum-based assessment (e.g.,
Fuchs & Deno. 1991; Shapiro. 1 996; Shapiro & Elliott.
I999), but all models are focused on evaluating student
progress in an ongoing manner directly from a curric­
Standardized Norm-Referenced

Each assessment method brings different issues re­
lated to psychometric properties. Of all measures,
standardized norm-referenced tests possess probably
the strongest reliability and validity. These measures
often contain well-developed and representative norms
that provide opportunities to compare student perfor­
mance on the measure against a sample that repre­
sents similar age/grade peers across the country. If a
measure is well developed, it usually contains a sam­
ple that is representative of the U.S. distribution by
race, socioeconomic level, and other personal charac­
teristics that are known to have correlated influence
on the skills being assessed. Test publishers in devel­
oping and marketing these measures are careful to
establish that the measures have high levels of test­
retest reliability (usually correlations >.90), as well as
demonstrating excellent concurrent validity. For ex­
ample, the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational
Battery (Woodcock & Johnson, 1989) provides norm­
referenced assessment data in areas that include skills
ranging from letter-word identification through sci­
ence, social studies. and humanities. The Wechsler In­
dividual Achievement Test (1992) provides assessment
of basic areas of reading. mathematics, and spelling.
These types of measures contain numerous subtest
scores as well as overall global achievement scores, al­
lowing the user to obtain data on specific subskill de­
velopment as well as more generally developed areas
such as basic reading or math.
Although standardized norm-referenced tests tend to
have some of the best and well-documented psycho­
metric properties of all academic assessment measures,
these tests have frequently been the subject of substan-

tial criticism. Among the many criticisms of the tests
is whether what is tested in published norm-referenced
measures overlaps with what is being taught within the
curriculum. Several studies have shown that the degree
of overlap between the test content and the curriculum
for some individual norm-referenced achievement tests
is questionable (e.g. , Bell, Lentz, & Graden, 1 992; Good
& Salvia, 198 8 ; Martens. Steele, Massey. & Diskin, 1 995;
Shapiro & Derr, 1987; Shriner & Salvia, 1988). There
is another substantive concern regarding the limited
links between norm-referenced tests and instructional
design. Given the range of skills and ages which these
measures assess, it is difficult to derive clear directions
for instructional targets from the results. Clearly, norm­
referenced measures were never designed with instruc­
tional development in mind, and using these measures
in this way is at cross-purposes with the tests' inten­
tion. Norm-referenced tests are also potentially influ­
enced by practice effects. As a result, repeated use of
the measures over short periods of time can confound
real improvement in the learning of skills with simple
practice effects. For these and other reasons, educators
have sought alternative measures that, while possibly
not measuring up to the psychometric properties of
norm-referenced tests, try to address some of the crit­

Criterion-Referenced Tests

These measures are designed to determine whether or
not students are mastering identified instructional ob­
jectives. As such, when a teacher gives a test that is
based on the teaching of a unit on, for example. "Pre­
cursors to the Civil War." he or she is using a criterion­
referenced approach to evaluation. When assessing
overall student achievement, these measures are used
less often than norm-referenced achievement tests.
However, there are a few excellent. well-developed
criterion-referenced measures such as the KeyMath­
Revised (Connolly, 1 9 8 8 ) and the Brigance Diagnostic
Inventories (Brigance, 1 9 76). For example, the Brigance
Diagnostic Inventories are a multiple skill battery of
tests that examine a very large number of skill se­
quences. Measures at the preschool ages are arranged
in a developmental hierarchy and those for school-aged
children are presented in a grade-level fashion. This ap­
proach proVides a normative reference for performance;
however, the measures are not designed as norm­
referenced tests. Psychometrically, no data on reliability
or validity are provided; however, the content validity
of the measure appears very strong. Other individually
administered criterion-referenced achievement tests,
such as the Basic Achievement Skills Individual
Screener (BASIS; Sonnenschein. 1 9 83), provide
stronger indications of the measure's reliability and va­
lidity. However. the primary value of these measures



lies i n their use i n the selection o f appropriate targets
for intervention development.
Performance-Based Assessment

One of the significant criticisms of standardized mea­
sures is their failure to evaluate the depth of one's
thinking. Additionally, these measures are viewed as ar­
tificial and not representative of the types of activities
that acquisition of the skills would require. Perfor­
mance-based assessments are defined as, "testing meth­
ods that require students to create an answer or prod­
uct that demonstrates their knowledge or skills" (U.S.
Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1992,
p. 16). The measures are designed to be authentic an­
alogues of real-life problems. Data obtained through
these measures involve examining how students con­
struct their responses. The idea is to determine the
strength and depth of the students' learning and think­
ing processes. Although the primary purpose of
performance-based assessment has been to drive in­
structional intervention. it has increasingly been
adopted as a general method for large-scale, schoolwide
Performance-based assessment has a long history in
the workplace and the military. In schools, performance
assessment is a natural extension of attempts to de­
velop measures that truly assess the student's capability
to demonstrate the application and integration of ac­
quired knowledge. The measures are designed to select
tasks that are aligned with curriculum objectives; allow
students to know the scoring criteria before they begin
work on the task; and provide clear examples of ex­
emplary performance on the task. They are also de­
signed to encourage self-assessment and provide scor­
ing mechanisms that are linked to the standards
expected according to the student's age as well as com­
parisons to others completing the same task.
Psychometrically, performance-assessment methods
present important challenges. Typically, the measure­
ment tools of performance assessment require individ­
uals, trained as "experts" in the domain being evalu­
ated. to read or observe the student's performance and
rate their product or behavior on an established scale
or rubric. For example. if the performance measure
asked a student to describe the steps to be taken in
designing a science experiment, a typical scoring rubric
might have the rater score the student's performance
on a numerical scale. Each point of the scale would be
anchored to specific behaviors. The development of the
scale requires very careful attention to issues of content
and discriminant validity. The interrater agreement
properties of the rubric must be carefully considered.
Attempts to minimize error due to subjective impres­
sions are considered the highest priority in the use of
these measures.

Curriculum-Based Assessment

Another alternative approach to assessing academic
performance that has been developing since the mid1980s. is curriculum-based assessment (CBA). Defined
as " a procedure for determining the instructional needs
of a student based on the student's ongoing perfor­
mance within existing course content" (Tucker, 1985,
p. 200), CBA attempts to determine the degree to which
a student is succeeding in the school instruction. Two
general approaches to CBA have been identified (Fuchs
& Deno, 1992). Specific subskill mastery methods of
CBA are similar to other criterion-referenced assess­
ments and examine the degree to which students are
mastering identified curriculum skill objectives. These
methods use nonstandardized. teacher-developed met­
rics and are quite useful for developing effective inter­
vention strategies. Those methods described by Gickling
and Rosenfield (I995). and Howell. Fox, and Morehead
( 1993) are good illustrations of this methodology.
General outcome measurement approaches to CBA
use standardized measurements across skill areas. Mea­
sures are selected from curriculum materials that are
linked to identified. long-term curriculum objectives.
For example. students might be asked to complete twice
each week a sheet of math problems that are derived
from all objectives of that grade. As instruction pro­
gresses. a student's increase in acquired skills is re­
flected in a gradually improved performance over time.
By repeating these measures frequently and graphically
displaying the results. student performance that ceases
to progress can be identified. These data then cue the
teacher that changes in the instructional processes are
The best example of this approach to CBA is
curriculum-based measurement (CBM). Described by
Deno and his colleagues (e.g .. Deno. Marston. & Mirkin.
1982; Deno. Mirkin. & Chiang. I 9 8 2). CBM has been
found to have strong psychometric properties. Corre­
lations with standardized norm-referenced assessment
measures range from . 70 to .95 (Shinn. 1989). and
have been shown to be very sensitive to student per­
formance over time (Fuchs. Fuchs. Hamlett. Walz. &
Germann. 1993). Additionally. CBM measures have
been shown to be useful for instructional planning as
well as evaluation (e.g .. Fuchs. Fuchs. Phillips. Hamlett.
& Karns. 1995).
Students with Disabilities

Recently. concerns have been raised about how stu­
dents with disabilities are considered in district-wide
evaluations of academic achievement. For example.
Jayanthi. Havekost, Bursuck. Epstein. and Polloway
( 1994). in a national survey of district policies con­
cerning standardized and nonstandardized testing,

found that between 5 5 and 60% of the responding dis­
tricts required some type of accommodations for stu­
dents with disabilities. In a related national survey. Jay­
anthi. Epstein. Polloway. and Bursuck (1996) examined
the perceptions of general education teachers regarding
adaptations for testing commonly used for students
with disabilities. These adaptations included among
others ( I ) giving individual help with directions; (2)
reading test questions to students; (3) simplifying word­
ing of test questions; and (4) providing extra space on
tests for answering. A total of 66.6% of the teachers
sampled indicated that it was not fair to make testing
adaptations only for students with disabilities.
These and other issues related to the evaluation of
academic outcomes for students with disabilities have
been examined by the National Center on Educational
Outcomes. Exclusion of students with disabilities in
large-scale district-wide assessment projects places the
consideration of these students in school reform efforts
in jeopardy (Ysseldyke & Thurlow. 1993). A large num­
ber of recommendations for strategies to include these
students in such assessment projects are made by the
center. Included among these recommendations are the
types. level. and methods for adaptations as well as al­
terative assessment strategies to better measure out­
comes for students who cannot participate in general
large scale assessments.
[See also Academic Assessment-Intervention Link;
and Academic Intervention.]


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