Main Grammar and Vocabulary for Advanced
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c CAMBRIDGE p UNIVERSITY PRESS ENGLISH + CAMBRIDGE Language Assessment Part of the University of Cambridge Cambridge English Grammar,. Vocabulary mRADVANCED MARTIN HEWINGS SIMON HAINES with answers Downloadable Audio and Online resources Go to www.cambridge.org/grammarvocabadvanced to download complete audio for the book to your computer or device, and access additional resources, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH Language Assessment Part of the Umverstty of Cambridge Cambridge English Grammar. Vocabulary mRADVANCED with answers MARTIN HEWINGS SIMON HAINES Cambridge University Press vnvw.cambridge.orgielt Cambridge English Language Assessment wwwcambridgeenglish.org Information on this title www.cambrkigeorg/97131107481114 @ Cambridge University Press 2015 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2015 Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-107481114 Book with answers with Audio Additional resources for this publication at www.cambridge.org/grammarvocabadvanced The publishes have no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and do not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but the publishers do not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. II Acknowledgements Simon and Martin would like to thank the following people at Cambridge University Press for all their assistance and encouragement at various stages of the project: Charlotte Adams, Aldona Gawlinski, Sharon McCann, Ann-Marie Murphy, Lorraine ; Poulter and Chloe Szebrat, as well as the editors Ruth Cox and Nik White. Martin would also like to thank Ann for her constant support. The authors and publishers acknowledge the following sources of copyright material and are grateful for the permissions panted. While every effort has been made, it has not always been possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting. p. 78: Guardian News and Media Ltd for the adapted extract 'My life as a human speed bump' by George Monbiot, The Guardian 23/10/2006. Copyright 0 Guardian News & Media Ltd 2006; p. 91: Telegraph Media Group Limited for the adapted extract from Gadgets to make your home energy efficient' Comment, The Telegraph 14/04/2007. ID Telegraph Media Group Limited 2007; pp. 132-133: Telegraph Media Group Limited for the extract from 'Alexander McCall Smith: Terrible Orchestra? by Alexander McCall Smith, The Telegraph 01/11/2007. Telegraph Media Group Limited 2007; p. 160: Nick Rennison for the extracts from 'Waterstone's Guide to Popular Science Books edited by Nick Rennison. The extracts from Waterstone's Guide to Popular Science appear with the permission of the editor, Nick Rennison. Published by Waterstone's Booksellers Ltd, Capital Court, Capital Interchange Way, Brentford, Middlesex TW8 OEX (ISBN: 1-902603-20-60): pp. 182-183: Telegraph Media Group Limited for the extract adapted from 'Rome ancient life in a modern city' by Professor Mary Beard, The Telegraph 20/04/2012.0 Telegraph Media Group Limited 2012; p.186: Ed Victor Ltd Literary Agency for the extract adapted from 'Speaking for Myself' by Joan Bakewell, The Author, Winter 2003; p. 190: PlayShakespeare.com for the extract adapted from 'Law Dares to be a great Hamlet' by Denise Battista, Playshakespeare corn October 2009 http://www.playshakespeare.com/ hamlet/ theatre-reviews/3881-law-dares-to-be-a-great-hamlet 2014 PlayShakespeare.com. Used with permission. All rights reserved; p.192: Peter Stalker for the adapted extract from 'Types of Migrant (Stalkers' Guide to International Migration)' by Peter Stalker. With permission from Peter Stalker; p.198: Text adapted from 'Five steps to risk assessment' Health and Safety Executive website www.hse.gov.uk/risk/fivesteps.htm, licensed under the Open Government Licence pp. 199-200: Telegraph Media Group Limited for the adapted extract from 'Should cyclists be forced to wear helmets? by Matthew Sparkes, The Telegraph 02/08/2013.0 Telegraph Media Group Limited 2013; p. 205: Montessori for the adapted extract from 'What is Montessori; www.montessortorg @All Rights Reserved Montessori St Nicholas; p.207: Professor Mitch Smooke for the adapted extract from 'Mechanical Engineering' by Mitchell D. Smooke, Yale School of Engineering and Applied Science. With permission from Professor Mitch Smooke; p. 210: Anup Shah for the adapted extract from 'Millions Die Each Year, Needlessly' by Anup Shah, Global Issues. With permission from Anup Shah, Global Issues www.gobalissuesorg/article/588/ global-health-overview, globalissues.org p. 226: wwvcindianchild. tom for the adapted extract from 'The role of grandparents in children's upbringing' by M. Hemdev IndianChild.com. 0 www. indianchild.com; p.235: Thomas Baekdal for the adapted extract from 'Where is everyone?' by Thomas Baekdal, www.baekdal. corn 27/04/2009. http://www.baekdalcom/media/market-ofinformation; p. 244: Extract adapted from 'Low holiday spending due to economic worries' by Martha C. White, www.dailyfinance corn 05/11/2009; p.245: newbusiness.co.uk for the adapted extract from 'How to grow your start up' www.newbusiness. co.uk 17/08/2010. Copyright 2000 - 2013 newbusinessoo.uk All rights reserved; p.261: Engineering and Technology for the adapted extract 'Batteries are putting the brakes on electric car take-up' The Guardian 14/06/2010,0 Institution of Engineering and Technology. The authors and publishers acknowledge the following sources of copyright material and are grateful for the permissions granted. While every effort has been made, it has not always been possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting. Key: T = Top, M= Middle, 13 = Below, L = Left, R = Right, B/G = Background p.10 (TL): Getty Images/ID Dragonlmages; p.10 (TM): Alamy/0 DBURKE; p.10 (TR): Getty Images/ID Minerva Studio; p.25 (L): Alamy/0 Greg Balfour Evans; p. 25 (R): Shutterstockfie CBCK; p.39: Getty Images/0 /GI/Jamie Grill; p.54 (a): Corbis/0 Maurizio Rellini/SOPA RF/SOPA; p.54 (b): Superstock/0 Axiom Phtotographic/Design Pies; p. 54 (c): Getty Images/Kr Amulf Husmo; p. 66: Getty Images/0 Fuse p.72: ShutterstockAD Gargonia; p.80 (a): Alamy/0 Andrzej Tokarski; p. 80 (b): Sam Hallas; p.80 (c): Alamy/0 ClassicStock; p. 80 (d): Alamy/e The Print Collector; p. 80 (e): Corbis/0 DX Limited; p. 100 (a): Alamy/ID RIA Novosti; p. 100(b): FLPA/0 Bemd Rohrschneider; p.100 (c): AlarnyfiD Adrian Sherratt; p.119: Alamy/4" Alvey & Towers Picture Library,. p. 154(L): Rex Features/0 KeystoneUSAZUMA; p. 154 (R): Alamy/0 Hemis; p.179: Shutterstockfib donsimon; p. 186: Rex Features/0 David Hartley; p. 193 (BL): Corbis/0 Jose Fuste Raga; p.193 (BR): Alamy/0 Ange; p.202: Rex Features/0 Afle p.214: Getty Images/0 Jordan Siemens; p.231: Getty Images/0 Yuri Arcurs; p. 248: Getty Images/0 Miroslaw Kijewski; p. 260: Alamy/0 motorlife. Illustrations: Clive Goodyer Typeset by Blooberry Design Ltd Text permissions clearance by Sarah Deakin Picture research by Kevin Brown Audio produced by Leon Chambers and recorded at dSound. London 3 II Contents Introduction Exam summary 6 Map of the book 8 GRAMMAR SECTION Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Tenses The future Modals (1) Modals (2) Nouns, agreement and articles Unit 6 Determiners and quantifiers Unit 7 Adverbs and adjectives Unit 8 Comparison Unit 9 Verb patterns (1) Unit 10 Verb patterns (2) Unit 11 Relative clauses (1) Unit 12 Relative clauses (2) Unit 13 Adverbial clauses Unit 14 Conditionals Unit 15 Participle, to-infinitive and reduced clauses Unit 16 Noun clauses Unit 17 Conjunctions and connectors Unit 18 The passive Unit 19 Reporting Unit 20 Substitution and ellipsis Unit 21 Word order and emphasis Unit 22 Nominalisation Unit 23 It and there Unit 24 Complex prepositions and prepositions after verbs Unit 25 Prepositions after nouns and adjectives VOCABULARY SECTION 10 17 25 32 39 47 54 60 66 72 80 87 94 100 107 113 119 126 134 140 148 154 161 168 174 Unit 26 Cities Unit 27 Personal history Unit 28 The arts Unit 29 Migrations Unit 30 Risking it Unit 31 Gender issues Unit 32 Education Unit 33 Health Unit 34 Getting about Unit 35 Moods Unit 36 Fame and fortune Unit 37 Relationships Unit 38 'lime off Unit 39 Media Unit 40 The world of work Unit 41 Economics and business Unit 42 The living world Unit 43 Personal contact Unit 44 The environment Unit 45 Science and technology Answer key 179 184 188 192 196 201 205 210 214 218 222 226 230 235 239 243 247 251 255 259 263 Introduction II What does the book contain? This book is updated for the new Cambridge English: Advanced examination introduced in 2015 and contains two sections: Grammar (Units 1-25) and Vocabulary (Units 26-45). What does the book aim to do? This book aims to provide complete coverage of the grammar and vocabulary needed for success in the Cambridge English: Advanced, also known as the Certificate in Advanced English (CAE). Regular exam practice is provided throughout the book. Units 1-25 present grammar in context followed by a detailed analysis of the language for advanced learners of English. Units 26-45 extend vocabulary knowledge including of collocations and idioms - and introduce ways of studying vocabulary which will help you pass the exam. Who is the book aimed at? This book is for anyone preparing for success in the Cambridge English: Advanced. It is designed primarily for students working alone who want to revise, extend and practise their knowledge and understanding of grammar and vocabulary, but it can also be used on a Cambridge English: Advanced preparation course in the classroom, or can be set as homework by a teacher. How do I use the book? You can work through the units in any order, but we advise you to study every unit if you want to prepare thoroughly for the exam. It is best to work through a unit from beginning to end, as exercises may revise grammar or vocabulary from an earlier part of the same unit. Each of the 25 units in the Grammar section is divided into three sections. Context listening introduces the grammar of the unit in context to help you understand it more easily. Grammar provides detailed explanations of specific grammar points and includes Start points which act as a brief reminder of grammar you may already know. Grammar exercises provide practice of the grammar of each unit. Each of the 20 units in the Vocabulary section is bawd on a general topic (e.g. Cities) and presents general exercises on vocabulary for two areas within the main unit topic (e.g. Urban growth and Urban living). Each unit of the book includes an Exam practice section which provides practice of the types of tasks you will face in the Reading and Use of English, Writing and Listening sections of the Cambridge English: Advanced examination. Note Some of the Exam practice tasks test mainly the grammar or vocabulary taught in the same unit, to give extra practice. However, in the real exam each question tests a different grammar/vocabulary point or a different aspect of language. The Answer key contains answers to all the exercises in the book, including alternative answers where more than one correct answer is possible. What does this s mbol mean? This symbol appears in the Error warning boxes of the Vocabulary section and indicates that the errors were found in the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a database made up of many thousands of exam scripts written by students taking Cambridge English exams around the world. The exam practice tasks have been informed by the English Vocabulary Profile. The English Vocabulary Profile is an online resource with detailed and up-to-date information about the words, phrases, phrasal verbs and idioms that learners of English know at each of the six levels of the Common European Framework (Al to C2), which guarantees suitable treatment of words, phrases and phrasal verbs at Cl level. When should I use a dictiona ? L To get the most out of the Vocabulary section, you will need a good dictionary. Use the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary or another suitable monolingual dictionary. You should try to do each vocabulary exercise without a dictionary first, then use your dictionary to help you with answers you didn't know. Use the Answer key as a final check. When you see the dictionary symbol, you are advised to use a dictionary to complete the exercise. I What material can I find online? The following material for use with this book can be found online at www.cambridge.org/grammarvocabadvanced: Audio recordings for all listening exercises and for exam practice Listening tasks Complete Recording scripts for each audio file Reference notes which give further information and support on the grammar and vocabulary in this book Wordlists for key items in the Vocabulary section Model answers to the Exam practice Writing tasks Parts 1 and 2 5 Exam summary II Willi WigIllijill Reading and Use of English (1 hour 30 minutes) Part 2 1 • 11111tilhildr What are the tasks? What do I have to do? Multiple-choice doze You read a text with eight gaps. For each gap you choose the correct word from one of four possible answers (A, B, C or D). Open doze How many questions? You read a text with eight gaps. You must write one word in each 881). 8 8 Word formation You read a text with eight gaps. For each gap you write the correct form of the word at the end of each line. 8 Key word transformation You are given a complete sentence and a second gapped sentence. You complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning using a given 'key word. 6 Multiple choice You read a text and answer six multiple-choice questions. You choose from four possible answers (A, 8, C or D). 6 Cross-text multiple matching You read four short texts on the same topic. You have to match each question to the correct text. 4 7 Gapped text You read a text from which paragraphs have been removed and put in a jumbled order. You have to choose which paragraph fits into which space. There is a paragraph which does not fit into any space. 6 8 Multiple matching You scan a text or several short texts and decide which part of a text or text each question refers to. Some questions may refer to more than one part of a text or text, 10 3 5 rip* woo : Writing (1 hour 30 minutes) Part • IIIII IILIIPOIIIL What are the tasks? What do I have to do? 1 Write an essay You plan and write an essay on the topic given in the question paper. Your essay must be 220-260 words. 2 Write a text of a particular type You choose, plan and write only one of the following possible text types: a letter, a proposal, a report or a review. Your text must be relevant to the situation described in the question. Your text must be 220-260 words. How many questions? 1 1 from a choice of 3 rilkii i Listening (40 minutes) /111 4U7 10101.4 How many questions? What are the tasks? What do I have to do? 1 Multiple choice You hear three short extracts and have to answer two multiplechoice questions on each extract. For each question you choose one of three possible answers (A, B or C). 6 2 Sentence completion You use information you hear to complete sentences with gaps. 8 3 Multiple choice You hear a recording with six multiple-choice questions. For each question you choose one of four possible answers (A, EI, C or D). 6 4 Multiple matching Part 1 You hear five short themed monologues with multiple-matching questions. You match a statement or opinion from a list of six 10 options for each speaker. Speaking (15 minutes) Part 1*1t What an the tasks? What do I have to do? 1 General conversation You answer questions about general topics such as your daily life, your interests or your experiences. 2 Individual long turn How long is each part? I You talk about a set of three pictures on your own for around a minute. Then you listen to your partner talk about a different set 2 minutes 4 minutes of pictures before commenting on what they have said. 3 Discussion 4 Discussion You and your partner are given some written instructions for a discussion task You and your partner discuss topics related to the task in Part 3. 4 minutes 5 minutes 7 Map of the book 10.411 1111 GRAMMAR Unit 8 Title Topics Exam practice 1 Tenses Simple and continuous tenses; perfect tenses; present perfect continuous and past perfect continuous Reading and Use of English Part 2 2 The future Will, be going to + infinitive, shall; present tenses for the future; future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous; be to + infinitive; future in the past Reading and Use of English Part 8 3 Modals (1) Ability; possibility; conclusions, willingness, habitual events; necessity. deduction; 'not necessary'; obligation Listening Part 1 4 Modals (2) Complex modal forms; dare and need; had better; be allowed to; be supposed to; other verbs with modal meanings Reading and Use of English Part 4 5 Nouns, agreement and articles Compound nouns and noun phrases; subject—verb agreement; countable and uncountable nouns; articles Reading and Use of English Parr 2 Determiners and quantifiers No, none, flora, not any; much, many, a lot of, lots of; all, both, whole; every, each; (a/the) few, little; less, fewer (than); much, many, etc. t (of) 7 Adverbs and adjectives Position of adverbs; quite, rather, already, yet, still, even, only, malls position of adjectives; gradable adjectives; patterns after adjectives Reading and Use of English Part 3 8 Comparison Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs; comparisons with as ...; comparisons with so ..., too ..., enough Reading and Use of English Part 3 9 Verb patterns (1) Verbs with two objects; verb + object + adjective; verb + reflexive pronoun; verb Reading and Use + each other/one another of English Part 4 10 Verb patterns (2) Verb + to-infinitive / -ing, verb + (object) + bare infinitive; verb + object + toinfinitive / -ing verb + object / possessive + -ing other patterns after verbs Reading and Use of English Part S 11 Relative clauses (1) Defining and non-defining relative clauses; relative pronouns; other words beginning relative clauses; prepositions in relative clauses Reading and Use of English Part 1 12 Relative clauses (2) Participle clauses; to-infinitive clauses; adjective phrases; prepositional phrases o Ref a d in g a npda rUt sse English 13 Adverbial clauses Adverbial clauses including time clauses, contrast and concession clauses, reason Reading and Use clauses, purpose and result clauses of English Part 2 14 Conditionals Real and unreal conditionals; if ... not and unless; even and wish; other conditional expressions 15 Participle, toinfinitive and reduced clauses Participle clauses including present participle (-ing) clauses, past participle (-ed) clauses, participle clauses after conjunctions and prepositions, to-infinitive clauses, reduced clauses Reading and Use of English Part 3 16 Noun clauses That-noun clauses; wh-noun clauses; whether and ] Reading and Use of English Part 1 17 Conjunctions and connectors Before, hardly, first (1y), however, even so, on the other hand, etc. Reading and Use of English Part 6 18 The passive Using the passive; active and passive verb forms; passive forms of verbs with two Reading and Use objects; get + past participle; get/have + object + past participle of English Part 7 19 Reporting Structures in the reported clause that-clause, to-infinitive and -ing verb tenses in reporting modal verbs in reporting reporting questions; should in that- clauses . . Listening Part 4 20 Substitution and ellipsis One/ones; so + auxiliary verb + subject; neither, nor, not.., either; do so; leaving out words after auxiliary verbs and after to Listening Part 3 21 Word order and emphasis Fronting cleft sentences; inversion; inversion in conditional sentences Reading and Use of English Part 4 22 Nominalisation Nominalised forms; do, give, have, make, take + noun Reading and Use of English Part 8 23 It and there Introductory it as subject and object; there; common expressions with it's no ... and there's no ... Reading and Use and even though; if only istening Part 2 Listening Part 4 of English Part 4 4 , 25 Complex prepositions and prepositions after verbs Complex prepositions; verb + preposition: common patterns; phrasal verbs: word order Prepositions after nouns and adictiv Noun + preposition: related verbs and adjectives; noun + preposition + -ing or noun + preposition + noun; noun + of +-ing or noun + to-infinitive; noun + in or Reading and Use of English Part 1 noun aclective + preposition ofi VOCABULARY Unit 1 Listening Part 1 ir.o.dikr.Zb a _ Sall —dik Title Topics Exam practice 26 Cities Urban growth Urban living Reading and Use of English Pans 27 Personal history Ancestry Autobiography Writing Part 1 An essay 28 The arts Arts events Reviews Reading and Use of English Part 1 29 Migrations Departures Personal stories Listening Part 2 30 Risking k Extreme sports Risk-taking Reading and Use of English Part? 31 Gender issues Language Gender in sport Reading and Use of English Part 4 32 Education Learning l'iai lin Reading and Use of English Part 6 33 Health World health Water and health Writing Part 2 A report 34 Getting about Private journeys Public transport Listening Part 1 35 Moods Attitudes Memory Reading and Use of English Part 1 36 Fame and fortune Celebrity culture Reality television Reading and Use of English Part 2 37 Relationships Families Friends Listening Part 3 38 Time off Holidays Enjoying exercise Finding and Use of English Parts 39 Media News and information Press freedom Reading and Use of English Part 4 40 The world of work Employment patterns Economic migration Reading and Use of English Part 3 41 Economics and business Economic problems Business tips Writing Part 1 An essay 42 The living world Animal life Trees and plants Listening Part 4 43 Personal contact Social networking Letter writing Reading and Use of English Part? 44 The environment Issues Protection Reading and Use of English Part 3 45 Science and technology Discovery Solutions Writing Part 2 A letter 9 Tenses Simple and continuous tenses; perfect tenses; present perfect continuous and past perfect continuous t.tv Context listening En You are going to hear part of a radio phone-in programme. Before you listen, look at the photos. What do you think the topic of the phone-in is? EIE Listen and check whether you were right. As you listen, answer the questions. Which of the callers, Karen, Uam, Sahar or Lula ... 1 ... lost something on the train one day? Salierr 2 ... travels to work by bus? 3 ... works at home permanently? 4 ... may buy a motorbike? 5 ... has always liked travelling by train? 6 ... used to catch the train at a quarter past seven in the morning? 7 ... is working at home temporarily? 8 ... has never owned a car? Listen again and fill in the gaps. 1 I coronae& I 2 to London for over ten years. over an hour when they announced that the train was cancelled. 3 1 of buying a motorbike. 4 1 at home while our office block is being renovated. 5 1 to her only a couple of times before then. 6 1 travelling by train ever since I was young. 7 1 to phone in to your programme for the last half hour. 8 Yesterday, 1 all my work by 2.30 pm. 1.4 Identify the tenses you used in 1.3. 1 - past simple to Tenses Grammar EU Simple and continuous tenses START POINT Present continuous I'm working at home while our office block is being renovated. (= temporary state) I'm phoning from the train. (= action in progress) Present simple Public transport has a number of advantages over driving. (= permanent state) I catch the train at 7.05 at the station near my home every morning. (= habit or regular event) Past continuous Iwas travelling home when the train broke down. (= action in progress at past point) Past simple I sold my car last week. (= completed past action) I drove to work for a couple of years. (= past situation that doesn't exist now) I caught the train every morning at 7.15. (= repeated past action) We usually use simple tenses with verbs that describe an unchanging state rather than an action: I love trains. We can use continuous tenses with state verbs to suggest that a situation is temporary or untypical: I'm appreciating being able to get up later than usual (= suggests a temporary arrangement) Now that I work at home I appreciate being able to get up late. (= suggests a more permanent arrangement) With some verbs that describe mental states (e.g. consider, understand) and attitudes (e.g. hope, regret), continuous tenses suggest a process going on at the time of speaking, or emphasise that the process continues to develop: I'm regretting selling my car already. (= suggests that I have started to regret it and that this regret may grow) I regret selling my car. (= describes an attitude that is unlikely to change) Some verbs have different meanings when talking about states and describing actions: I'm now thinking of buying a motorbike. (think of (action) = consider) Do you think that's a good idea? (think (state) = asking about an opinion) We usually use the present simple with verbs that describe what we are doing as we speak: I admit that it can be frustrating at times. (= I agree that it is true when I say 'I admit') I predict that increasing numbers of people will start working at home. We often use the past simple in a narrative (e.g. a report or a story) to talk about a single completed past action, and the past continuous to describe the situation that existed at the time: I dropped my purse while I was getting off the train. When we talk about two or more past completed actions that followed one another, we use the past simple for both: She woke me up and offered me a lift. When we talk about two actions that went on over the same period of past time, we can often use the past continuous or the past simple for both: I was listening to music while I was driving here. Or I listened to music while I drove here. We can use continuous tenses with the adverbs always, constantly, continually and forever to emphasise that something is typical of a person, group or thing because they do it so often: I was forever arriving late for work II 1 Tenses We can use either the present continuous or present simple to describe something we regularly do at a certain time. At 8 o'clock Pm usually having a leisurely breakfast. or At 8 o'clock I usually have ... We often use the present continuous or past continuous: to make an enquiry or a statement less certain because we don't know if we're right: I'm hoping we've got Dave Jones on the line. (= suggests that the speaker is not sure whether Dave Jones is there) to make a request or an offer more polite: Karen, were you wanting to say something? En Perfect tenses Present perfect I've lived in Spain, and the trains are so much more reliable there. (past situation relevant to the present) I've just sold my car and so now Igo to work by bus. (recent action with consequences for the present) , I've enjoyed travelling by train ever since I was young. (situation continuing until the present) Past perfect This morning I'd read a couple of reports before I got off the train. (past event before another past event) We use the present perfect to talk about a situation that existed in the past and still exists now, and the past simple when the situation no longer exists: I've commuted to London every weekday for over ten years, and I actually enjoy it. I commuted to London every weekday for over ten years before I started working at home. We use the present perfect to talk about a repeated action that might happen again: I've arrived late for work twice this week so far and the past simple for a repeated action that won't happen again: I arrived late for work twice this week. (= the working week is over; I won't arrive late again this week) When we give news or information, we often introduce a topic with the present perfect and then give details with other past tenses: The new high speed rail link between the north of England and the Channel Tunnel has opened. It took 15 years to build and cost nearly ten billion pounds. When we use a time expression (e.g. after, as soon as, before, when) to say that one event happened after another, we can use either the past simple or past perfect for the first event: I'd read a couple of reports before I even got to work or I read a couple of reports before I even got to work. En Present perfect continuous and past perfect continuous We use the present perfect continuous (have been + -ing) to talk about an action in progress in the past for a period until now, and which is either still in progress or recently finished: I've been working at home for the last five years. (= action still in progress) Sorry I'm late. I've been trying to find a parking place. (= action recently finished) We often prefer the present perfect continuous to say how long an action has been in progress: I've been trying to phone in to your programmefor the last ha? hour. We use the present perfect to talk about a completed action or series of actions when we are interested in the result: I've called the bus company a number of times to complain. They've bought new trains and have really improved the service. 12 Tenses We use the past perfect continuous (had been + -ing) to talk about an action in progress over a period up to a particular past point in time I'd been waiting over an hour when they announced that the train had been cancelled. If we are not interested in how long the action went on, we often use the past continuous rather than the past perfect continuous: I was waiting on the platform when they announced that the train had been cancelled, rather than I'd been waiting on the platform when ... (= there is no mention of how long the person was waiting.) We use the past perfect when we say how many times something happened in a period up to a particular past time I'd spoken to her only a couple of times before then. We don't usually use the present perfect continuous or the past perfect continuous to describe states: I'd owned a car ever since I left college. (notPd-been-ewning ) Grammar exercises ElliChoose the correct or more natural answer in this radio news report. Emergency services were bombarded with phone calls from all over the north of the country last night by people who (1) are reporting / reported seeing blue objects shoot across the sky. Mrs Sophia Olsen (2) drove / was driving along the main mad at the time. '1(3) 'm usually coming / usually came along that bit of road at about ten. As 1(4) was going I go past the old barn, I(S) was seeing / saw a single bright blue light going across the mad in front of my car. 1 (6) stopped / stop the car and (7) was watching / am watching it for about fifteen minutes. It (8) was travelling / travels quite slowly from east to west and then it (9) 's suddenly disappearing / suddenly disappeared. Until now 1(10) wasn't believing / didn't believe in UFOs, although my son (11) is forever trying/forever tries to persuade me that they (12) are existing / exist. But now I (13) thought / 'm thinking that maybe he (14) was being / was right.' Dr Maria Walker, a lecturer in astronomy at Trumpton University, (15) offers / is offering a simple explanation. The reports that (16) were coming / come in last night (17) are suggesting / suggest that it (18) was / is a meteor shower. This (19) is / was not unusual on a small scale, but last night's shower (20) is seeming / seems to have been very large. In fact, we (21) were getting / are getting an increasing number of meteor showers, and my department (22) is currently researching / currently researches possible reasons for this.' But many witnesses to the events (23) believe / are believing that they (24) are observing / were observing more than a meteor shower, and that last night the Earth was actually visited by beings from outer space. 13 1 Tenses PEI Complete the sentences using the verbs in the box. Use the same verb in each pair of sentences. Use the present simple, present continuous, past simple or past continuous. attract expect imagine measure see think 1 a b I 'rn thinking America. k Why's Yusuf having a party? think B: I 2 a about taking a gap year before I go to university and going travelling around South it his birthday. A: How did the cat get up into the tree? B: I b he was chasing a bird. k Let me know when the post arrives. B: Why, 3 a you k What happened to your wrist? B: I 4 5 6 something important? the window for some new curtains and I fell off the ladder. b I was given this pedometer for my birthday. You just hook it on your belt and it far you walk during the day. a This month's special exhibition of South African art museum, whereas we normally only get about 2,000. b As the home of William Shakespeare, Stratford a you how over 5,000 visitors a day to the tourists from all over the world. that big house over there? Its my uncle's. b I split up with Alex when I found out that he a I b The baby's smiling in her sleep. I wonder what things she someone else. Giulia's under a lot of stress at the moment with moving house and starting a new in her dreams. nilComplete the sentences with an appropriate form of the verb given. Use the past simple, present perfect, past perfect and past perfect continuous tenses. Use each tense only once in each group of four sentences. 1 play a We have played 35 matches so far this season, so we're all feeling pretty tired. b After the match, she admitted that she you d Ireland last December. badly. rugby or football at the school you went to? really well all year, so it came as a big surprise when they were beaten by Wales 2 make a We b Henson never thought about retirement. In fact he indigenous people of Chile when he died. c k When did you realise that you the right decision in emigrating to Canada in the mid-1990s. B: When I was posted to a boiling hot jungle. 14 a documentary film about the a mistake in joining the army? Tenses d Korean scientists believe that they a breakthrough in the fight against cancer by developing a technique for containing the disease. They reported their findings at the AAL conference in New York this week. 3 run a Over the last year! workshops on creative writing in twelve colleges and universities. b She was breathing hard as if she c She only two marathons before breaking the world record in the Pan-African Games. d I was late for work so 1 most of the way. 3.4 Complete the sentences using either the present perfect or present perfect continuous form of the verb given. Where both are possible, choose the more likely tense. 1 Alice has competed. (compete) in the Athens Marathon twice before, but hopes to achieve her best time this year. 2 Income from manufacturing exports still provides the largest proportion of the country's export earnings, but the proportion (drop) for many years. (belong) to the Beecham family for over 250 years, but the present owner, 3 The house Donald Beecham, is selling it. 4 Melnik early release. 5 (serve) a life sentence for murder since 1990, but his lawyers are arguing for an k I'd like a career where I can travel and meet people. B: (consider) becoming a tour guide? 6 k (swim)? You look really exhausted. B: I am. I did 50 lengths of the pool. 7 k Did you manage to get in touch with Chloe? B: No,1 (fry) three times in the last hour, but she's always engaged. pri Choose the correct tense. Good morning, Mr Nilsson. What can I do for you? Well, doctor, (1) I've been gettiorg I I've got some really bad headaches. Okay. Can you tell me exactly when these headaches (2) were starting / started? Oh, yes, 1(3) have remembered / remember it vividly — it was on a Friday three weeks ago. (4) had been working / worked in front of my computer all week because I(S) did / was doing a job for an important client —(6) I was working / I've been working as a website designer for the last few years, you see. 1(7) had just finished I had just been finishing when the pain started, and by the end of that day I(S) was feeling I have felt really bad. Okay. And how (9) have you slept I have you been sleeping? Not very well, actually. Usually I'm asleep as soon as my head (10) hits / is hitting the pillow, but recently (11) I've been having I I'm having difficulty getting to sleep. I see. Now, (12) I'm noticing / I notice that you wear glasses. (13) Have you had / Were you having your eyes tested recently? No, 1(14) haven't had / didn't have them tested for a couple of years, I suppose. A: Okay, what (15)1 suggest I I'm suggesting is that first you get your eyes tested. Then when you (16) are working I have worked at your computer, take frequent breaks to rest your eyes. If that (17) hasn't solved I doesn't solve the problem, come back and see me again. 15 Exam practice II Reading and Use of English Part 2 For questions 1 —8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). Planets beyond our solar system Throughout history we have wondered about the possibility (0) of only in recent years, however, that advances in technology (1) extrasolar planets (or 'exoplanets'); (2) other stars in the universe. So (3) life beyond the Earth. It is revealed the existence of is to say, planets which orbit not our own Sun, but , astronomers have identified a few thousand exoplanets, but believe that billions more exist. Although many astronomers believe that a large number of planets in the universe are capable of supporting (4) (5) kind of living organism, whether or not life has developed on any of them not yet known. An essential requirement for life is liquid water. (6) a planet is to have liquid water on its surface, its temperature must be (7) cold. However, (8) 16 too hot nor too a planet, other than the Earth, has yet to be discovered. The future Will, be going to + infinitive, shall; present tenses for the future; future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous; be to + infinitte; future in the past Context listening niWhich of these activities would you like to do on a visit to the USA? Ng OE Jessica is doing a course in American Studies at a British university. As part of this programme she will spend her third year studying at a university in Los Angeles in California. Her friend, Kelly, wants to visit her while she is there. Listen to them talking about their plans. Which of the activities shown in 1.1 do they mention? la CIE Listen again and fill in the gaps. 1 I 'm spending a few days sightseeing in New York. 2 I in Los Angeles on the 20th. for my own place. 3 I 4 It 5 I a long time to catch up. up there if its not too expensive. 6 you stop over anywhere on the way out? 7 When I come to see you, you 8 You 1.4 in California for nearly six months. longer, won't you? How many different ways of referring to the future did you use in 1 3? 17 2 The future Grammar Pa Will, be going to + infinitive and shall START POINT Will I think Ill fly directly to Los Angeles. (= a decision made without planning) I'm sure you'll have a fantastic time. (= a prediction based on opinion or experience) I'll be 21 on 2nd January. (= a fact about the future) I'll meet you at the airport. (= willingness) Be going to + infinitive First I'm going to stay with Daniel and Susanna. (= a decision already made) The clouds building up. It's going to rain this afternoon. (= a prediction based on outside evidence) We can sometimes use will instead of be going to to make a prediction based on evidence, but when we do we usually include an adverb: The cloud's building up. It'll definitely rain / It's definitely going to rain this afternoon. We can use will or be going to in the main clause of an if-sentence with little difference in meaning when we say that something is conditional on something else If I don't go now, Ill be / I'm going to be late for my next lecture. We use will, not be going to, when the main clause refers to offers, requests, promises and ability: If my plans change, I'll let you know, of course. (= promise) If you bring your tent, well camp on the coast for a few days. (= ability; 'we will be able to camp') In formal contexts, we can use shall instead of will with I or we: in questions that ask about intentions: Shall I/we see you before you leave? (= Will Uwe have the opportunity to see you?) in statements about the future, although will is more usual: When I finish my course I shall/will have some time to travel around America. ENI Present continuous and present simple for the future Present continuous I'm spending a few days sightseeing (= event intended or arranged) Present simple Lectures start on nth July. (= event as part of an official schedule) Compare the use of the present continuous for the future and be going to: I'm flying on 15th July at ten in the evening. (= already arranged) I'm going to fly up there if it's not too expensive. (= the speaker intends to fly but has not made the arrangements yet) We tend to avoid be going to go and use the present continuous (be going to) instead: Then I'm going to San Francisco. rather than Then I'm going to go to San Francisco. We can't use the present continuous for future events which are not controlled by people: It's going to rain this afternoon. (not It2s-rairning-this-aftemeem) 18 The future 2 We can use either the present simple or will to talk about formal arrangements made by, for example, a university or company: The semester begins on 7th December. or The semester will begin on 7th December. The present continuous is used in informal arrangements: You're not staying with them the whole time, then? (= informal arrangement) (not Y-reti-doWt-stay-with4hem4hewhok-kimertherg) We use the present simple, or sometimes other present tenses, to refer to the future in time clauses with a conjunction (e.g. after, as soon as, before, by the time, when, while, until); in conditional clauses with if, in case, provided and unless; and in clauses beginning with suppose, supposing and what if As soon as I book my tickets, I'll let you know. (not As-seen-as-Ewill-book ...) It'll be good to know I can contact them in case I have any problems. (not ... in-ease4-wifl-keve ...) What if I don't like it? (not What-ifli,venit-like-it4) inFuture continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous We use the future continuous (will + be + present participle) to talk about something predicted to happen at a particular time or over a particular period in the future: I'll be studying really hard during the semesters. We use the future perfect (will + have + past participle) to make a prediction about an action we expect to be completed by a particular time in the future: By the time you come I'm sure I'll have got to know the city really well, We use the future perfect continuous (will + have been + present participle) to emphasise the duration of an activity in progress at a particular point in the future When I come to see you, you'll have been living in California for nearly six months. We can also use the future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous to say what we believe or imagine to be true Dad won't be using his car, so I'm sure it's okay to borrow it. (= an activity happening now or at a particular point in the future) They'll have forgotten what I look like. (= an event that took place before now or before a particular point in the future) My plane's been delayed. Daniel and Susanna will have been waiting for me at the airport for hours. (= an activity continuing to now) 2.4 Be to + infinitive Be to + infinitive is commonly used: in news reports: Extra lifeguards are to be posted at the beach after a shark was seen close to the shore. to talk about formal plans, and rules or instructions: Students are to hand in project reports at the end of semester two. (active) Project reports are to be handed in at the end of semester two. (passive) We only use am I islare to + infinitive to talk about future events that people can control: The weather will still be warm even in winter. (not The,weother-is-sbil-to-be-warm.) We often use be to + infinitive in if-clauses when we mean In order to': If she is to get a good grade in her project report, she needs to work on her statistics. (= in order to get a good grade she needs to work on her statistics) 19 2 The future Future in the past A number of forms can be used to talk about a past activity or event that was still in the future from the point of view of the speaker was going to see an aunt in Seattle a couple of years ago, huts cancelled the trip because she got ill. (= a plan that didn't happen) I knew I would be feeling awful by the end of the flight. (= a prediction made in the past) Grammar exercises IBM Complete the sentences using the verbs in the box. Choose the most appropriate form. miss / will miss will have / am having is going to melt / is melting persuades / will persuade will be enjoying / enjoys affi-st-aft-ing-out-4-wilkt-ar-t-etif will rise fare to rise see / are going to see 1 Az Do you want to come out for a meal tonight? B: I sfartibg out early tomorrow morning - my flight's at six - so I don't think I'll come, thanks. 2 I some friends over for dinner on Saturday. Do you want to join us? 3 They reckon the Greenland ice sheet within a few years. 4 A: Yoshi doesn't want to come on holiday with us, then. 8: He says that now, but I'm sure Hannah 5 By the middle of the week temperatures him to change his mind. to 30°C. 6 I'm not sure when I'll be home tonight. Expect me when you me. 7 A: The coach leaves Kiev at exactly 5.00 from the bus station. B: What if I it? A: You'll have to take the train. 8 k It's Lucia's first week away at university. I wonder how she's getting on? B: I'm sure she herself. Choose the correct future form. 1 You'll freeze if you'll go / go out dressed like that. Put on a warm coat! 2 When I retire next year, I'm doing / going to do a lot of travelling around South America. 3 Look at that stupid cyclist! He's going to cause / causes an accident. 4 A: What do you want done with this box? B: If you just leave it there, I'll take I'm taking it upstairs when I go. 5 A: What are you doing / do you do this evening? B: Oh, I don't know. Maybe I'll Slcype I'm Skyping Lydia. 6 20 Please note that next week's concert is commencing / will commence at 7.00, not 7.30 as advertised in the programme. The future 7 2 k Adele will do / is doing a concert in Milan next month. B: Will! Shall I book some tickets? 8 When Stefan is / will be 50, Sofia is to be / will be 18. Elgi Complete the sentences using a future form of the verbs given. Use the same future form for all three sentences in each group. Use: present-sir:tie future perfect future continuous present continuous be to + infinitive future perfect continuous be going to + infinitive get go terminate 1. a All change, please — this train ber701611%5 here. b What time acles our Plane get (our plane) to Athens? c The cat runs away from me as soon as I 90 near it. buy have need 2 a A: What are you going to town for? B: I some new shoes. b k Jane's not looking very well. B: No, apparently, she a major operation. A: I've made a list of the things you for the field trip to Iceland. 8: Thanks, that's really helpful. negotiate watch work 3 a On April 1st next year I b A: It's such a pity that Ella is away and can't watch the match with us. You know how much she loves at the university for 25 years. tennis. B: I'm sure she c it on TV in her hotel room. The next statement from the trade union leaders is expected at ten o'clock tonight. By that time they with the employers for 36 hours. conic do support 4 a Justin's not feeling well, so he b Who tonight after all. (you) in the world cup final, France or Brazil? c A: What do you think Lola at the moment? 11: Oh, she'll still be in bed. 5 create launch leave a The computer firm Clarken b All mobile phones c The government service. 300 new jobs at its assembly plant just outside Dublin. outside the examination room. an enquiry next week into allegations of corruption in the civil 21 2 The future analyse have move a The bank predicts that by the end of next year, over 80% of its customers banking. b Natasha to online her exam results by now. I wonder how she's got on. My research is going rather slowly at the moment, but I'm certain by the end of the year all of my data 7 go have make a She b I c We 22 a speech at the conference next week. out there — it's pouring with rain and I haven't got an umbrella. risotto for dinner. Is that okay with you? Exam practice The future 2 II Reading and Use of English Part 8 You are going to read a magazine article in which five career consultants give advice on interview technique. For questions 1 - 10, choose from the consultants (A - E). The consultants may be chosen more than once. Which consultant makes the following statements? Interviewers look for applicants with specific skills. Try to make a good impression early in the interview. 2 Insufficient preparation by applicants is a common weakness. 3 Doing prior research helps distinguish you from other applicants. 4 Give yourself a moment to think about your answers to interviewers' questions. 5 You should be able to support your application with additional information at an interview. Find out the opinion of other people who deal with the organisation. 7 Consider the match between the job requirements and your experience. 8 Getting an interview indicates that the employer believes you can do the job. 9 Use a number of sources to discover more about the organisation. 10 23 Exam practice Job Interviews: expert advice for graduates Are you a graduate about to apply for jobs? We asked five career consultants to give some tips on performing well in interviews. Consultant A Ask recruiters what disappoints them most about the people they interview and the answer is often the same — lack of knowledge of their organisation. And lack of knowledge suggests lack of intenst.You will have learned research skills in your university degree, so apply them to job hunting and don't forget that social networks can also provide a lot of inside information. Find out how the organisation you are applying for has developed in recent years, how its products or services and markets have changed, who its competitors are, what its ethos is.Then use that information intelligently — simply regurgitating facts won't impress the interviewers. Instead, you need to demonstrate an understanding of what it all means for you as a prospective employee, what the challenges would be and the skills and attributes you'll need to make a positive contribution. Consultant B Three-quarters of interviews are failed within three minutes of entering the mom. Interviewers are put off by weak handshakes, a Lick of eye contact, poor body language and poor posture (slumped shoulders suggest a lack of confidence). Many recruiters make early judgements about your trustworthiness, likeability and professionalism and spend the rest of the interview confirming these opinions.You should shake hands firmly and warmly, but wait to be invited to sit down. Strong handshakes communicate sociability and friendliness — normally desirable qualities in candidates — whereas weak handshakes may communicate introversion and shyness. At the start of the interview you should smile at and maintain good eye contact with the interviewer, Take a little time to consider your response to what the interviewers ask before speaking. Then, when you have decided what to say, speak clearly and not too fast. Consultant C Inevitably, you will be asked at some stage during the interview why you want to work for the organisation you are applying to. This is a great chance to show your business awareness, but you'll need to prepare. Before the interview, contact one of the organisation's 24 customers — you should be able to identify some through an internet search — and ask them questions such as: 'What's it like to do business with company X?', 'What makes them stand out?', 'What makes them successful (or not)?'And then at interview explain the research that you've done and include their customer's responses in your answers.That way you'll stand out from the crowd; not only will you give evidence of your personal enterprise and your genuine interest in the organisation, but also your understanding of the business world. Consultant D Most employers will want you to demonstrate a particular set of abilities which they believe are essential to the job role, for example team work, communication, problem solving and time management. At interview, you are likely to be asked to give specific examples of times when you have demonstrated those abilities. Employers recognise that you might not have lots of directly relevant work experience, so when they ask these questions they will usually be happy for you to provide examples from any aspect of your life, such as your studies, part-time work, volunteering, interests or extra-curricular activities. So before you go to an interview, check the job description for the skills and competencies required, then reflect on your experiences and think about examples that you could use as evidence. Consultant E It's natural to be nervous, but if an employer thought you weren't good enough, they simply wouldn't waste their time on getting to know you in an interview. What interviewers aim to do is find out whether what's written in your application is genuine and how well you'll fit in. So the best advice I can give is: just be yourself in the interview. Of course, they'll also be testing your understanding, motivation and ability, most often by asking you to talk them through examples of your practical knowledge that show you have the expertise the job requires.You'll need to expand on what you've written and it's a good idea to have some new examples ready, too. Modals (1) Ability; possibility; conclusions, willingness, habitual events; necessity, deduction; 'not necessary', obligation Context listening Eig Look at these newspaper headlines and photos. What do you think the stories are about? More air travel chaos looms I School evacuation in South Wales j Borland link opened Sport the answer to obesity crisis j Eg col Listen to a radio news summary and check whether you were right. 1301 Listen again and fill in the gaps. 1 Air passengers cook. be hit badly today. 2 The cabin staff the new working conditions. 3 Up to 200 teachers and pupils 4 Firefighters 5 I think it 6 There 7 They 8 It 1.4 evacuated from Northfield Primary School. the fire under control fairly quickly. of great benefit to the island. restrictions on the number of people moving here. their children whatever encouragement they can. warm, sunny and dry, with temperatures up to 22°C. In which of the extracts do the words you have written refer to: 1 ability? 2 necessity? 4 4 possibility? 5 prediction? 3 obligation? 25 3 Modals (1) Grammar Can/could We'll get wealthy people from the mainland who can afford second homes. (= general ability) Before the bridge was built we could only get to the island by ferry. (= general ability in the past) May/could/might Up to 700,000 people may experience delays. (= its possible this will happen) Air passengers could be hit badly today. (= it's possible) It might be a number of months before the sports centre is back in operation. (= it's possible this is true; less certain than may or could) Will/would That will push up house prices. (= prediction about the future) If schools highlighted the importance of physical exercise, this would have a major positive impact on children's attitudes to sport. (= prediction about an imaginary situation) Must The cabin staff must accept the new working conditions. (= a rule or order) This negative attitude to sport mustn't be allowed to continue. (= it's not allowed or not a good idea) Don't need to / needn't / don't haw to Parents don't need to / needn't be very interested in sport themselves. (= it's not necessarily true) I'm sure I don't have to spell out the chaos being caused in the airline industry. (= it's not necessary) Ought to/ should Parents ought to / should give their children whatever encouragement they can. (= obligation and recommendation) la Can, could, be able to: ability We can use be able to instead of can or could, particularly in more formal contexts: The hotels on the island are able to accommodate hundreds of visitors. (more formal) or The hotels on the island can accommodate ... (less formal) We use be able to to talk about ability on a specific occasion in the past: Firefighters were able to bring the fire under control fairly quickly (not Firefietters-eauld-6Fing ...) We can use either could or be able to in negatives in the past: They couldn't / weren't able to prevent the fire damaging the school's sports centre. We usually prefer can or could with verbs of sense (e.g. feel, hear, see, smell, taste) and verbs of thinking (e.g. believe, remember, understand): I can't believe Mr Wade is being so confrontational. We use be able to in perfect tenses, -ing forms, infinitives and after modal verbs: We've now been able to contact him. The film star hates not being able to leave her house. They've got to be able to adapt to change. Parents might be able to help. We prefer can and could in passives: The news can be read on our webs ite. To talk about a future ability, we use will be able to: Islanders won't be able to buy properties. 26 Modals (1) We use can or be able to to talk about possible future arrangements and can (or more politely could) to ask for permission: The President can't / is not able to visit the country until next month. Can/Could ! ask you what you think of the new bridge? In May, might, can, could: possibility To talk about a more general possibility of something happening we can use can or may The temperature in the mountains can/may fall below freezing even at this time of year. We use could to say that something was possible in the past: It could be a very rough journey, too. We don't use may to ask questions about the possibility of something happening. Instead we use could or the phrase be likely to: Could the negotiations finish today, do you think? What time is the meeting likely to finish? Might is sometimes used in questions, but is rather formal. We can use these modals in negative sentences, including those with words like only or hardly, to say that things are not possible or that it is possible that things are not the case The company can hardly be described as a success. (= it is not possible to describe it as a success) I think we should call off the strike, but other people may/might not agree with me. (= its possible that people don't agree with me) pa Will, would, used to: conclusions, willingness, habitual events We can use will to draw conclusions or state assumptions about things we think are true: No doubt you will have heard the news by now. We use will (not) to talk about (un)willingness or refusal to do something The minister says he will resign if no solution is found. We will not be bullied by management. The computer won't let me print documents. (We can say that inanimate objects, such as machines, can be unwilling or refuse to do something.) We use would to talk about willingness in the future, in conditionals, and when we say that we are willing but unable to do something Many people would be happy to pay higher taxes for better public services. The minister would be pleased to accept the invitation if it were not for other commitments. We don't use would to talk about willingness on a specific occasion in the past: David Wade agreed to meet the union representatives. (not Eravid-Werde-would-agree We can use will (present) and would (past) to talk about characteristic behaviour or habits, or about things that are true now or were true in the past: Some parents will actually discourage their children from taking up a sport. Many passengers would get seasick during the crossing We can use either would or used to to talk about things that happened repeatedly in the past: The crossing would/used to take over an hour at least. We don't use would to talk about past states: We used to be terribly isolated here because the ferry service was so bad. (not 27 Modals (1) 2.4 Must, have (got)to: necessity, deduction We can use either must or have to to say that it is necessary to do something, although have to is less formal and is also preferred in questions: The cabin staff must / have to accept the new working conditions if the airline is to compete. When we say that something was necessary in the past we use had to, not must Up to 200 teachers and pupils had to be evacuated from a school in South Wales today. To say something is necessary in the future we use will have to: To stay in business we will have to cut our costs. We use must when we decide that, in our opinion, something is necessary or important: I must give you my email address. Have to suggests that the necessity comes from outside; for example, from a rule or official order The council has to close two city centre car parks following a health and safety report. We usually use must, rather than have to, when we conclude that something (has) happened or that something is true. The bridge must have cost a fortune. When we conclude that something is impossible, we use can't or couldn't That can't be right, surely? (not Thot-mustk-befightr surely?) Sometimes we can use either have to or have got to, although have got to is more informal. We use have to with frequency adverbs and with other modal verbs: Islanders normally have to queue for half an hour to get on the ferry. The airlines will have to return to the negotiating table. If have is contracted (e.g. I've), then we must include got They've got to be changed. (not Theiive-fe-be-ehangecli) When we use the past simple we prefer had to rather than had got to: The manager seemed to be doing a good job. Why did he have to go? (not Whrhad-he-get-to-ge?) 1111 Didn't need to, didn't have to, needn't have: 'not necessary' To say it was not necessary to do something in the past, we use didn't need to or didn't have to: He didn't have to wait long for a response. (= he didn't actually wait long) When we think something that was done in the past was not necessary, we use need not (needn't) have The event organisers expected the bad weather to affect ticket sales. However, they need not have worried, as every ticket was sold (= they worried but it was not necessary) 2.6 Should, ought to: obligation We can often use either should or ought to to talk about obligation (in giving advice and recommendations, saying what we think is a good idea and talking about responsibility): I think we ought to / should keep Borland for the islanders! (= it's a good idea) The authorities ought to / should prosecute companies that cause pollution. (= talking about responsibility) We can use either should or ought to to say that something is likely because we have planned it or expect it to happen: They say the road will be ready in five years, but they should / ought to be able to build it faster. We use shouldn't rather than oughtn't to if something is unlikely: If you're in the south of the country, you shouldn't be troubled by any rain today. 28 Modals (1) 3 Grammar exercises Choose the correct verb. 1 Adult ladybirds may / might be black, red or yellow. 2 We can / be able to get to the airport in 20 minutes when the new line is finished next year. 3 I left home because I wasn't able to / can't find a job there. 4 A: I can't find my purse anywhere. B: May / Could you have left it in the restaurant? 5 Not so long ago, more than 20 species of fish could / were able to be found in this river. 6 k. Apparently, there's been an accident in the High Street. B: That might / is able to explain why the bus is taking so long. 7 k Lena says she'll definitely pay the money back. 13: I wish I was able to / could trust her. 8 This camera is a bit cheaper than the other one, but it mightn't / can't be as good, of course. Amir is talking to Martha just before and after a job interview. Choose the correct verb. Before the interview A: What time (1) have you to / have you got to/must you be there by? M: 10.30. A: You (2) must / have to / have got to be really nervous. M: Terrified! But it doesn't matter, I know I won't get the job. A: You (3) haven't got to / mustn't / can't be sure of that. You've got just the right experience and qualifications. M: But I feel tense. I'm worried 1(4) can't / couldn't / mightn't make a good impression in the interview. A: I'm sure you'll be okay. After the interview M: I got it! A: Congratulations! What (5) had you got to / must you / did you have to do? M: Well, mainly 1 (6) had got to / had to / must tell them why I wanted to work there. Az And does the job sound good? M: Fantastic. I'll (?) have to / must / have got to do a lot of travelling. A: Well that (8) oughtn't to) shouldn't / mustn't be a problem for you. M: No, and I may (9) must) have to / have got to spend some time in Barcelona. A: Well, I think we should certainly go out for a meal to celebrate. M: Great idea. Ina Choose the correct sentence ending. Sometimes both are possible. 1 I have to get up early tomorrow, so I ... 2 a mustn't be too late going to bed tonight b don't need to be too late going to bed tonight. When we got to the station, we found that the train was half an hour late, so we ... a didn't need to rush after all, b needn't have rushed after all. 29 3 Modals (1) 3 The meeting will be quite informal, so you ... a don't need to wear a suit. I, 4 don't have to wear a suit. Fortunately, he wasn't badly hurt in the accident, so he ... a needn't go to hospital. b didn't need to go to hospital. 5 Gwen has lost a lot of weight during her illness, so you ... 6 7 a needn't look surprised when you see her again. b mustn't look surprised when you see her again. The tennis courts are open to the public, so you ... a needn't be a member of the club to play here. b mustn't be a member of the club to play here. The house was in good condition when I bought it, so I ... a didn't need to decorate before I moved in. b didn't have to decorate before I moved in. 8 As it turned out, the exam was quite easy, sot ... a didn't have to spend all that time revising. b needn't have spent all that time revising. 3.4 Match a sentence beginning with one of the endings. You won't need to use all the endings. 1 I said I'd pay for her ticket but she a could cause dangerous driving conditions. 2 In just a few years from now people b shouldn't take me too long. 3 I still remember how they c can do 3D printing in their own homes. 4 Forecasters are warning that heavy snow d wouldn't accept my offer. 5 Here's some really nice cheese that I don't think you e would play together so well as children. 6 We live in an old house that f would be a school. 7 Writing my geography assignment g will be able to control their car using an app. h used to belong to a politician. 30 i will have tasted before. j might have tried. Exam practice Modals (1) 3 Listening Part 1 ag You will hear three different extracts. For questions 1 —6, choose the answer (A, B or C) which fits best according to what you hear. There are two questions for each extract. Extract One You hear two people on a radio programme discussing music education for children. 1 They agree that young children should A learn an instrument that requires a lot of concentration. be started on instruction at an early age. C focus largely on music theory. 2 What does the woman say about the piano? A It is not possible to play simple tunes on it. Playing it can discourage children from learning another instrument. C Most young children are not mature enough to learn it. Extract 1Wo You hear part of an interview with a rock climber called Ben. 3 In Ben's view, what is the best way to improve as a climber? A take the advice of other climbers learn from the mistakes you make C watch more experienced climbers 4 Why does Ben prefer not to climb alone in icy conditions? A He can learn new techniques from other people. He gets nervous when rocks have ice on them. C He lacks experience of climbing on ice. Extract Three You hear part of an interview with a restaurant critic called Amanda Downing. 5 How do most waiters react when they realise who Amanda is? A They give her special attention. They are overcome with nerves. C They provide her with free food. 6 In what way, according to Amanda, are most restaurant owners completely wrong? A They think customers choose a restaurant only for its quality of service. They don't understand customers' motivation for eating in restaurants. C They think their priorities are different to those of their customers. 31 Context listening Eli DC3 Listen to this extract from a radio drama. Two police officers are discussing a major art theft from the fourth floor of a modern art gallery. Which of these pictures (a-f) do the police officers discuss? o diregr,eg 1;ar Ednieir 001 Listen again and match the sentence beginnings and endings. 1 Anybody trying to do that would a 2 After that they might b be hiding some information from us. 3 So someone else must c have been seen from the street below. 4 Do you think he might d have finished examining the building by now. have opened the door from the inside. 5 But of course, he might e have been expecting them and that he was part of the gang? 6 I suppose he could f have been lowered by rope from the roof. 7 The driver must g have been waiting nearby. 8 The forensic team should h be lying. Ela Which of the sentences in 1.2 include these grammatical patterns? modal verb + have been + past participle 2 modal verb + have + past participle 3 modal verb + have been + present participle 4 modal verb + be + present participle 32 lc (would have been seen) Modals (2) 4 Grammar F May / might / could + be + present participle; may / might / could + have + past participle M .1 But of course, he might be lying (not 2,,at of cow Jerat-con be tyre-0 (= in the present: it's possible he's lying) They could have got in through a window up on the fourth floor. in the past: its possible they got in) With a future time reference we can use may I might I could + be + present participle and may! might I could + have + past participle to say it is possible that something will happen in the future Nik's flight was cancelled, so he may/might/could be arriving much later than expected. The thieves may/might/could have left the country by the time we get to the airport. Egi May / might / could + have been + present participle We can use may/might/could + have been + present participle to talk about situations or activities that were possibly happening at a particular past time Do you think he might have been expecting them? up Would / will + have + past participle We use would have + past participle to talk about an imaginary past situation: People would have seen them from the street below. To show that we think a past situation actually happened, we use will have + past participle If they smashed a window to get in, people living nearby will certainly have heard something. EL, Should! ought to + have + past participle We use should I ought to + have + past participle to talk about something that didn't happen in the past, particularly when we want to imply some regret or criticism: He must know that he ought to have called the poke as soon as he found the door open. We should have been contacted earlier. (passive) We can also use should I ought to + have + past participle to talk about an expectation that something happened, has happened, or will happen: The forensic team should have finished examining the building by now. Egi Must! can't / couldn't + have + past participle So someone else must have opened the door from the inside. (active) It must have been opened from the inside. (passive) We can use must have + past participle to draw a conclusion about something in the past. To draw a conclusion about a past event, saying that it was not possible, we use can't have + past participle or couldn't have + past participle One man alone couldn't have carried all those paintings. (not ... mustnIt-litave-earned 33 4 Modals (2) To draw a conclusion about something happening at a particular past time, saying that it was likely or certain, we use must have been + present participle The driver must have been waiting nearby. 2.6 Must be + present participle We can use must be + present participle to draw a conclusion about something happening around the time of speaking. We can use must be + present participle or must be going to to draw a conclusion about something likely to happen in the future I'll speak to the curator of the museum later. She must be feeling devastated. They're taking the head cleaner to the police car They must be going to arrest him. or They must be arresting him. EgiDare and need He gets annoyed easily, so t daren't criticise him.! A good car needn't cost a lot. She dared me to jump across. / We need to talk to them. Dare and need can be used either as modal verbs (+ bare infinitive) or ordinary verbs (+ to-infinitive). As modals, dare and need are mostly used in negative contexts. We can use either dare to or dare (without to) when it is not followed by not But no one would have dared (to) climb up the outside of the building. I daren't tell him I've got another job. (not 1-dareWt-te461 ...) We can't include wafter needn't We needn't interview everyone in the block (not nccdn't to ...) 2.8 Had better We can use had better instead of should I ought to, especially in spoken English, to say that we think it is a good idea (or not) to do something We'd better find out all we can about that guard as soon as possible We'd better not go in until the forensic team has finished. We use should or ought to when we talk about the past or make general comments: I should! ought to have phoned her earlier. People should! ought to support the police more. (not PeoPie-haid-b•tter --) 2.9 Be allowed to We can use could or was/were allowed to to say that in the past someone had general permission to do something Only the security guard could / was allowed to stay in the museum after it closed. To talk about permission on a particular occasion, we use was/were allowed to (not could): Although he had no ID, the man was allowed to enter the building. In negative sentences we can use either could or was/were allowed to when talking about permission in general or on particular occasions: They let reporters into the crime scene, but they couldn't! weren't allowed to take photos. 34 Modals (2) 2.10 Be supposed 4 to We can use be supposed to to express a less strong obligation than with should or ought to. Using be supposed to often suggests that events do not happen as expected: The entry code is supposed to be known only by the security guard. (= suggests that it was in fact known by others) We can use be supposed to to report what people think is true The building is supposed to be one of the most secure in the country. (= people say it is.) (noti-ht-imitding-sheatel- eft Other verbs with modal meanings A number of other verbs are used with similar meanings to modal verbs: No one is to enter the building until the police give permission. (= obligation — formal) Everyone present was required to give a statement to the police. (= obligation) How did they manage to get in? (= ability) We have succeeded in narrowing down the list of suspects. (= ability) He might be prepared to tell us more. (= willingness) The suspects have refused to co-operate. (= unwillingness) From the evidence found, it follows that it was carefully planned. (= conclusion — formal) We can conclude that the paintings were stolen by professionals. (= conclusion) Grammar exercises in Choose the correct verbs. 1 You should must have been mad to jump off the wall like that You might / will have broken a leg. 2 I didn't dare to admit I couldn't be admitting that I'd dropped his laptop. He will have been / would have been so angry with me. 3 The weather forecast said it might be raining can be raining later, so we'd better to / we'd better take an umbrella when we go out. 4 The work on repairing the bridge is supposed to start / ought to start next month, but there have been a lot of complaints about it. It's the height of the tourist season, so they couldn't / mustn't have chosen a worse time to do it. 5 Jan must have to know must have known the brakes on the car weren't working properly. He really should have warned / had better have warned me when he sold it to me. 6 There have been yet more delays in building our new office block. They must were supposed to have finished by now, but I'm starting to think that I might can have retired before it's built. 35 4 Modals (2) leg Complete the sentences using the verbs from the box in one of these forms: have + past participle be + present participle have been + past participle have been + present participle cause change find screw talk tempt wait work 1 A: The clouds are getting really dark. 8: Yes, I think it could be. snowing by morning. 2 k So how did the explosion happen? B: They think it may by a gas leak 3 A: You were born in Wooton, weren't you? It's supposed to be a lovely village. since then — I haven't been there for years. 8: It certainly used to be, but it may 4 k. I rang Weis doorbell twice, but there was no answer. 8: He must in the garden. 5 k Cutting those roses was so difficult. I've still got thorns in my hands. B: You might it easier if you'd been wearing gloves. 6 k I thought we were meeting Anika outside the theatre. for us inside. B: Yes, but I can't see her. I suppose she might 7 A: Did you apply for that job in Canada I told you about? but it was even less than I'm earning now. 13: Well, if the salary was higher I might 8 A: When Aya said 'He's really lazy; do you think she meant me? 8: Well, she could about someone else, I suppose. Ingl A group of geography students are going on a field trip to Iceland. Their teacher is talking about the arrangements. Rewrite the underlined parts using one of the words or phrases from the box. You need to add extra words in each case. allow are to compulsory managed possibility of recommend refused succeeded 'Unfortunately, the authorities (1) won't allow us to carry out fieldwork on the glacier. Apparently, because of weather conditions it's not safe at the moment. Instead, (2) we've been able to arrange a boat trip to study coastal features, and (3) we may see whales. So I think (4) you should bring a pair of binoculars if you can. You might want to bring a camera, too. In past years, students have (5) been able to take some excellent photographs during our Iceland fieldwork Let me remind you, however, that no portable stereos with external speakers (6) should be taken on the trip, although (7) you may bring an MP3 player if you want to. And finally, can you remember that (8) everyone must arrange their own private medical insurance for the trip. I'll check next week that everyone has done this ...' 1 2 have refused to 5 6 3 7 4 8 36 Modals (2) Read these extracts from newspaper and magazine articles. Choose one phrase from each of the pairs in the box to complete the sentences. eettkl4tavebeehrevertted / can-have ,triitrev could be facing / can be facing would not have been able to grow / will not be able to grow ought to give/ ought to have given might be working / might have been working must get easier / must be getting easier 1 An enquiry into last year's explosion at the Amcon Refinery that killed 25 workers concluded that it could- have been preventea if the refinery had installed a hazard warning system, as safety officers had recommended. 2 as a secret agent There is some evidence to suggest that Jon Ricci during the 1960s, although even after the end of the Cold War this was never confirmed. 3 Mateus Weber, chief executive of the Schools Examination Authority, said: 'The newspapers claim that the But we are absolutely certain that improving results show that exams standards have remained the same: 4 Mr Rosi will return to court on 31 January to hear his sentence, having been warned yesterday that he a long period in prison. them the lead just before halftime, but he shot straight at the 5 Mesi goalkeeper, who made an easy save. 6 For centuries the flooding of the Nile was very important because, without it, the people crops in the dry desert. But global warming has changed the traditional patterns of agriculture in this part of the world. 37 Exam practice II Reading and Use of English Part 4 For questions 1 — 6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word given. Here is an example (0). 0 Those working with pre-school age children will probably find the course interesting. INTEREST The course is likely 1 to be of biterest to those working with pre-school age children. During the winter I prefer watching football to playing it. SOONER During the winter I 2 it Karen says it takes less than an hour to drive there, but I'm sure she has got it wrong. MUST Karen says it takes less than an hour to drive there, but she 3 a mistake. Students wishing to enrol on the course should complete all sections of the application forrn. REQUIRED Students wishing to enrol on the course form. 4 in all sections of the application I wish I had considered the question more carefully before answering. THOUGHT I should 5 the question more carefully before answering. The factory has been able to reduce its CO2 emissions by 50% in the last year. SUCCEEDED The factory 6 back its CO2 emissions by 50% in the last year. It's a long walk home, so I advise you not to miss the last train. BETTER It's a long walk home, so 38 the last train. Nouns, agreement and articles Compound nouns and noun phrases; subject-verb agreement; countable and uncountable nouns; articles Context listening EliNazim has applied to do a college course in Environmental Science. You are going to listen to part of his interview for a place on the course. What questions do you think the interviewer will ask? ElE1 OE Listen and check whether you were right. 1111 CIE Listen again and write one word in each gap to complete the compound nouns. I climate tho.nge, 4 river 7 -making 3 rain 5 -saving 6 lighting 9 mountain 8 the arms scheme 1.4 2 Which of the following forms do each of the compound nouns from 1.3 take? noun + noun -ing form + noun noun + form Ela Ignoring the shaded parts for now, complete these pain of sentences from the interview with a, the or — (=no article). 1 a 2 3 There's been drought there for a number of months, and river levels are low. drought on food supplies. b The main problem has been the effect of a And what are your plans for b It's hard to imagine a What do you want to do after you've left b Have you got any questions about the course here at 1.6 future? future without farming in an area like that. college , college ? Can you explain the difference in meaning of the shaded parts of the sentences? 39 5 Nouns, agreement and articles Grammar ing Compound nouns and noun phrases START POINT Common compound noun patterns: noun + noun -ing form + noun donate change recycluig scheme i noun + -ing form ehergy-sooahg Some compound nouns are usually written as one word (e.g. rainforest), some as separate words (e.g. river levels), and others with a hyphen (-) e.g. decision-making). The first noun in a compound usually has a singular form, even if it has a plural meaning decision-making (not deei5ions-nuikirtg) Instead of a compound noun we can use noun + 's + noun when the first noun is the user of the second noun: a women's clinic, a boys' school noun + preposition + noun: a book about energy conservation, a book about grammar (a grammar book is also common) We can sometimes use noun + + noun or noun + of + noun with a similar meaning the charity's aim or the aim of the charity We are more likely to use noun + 's + noun: when the first noun refers to a particular person or group of people or to talk about time Mike's job, next year's field trip We more often use noun + of + noun: when the second noun is a non-living thing the title of the CD when we talk about a process or change over time the destruction of the rainforest with a long noun phrase Mike is the brother of someone! went to school with. Compounds often combine with other nouns or compounds to form longer combinations: decision-making process, energy conservation scheme an Subject—verb agreement Some nouns with a singular form, referring to a group (e.g. government, class, department team), can be used with either a singular or plural form of the verb, although in formal contexts a singular verb is often preferred: The government has (or have) introduced some really interesting projects. We usually use a singular verb: when names and titles (e.g. of countries, newspapers, books, films) ending in -s refer to a single unit: The Netherlands has begun to tackle the problem. with a phrase referring to a measurement, amount or quantity Only a few miles separates the villages. after percent (also per cent or %) referring to a singular or uncountable noun: ... 10% of the country's energy comes from wind power 40 Nouns, agreement and articles But if percent refers to a plural noun we use a plural verb: ... 60% of people there are malnourished. We usually use a plural verb: with nouns that normally have a plural form: congratulations, outskirts, clothes. But note that the following nouns ending in -s take a singular verb — news, linguistics, mathematics, physics, politics, statistics and economics when they refer to the academic subject Statistics is included in the course. (not StratirstiCS-Oft ...) after a/the majority of, a/the minority of, a number of, a lot of, plenty of, all (of), some of + a plural noun / pronoun: The majority of people there are farmers. But note that we use a singular verb with the number of The number of people suffering from malnutrition is increasing. The following verb must agree with the main noun in a sentence with a complex subject: Levels of income from the sale of handicrafts have increased. When the subject follows the verb, the verb agrees with the subject Among the projects invested in by the government is the use of low-energy fight bulbs. Egli Countable and uncountable nouns Many nouns in English are uncountable: they are not used with a Ian or in the plural. For example: advice, equipment, information. Some nouns are used uncountably when we are talking about the general idea, but countably when we are talking about particular examples: You'd be able to get by with a bask knowledge of some statistical techniques. but The desire for knowledge is a fundamental human instinct. The charity's project has been a success. (= a particular example of success) Financial success isn't everything. (= success in general) Other nouns like this indude business, education, sound. Some of these (e.g. education) are only used countably in the singular. Some nouns (e.g. accommodation, speech, work) have a different meaning when they are used countably and uncountably. Compare She gave a speech about global warming Children usually develop speech in their second year We can use a good/great deal of and amount of before uncountable nouns: There's a great deal of interest in recycling in the country. It's saving an enormous amount of waste. Using these before a plural countable noun is incorrect and you should avoid it in exams. However, they are sometimes used in this way in informal contexts. We use a number of before plural countable nouns: There's been a drought there for a number of months. and plenty of and a quantity of before either uncountable or plural countable nouns: There was plenty of opportunity for me to travel around the country. saw a huge quantity of trees being cut down. 5 5 Nouns, agreement and articles 2.4 Articles We use the: with singular, plural or uncountable nouns when we expect the listener or reader to be able to identify the thing or person referred to: its a project run by a European charity. The charity's aim ... when a following phrase or clause identifies what particular thing we are talking about: the climate in this region, the impact of climate change, the ecology of mountain environments when we talk about things that are unique in one part of the world, the sky, the future the first/next time; the only/main problem; the smallest improvemen4 the arms trade, the environment Some 'unique' nouns can be used with a/an when we describe a type or aspect of the thing. Compare What are your plans for the future? and It's hard to imagine a future without farming in an area like that. We use a/an: when a singular countable noun is introduced for the first time into a spoken or written text: He's the head of a project run by a European charity. to talk about an unspecified person, thing or event: I didn't have a shower for days. to describe someone/something or say what type of thing someone/something is: It's a beautiful country. It's an international organisation. to say what a person's job is: You think that as a politician, you'd be able to do this? But note that we use the or no article to give a person's title or their unique position: He's the head of a project there. or He's head of a project there. in number and quantity expressions: a month or so, a couple of weeks, half an hour, three times a year, 50 cents a litre, a huge number of, a bit We use no article with uncountable and plural nouns when we talk generally about people or things rather than about specific people or things: I've always been fascinated by plants and animals. They haven't had rain for months. with some singular nouns referring to institutions (e.g. school, college, hospital, prison, university, work) when we talk about them generally. Compare crfter you've left college and the course here at the college with most countries: Brazil, Switzerland, Norway but the Netherlands, the USA, the UK, the Philippines, the Gambia with the names of months and days of the week: in June, on Monday; special times of the year: during Ramadan, at Easter; (or the) with seasons: like to go skiing in winter or... in the winter. However, we generally use the to talk about a particular month, day, etc I'm going to Nepal in the summer (= next summer) with meals when we talk about the next one What's for dinner?; a recent one What did you have for breakfasa; or a meal in general: I usually have toast for breakfast. However, we generally use articles to talk about a particular meal or particular meals: We had an early dinner, The breakfast in the hotel is great. with by to talk about means of communication and transport: by post/email/phone; by car /taxi /bus/plane/ air/sea 42 Nouns, agreement and articles 5 Grammar exercises EU Choose the correct phrase. 1 I don't like tomatoes, so! left them at the side of the plate / the plate's side. 2 It was the decision of Adam / Adam's decision to take out the loan, so he has to take responsibility for repaying it. 3 I saw two great TV programmes last week. The first was an action film / a film about action, and the second a documentary about young entrepreneurs / a young entrepreneurs documentary. 4 John is someone I worked with in Malaysia's brother / the brother of someone worked with in Malaysia. 5 He apologised without the hesitation of a moment / a moment's hesitation. 6 My house is by a children playground / a children's playground, so it can be quite noisy. 7 The construction of the new library / The new library's construction took so long that building costs were ten times higher than first expected. 8 When I got home I found that an envelope had been pushed through my letters box / letter box. In it was a congratulations card/ a congratulation card from Aunt Alice. Nazim has been accepted on the Environmental Science course (see 1.1). Read this email he sent to a friend during a field trip. Fill in the gaps with a present tense form of the verbs in brackets. Hi Cathy, Greetings from Nepal! I'm sending this from an internet café in a small town north of Kathmandu. are The town itself isn't very interesting, but the surroundings (1) (be) beautiful — I can see the Himalayas through the café windowl The lectures here are brilliant. The Politics and Ecology courses are great, but Economics (2) (be) really difficult — although maths (3) (be) certainly not my strong point! I'm really learning a lot about the country and its environmental problems. A lot of Nepal's population (4) (live) in the mountainous parts of the country south of the Himalayas, and the majority of these people (5) (depend) on growing crops and keeping animals. The standard of Hying in Kathmandu and the other cities (have) risen a lot recently, and the number of people likely to move into the (6) cities (7) (be) expected to increase. It's a real problem here. The Himalayan Times, the local English-language newspaper (9) (have) just published a survey showing that most young people would stay in their home villages if jobs were available. I was planning on coming home at the end of June, but the college (9) (have) arranged for a few of us to stay during the summer on a VVWF conservation project in a region in the north called Helambu — there (10) (be) just a few kilometres between the village where I'll be working and the border with China. Among the various projects that have been set up (11) (be) a scheme for producing biogas locally — that's gas produced from plant and animal waste. All my living expenses (12) (be) being paid for by the VVWE Hope all is well with you. I'll send more news when I can. Nazim 43 5 Nouns, agreement and articles FE Choose one word or phrase from each of the pairs in the box to complete the sentences. In some cases, both words or phrases are correct. advertising / advertisements fresh fruit / vegetables rubbish / empty bottles advice / ups jobs / work salt/ cups of coffee explosives / ammunition meetings-/-fereign-travel 1 Her job involves a good deal of foray travel. 2 Make sure you eat plenty of in it. 3 What I don't like about the magazine is the huge number of 4 I think you ought to cut down on the amount of you have. It's not good for you. 5 The Students' Handbook includes a great deal of on study skills. in his apartment 6 The police found a rifle and a large quantity of 7 to do at the weekend. I have a huge amount of left behind after the party. 8 I was shocked by the amount of 3.4 Fill in the gaps using the words in the box. Use the same word to complete the sentences in each pair. Add a/an if necessary. competition conversation importance iron knowledge paper shampoo time I. a He lists his interests as reading, listening to music and good conversation . b It's difficult to hold a. conversation with Sarah because she keeps interrupting. 2 between the a Customers have benefited from lower prices resulting from supermarkets. b I see you've bought a new bike. 8: Actually, I won it in 3 a Our council is encouraging everyone to recycle on her research. b Professor Tench has recently published 4 by washing your hair with it a few times. a You can only tell whether you like b k. Do we need anything from the chemist's? B: Just 5 a and a tube of toothpaste. Don't leave the flower pot outside. It's made of and it'll rust. b I burnt a hole in my trousers with 6 a Has there ever been when you've regretted moving to Australia? b Definitions of poverty have changed over 7 a When parents take an active role in schools, children see their parents placing their education. b The manuscript is of great historical 8 a Humans are driven by the pursuit of b Living in Dublin gave me 44 of Irish history. on Nouns, agreement and articles EL Add a a, an 5 or the to these texts where necessary. an the (x 3) My brother wasn't very good at taking exams and he left school at 16. At first he went to the. work in A construction industry. But he didn't enjoy it, so he took evening course in accounting. Eventually, he started company offering financial advice. He's now managing director, and it seems that company's doing really well. arae -.-.401"..""•00 2 Sa."111.1% -.."11/44"."fr ""41°L.4411"ral 14163/411... a (x 3) an the (x 3) Do you remember summer we went to Sweden? 1995,1 think it was. It was wonderful holiday, wasn't it? And so good to see Paakim again. I'll never forget picnic we had with him. There were huge number of mosquitoes. Yes, I remember. And when sun was going down there was amazing red sky. And then his car broke down on the way home, and we had to go back by bus. No, we got taxi, didn't we? Oh yes, that's right. 3 a (x 4) the (x 5) Patimah has busy life as lawyer, but in her free time she really enjoys hiking. Most weekends she drives out into countryside and walks for few hours. She says she likes to forget about work, and she doesn't even take mobile phone with her. In summer she's going hiking in Philippines. She's never been there before, but friend she's going with knows country well. rage 45 Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2 For questions 1 - 9, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). The origins of chess A great (0) (1) deat has been written about the origins of modern chess and them still considerable debate about the subject. (2) theory most widely accepted is that its earliest ancestor was Shaturanga, a game played in India from around AD 600. (3) with modern chess, Shaturanga was played on a board with 64 squares. Pieces such as kings, queens and knights were able to move in different ways with (4) aim of capturing other pieces and, at the end of the game, the opponent's king. Unlike chess, it was played by four people. In the form in (5) it is played today, chess appeared in southern Europe around the end of the fifteenth century. Today, chess has become one of the world's (6) played by millions of people both informally and in tournaments, and (7) playing online (8) 46 increasing with access to the Internet. popular games. It is number of people Determiners and quantifiers No, none, not a, not any; much, many, a lot of, lots of; all, both, whole; every, each; (a/the) few, little; less, fewer (than); much, many, etc. + (of) Context listenin g You are going to listen to three people talking about running. Make notes on three benefits and three possible problems of taking up running as a hobby. EU 0:13Listen to three people giving their views on running. Which of the benefits and possible problems you have listed do the speakers mention? LEI 1 a Listen again and fill in the gaps. Until then I did a bit of sport at school, but I didn't do rnticki outside school at all. (Speaker 1) 2 3 b In fact, I suppose I didn't have a Now I run a few kilometres b You can be sure that a Inevitably you get interests. (Speaker 1) day. (Speaker 2) one of us will have a really good time. (Speaker 3) injuries, too - everyone gets aching muscles after a long run. (Speaker 3) 4 b It's one of a I certainly go out a lot sports where no special equipment's needed. (Speaker 2) But surprisingly I seem to have 1.4 during the winter. (Speaker 3) injuries now than when I was younger. (Speaker 3) In which pair of sentences is each word or phrase possible in both gaps? 47 6 Determiners and quantifiers Grammar EP No none, not a, not any No two pairs of running shoes are the sank_ (= nor any) None of them like the thought of running long distances. (= not any of) We use neither of instead of none of when we talk about two people or things: Neither of us did any exercise. We don't usually use not a / not any at the beginning of a clause. Instead we use no and none of None of the runners is under 60. (not Net-any-opthe-runtrefs ...) If it is clear from the context what is meant, we can use none without a following noun: I've had none so far (= e.g. no injuries) Egi Much, many, a lot of, lots of Did you do much running last winter? There could be many reasons for the current interest in running I get a lot of satisfaction out of it. You get to me