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1

 

O
n

lin
e 

G
u

id
e

 

• Tools and commands 

• Using Acrobat Search

• Selecting indexes to search

• Defining search queries

• Viewing documents returned 
from a search

• Troubleshooting

 

Adobe

 

®

 

 Acrobat

 

®

 

 Search



 

2

 

Tools and commands

Search-
Selecting
To view
Using the Word

Viewing docu-
View-
Vie
Viewing docu-

Chang-

View
ing

Viewi
ng

Searc
hing

To
view

File

Tools

Find Next Note
Summarize Notes
Search

Query...
Indexes...
Results...
Word Assistant...

Previous Document
Previous
Next
Next Document

General...
Notes...
Full Screen...
Search...
Weblink...

Preferences



 

3

 

Using Acrobat Search

 

You use the Search command in Acrobat Exchange 
or Acrobat Reader to perform full-text searches of 
PDF document collections indexed with Acrobat 
Catalog. The Search command also has powerful 
tools for limiting and expanding the definition of 
the term for which you are searching. 

A 

 

full-text

 

 index is a searchable database of all text 
in a document or collection of documents. Searches 
of full-text indexes are very quick; by contrast, the 
Find command works with a single document and 
reads every word on every page, a much slower 
process.

 

Searching a full-text index

Expanding a search

Limiting a search

Changing search preferences



 

4

 

Searching a full-text index

 

Performing a search is a four-step process:

 

1

 

Select the indexes you want to search.

 

2

 

Define a search query, and list documents that match 
the query. (A 

 

search query

 

 is text and other items that 
define the information you want.)

 

3

 

Choose documents to view from the list.

 

4

 

View occurrences of the text in the documents.

Instructions for ; performing these steps follow.

 

To perform a full-text search:

1

 

Choose Tools > Search > Indexes to list the docu-
ment-collection indexes currently selected, add or dese-
lect indexes as necessary, and click OK. For details, see 

 

Selecting indexes to search

 

.



 

5

 

2

 

Choose Tools > Search > Query or click the Search 
Query button 

 

v

 

 on the toolbar to open the Search 
window. Type the text you want to find in the Find 
Results Containing Text box, and click Search.

The text can be a single word, a number, a term, or 
a phrase. (For details, see 

 

Searching for a term or 
phrase

 

.) When you click Search, the Search window 
is hidden and documents that match your search 
query are listed in rank order in the Search Results 
window.

 

3

 

Double-click a document that seems likely to contain 
the relevant information, probably the first document 
in the list. (For details, see 

 

Interpreting relevance 
ranking

 

.) The document opens on the first match for 
the text you typed.



 

6

 

4

 

Use the Search Next button 

 

y

 

 and Search Previous 
button 

 

x

 

 to go to other matches in the document. 
Or choose another document to view. See 

 

Viewing 
documents returned from a search

 

 for details.

Alternatively, redefine the query by typing new text 
or by using other techniques to 

 

expand the search

 

 
to more documents or to 

 

limit the search

 

 to fewer 
documents. If you want to do this without having to 
redisplay the Search windows, 

 

change the default 
preference

 

 that hides it “on view.”



 

7

 

Expanding a search

 

If a search returns too few documents or no 
documents at all, make sure you are searching the 
appropriate indexes. Also, make sure that settings 
left over from a previous search aren’t limiting the 
current one.

Then try any of these query techniques:

 

•

 

Wild-card

 

 characters in the search text increase 
the number of matches for the text.

 

•

 

A Boolean

 

 OR

 

 operator between two words 
returns documents containing either word.

 

•

 

The 

 

Word Stemming option

 

 finds words that 
share a stem with a search word.

 

•

 

The 

 

Sounds Like option

 

 finds different spellings 
of proper names.

 

•

 

The 

 

Thesaurus option

 

 finds words that have 
meanings similar to the meaning of a search word.

For details, see 

 

Defining search queries

 

.



 

8

 

Limiting a search

 

If a search returns too many documents or provides 
too many matches in individual documents, try any 
of these query techniques:

 

•

 

Refining

 

 a search confines it to documents returned 
by a previous search, which may be a small set of the 
documents actually indexed.

 

•

 

A Boolean 

 

NOT

 

 operator before a word excludes 
documents containing the word.

 

•

 

A Boolean 

 

AND

 

 operator between two words returns 
only documents containing both words.

 

•

 

The 

 

Proximity option

 

 limits AND searches so that 
words must be close to each other—within three pages 
or fewer.

 

•

 

The 

 

Match Case option

 

 finds text only when it has 
the same capitalization as the text you type.



 

9

 

•

 

Using 

 

Document Info

 

 

 

field values returns only docu-
ments with those values.

 

•

 

Using a 

 

date range

 

 returns only documents created 
or modified within that range.

For details, see 

 

Defining search queries

 

.



 

10

 

Changing search preferences

 

You may need to change the default settings in the 

 

Search Preferences dialog box

 

 illustrated on the 
following page.

 

To change search preferences:

1

 

Choose File > Preferences > Search.

 

2

 

Change preferences in the dialog box as necessary.

 

3

 

Click OK.



 

11

 

Search 
Preferences 
dialog box

 

Click any preference 
for information on 
that preference. The 
illustration shows the 
default settings.

Searching with Searching with

Using search op-

Viewing documents returned from a search

 

The Automount 
servers preference 
is available only 
on a Macintosh.



 

12

 

Selecting indexes to search

 

Choosing Tools > Search > Indexes lists the avail-
able indexes. On a Macintosh, the list may also 
include indexes on currently unavailable file server 
volumes or CD-ROMs.

To be searchable, an index must be in the search list 
and it must be selected. When you add an index to 
the list, it is automatically selected. You can dese-
lect or reselect it for specific searches or remove it 
from the list altogether. You can view a description 
of any index in the list.

Opening a PDF document associated with an index 
automatically makes the index searchable. See the 

 

Acrobat Exchange Guide

 

 for details.



 

13

 

To add an index to the search list:

1

 

Choose Tools > Search > Indexes. (If the Search 
window is open, click the Indexes button in it instead.)

 

2

 

Click Add.

 

3

 

Locate and select the index you want to use. Acrobat 
index-definition filenames usually end with .pdx.

 

4

 

Double-click the name of the index you want to use. 
The new index is added to the search list.

 

To select or deselect an index:

 

In the Index Selection dialog box, click the box of 
any index whose status you want to change and 
click OK.

 

Note:

 

 Dimmed indexes are currently unavailable 
for searching, usually because the network connec-
tion has been lost. See 

 

Troubleshooting

 

 for more 
information.



 

14

 

To remove an index from the search list:

1

 

In the Index Selection dialog box, highlight the name 
of the index you want to remove.

 

2

 

Click Remove.

 

3

 

Click OK.

 

To view a description of an index:

1

 

In the Index Selection dialog box, highlight the name 
of the index you want information about.

 

2

 

Click Info to view the information.

 

3

 

Click OK.



 

15

 

Defining search queries

 

You can search for a word, a number, a term, or a 
phrase made up of several terms. You can also use 
the other techniques listed below to define a search 
query.

 

Searching for a term or phrase

Searching with wild-card characters

Refining a search

Searching with Document Info fields

Searching with document creation and 
modification dates

Using search options (Word Stemming, 
Sounds Like, Thesaurus, Match Case, 
Proximity)

Searching with Boolean expressions 
(AND, OR, and NOT)



 

16

 

Searching for a term or phrase

 

To find matches for a single term, type the term in 
the text box labeled Find Results Containing Text 
and click Search. The term can be a word, a word 
with 

 

wild-card

 

 

 

characters, or any combination of 
letters, numbers, and symbols.

To find matches for a phrase, type the phrase and 
click Search.

 

•

 

If the phrase includes the word 

 

and

 

, 

 

or

 

, or 

 

not

 

 used 
in its ordinary sense (not as a 

 

Boolean operator

 

)

 

, put 
the phrase in quotes. The search phrase

 

“once or twice”

 

finds all occurrences of the phrase 

 

once or twice

 

, 
not all occurrences of 

 

once

 

 and all occurrences of 

 

twice

 

 as it would without the quotes.



 

17

 

•

 

If the phrase includes punctuation (other than the 
apostrophe) or special characters such as @ and *, they 
are ignored. For example, either of the terms

 

son-in-law, son in law

 

finds all occurrences of both 

 

son-in-law

 

 and 

 

son in 
law.

 

•

 

When a word such as 

 

an

 

 or 

 

the

 

 is excluded from an 
index, you cannot search for the word or for a phrase 
that includes it. The author of the index can give you a 
list of such stopwords and tell you whether numbers 
have been excluded.

For more information about phrases in quotes, 
ignored characters, stopwords, and excluded num-
bers, see 

 

Working around stopwords and other 
exclusions

 

.



 

18

 

Working around stopwords and other 
exclusions

 

If you are unsuccessful searching for a phrase that 
includes a common word such as to or that, it may 
be a stopword. 

If the unsuccessful search phrase includes a num-
ber, numbers may also have been excluded from 
the index. 

If you are unsuccessful searching for an alphanu-
meric term that includes a separator character such 
as a symbol or mark of punctuation, it is probably 
because numbers also have been excluded. Acrobat 
Catalog regularly excludes separator characters 
from indexes, and in the process sometimes 
reduces alphanumeric terms such as phone 
numbers to numbers.



19

In these cases, do the following:

• Try constructing a search phrase that doesn’t include 
a number, alphanumeric term, or possible stopword.

• If you can, get information about exclusions from the 
publisher of the index. Get a stopword list from the 
publisher.

For details, see the following:

How Acrobat Catalog treats separator 
characters

How Acrobat Catalog excludes numbers



20

How Acrobat Catalog treats separator 
characters

Separator characters include all symbols, the space 
character, and most punctuation characters: peri-
ods, commas, colons, semicolons, exclamation 
points, question marks, parentheses, and quotation 
marks, but not apostrophes.

When indexing a PDF document, Acrobat Catalog 
uses separator characters to recognize where one 
term ends and the next term starts. For example, in 
the sentence 

We have nothing to fear but fear itself.

the Catalog program uses the space characters 
and the period to identify seven terms: we, have, 
nothing, to, fear, but, and itself.

The program then discards the separator charac-
ters. The space and period don’t appear in the 
index.



21

Unless the discarded separator characters appear in 
an alphanumeric term, they have no effect 
on searches, because these characters are also 
removed from search terms in Acrobat Search. For 
details, see How Acrobat Search treats separator 
characters.



22

How Acrobat Search treats separator 
characters

Separator characters are automatically removed 
from the search terms you enter as well as from 
indexes created in Acrobat Catalog, so using these 
characters in searches usually produces no effect.

For example, the phone number

(415)555-1212

in a PDF document become a three-number phrase 
in the index: 

415 555 1212

But searching for the phone number (415)555-1212 
finds the phrase 415 555 1212 unless numbers are 
excluded from the index, because the parentheses 
and hyphen are disregarded for purposes of the 
search.



23

How Acrobat Catalog excludes 
numbers

Index publishers can exclude numbers from Acrobat 
Catalog indexes. Acrobat Catalog defines a number 
to be a sequence of one or more numeric digits 
[0 through 9] that are

• Optionally preceded by a minus sign [-].

• Optionally separated by one or more commas [,] or 
periods [.].

• Optionally containing a decimal point, which can be a 
period [.] or a comma [,].

Here are some examples of the kinds of numbers 
that Acrobat Catalog can exclude from an index:

23 23.54671 -37.1 3,012,222
44.223.835,5



24

Note that alphanumeric terms made up of numbers 
and separator characters such as $ can also be 
excluded, because the Catalog program removes 
the separator characters before determining 
whether the remaining characters constitute a 
number. For example, 

($3,000.23)

becomes 3,000.23, which may be excluded as 
a number.



25

Searching with wild-card characters

You can use wild-card characters to find all the 
words that contain a word fragment or all the terms 
that match an arbitrary character pattern:

* asterisk, matches zero, one, or more characters

? question mark, matches any one character

You can use wild-card characters in a term that is 
part of a Boolean expression. You can also use wild 
cards to specify Document Info field values. You 
cannot use wild cards to represent separator char-
acters such as the hyphen [-] and the slash [/].



26

Wild-card examples

geo* matches geodesic, Geoffrey, and geothermal

*nym matches antonym, homonym, and synonym

?ight matches fight and sight but not bright

555-???? matches all seven-digit phone numbers with the 
555 prefix

pr?m* matches premature, prim, and primate



27

Refining a search

If you want to limit the search, you may also want 
to refine it—confine the search to the documents 
listed in the previous search. For example, you 
might first find all the documents that contain the 
phrase Anaconda project. Then, using the Refine 
option, you could search for the word cost in those 
documents only.

To refine a search:

1 Start with the Search Results window open, showing 
the result of a previous search. If the Search window is 
hidden, display it by choosing Tools > Search > Query 
or by clicking the Search Query button v on the 
toolbar.



28

2 In the Search window, change or replace the query 
that produced the list of documents.

3 Press Ctrl (Windows. OS/2, UNIX) or Option 
(Macintosh). The button label will change from Search 
to Refine. Click Refine. This produces a Search Results 
list composed of documents that are a subset of the 
previous list and that match the new query.



29

Searching with Document Info fields

Searching with Document Info fields

Using wild-card characters in fields

Using Boolean expressions in fields

Using operators for document information

Searching with two or more fields



30

Searching with Document Info fields

If the PDF documents you are searching are pro-
vided with Document Info values, you can use the 
Document Info fields in the Search window to limit 
the results of your searches to documents that 
contain specific values. 

The standard Document Info fields in PDF docu-
ments are Title, Subject, Author, and Keywords. 
For example, you could limit the search of an index 
of literature to just those documents with an Author 
field containing Shakespeare and a Title field 
containing king.



31

To add the Document Info fields to the Search 
window, choose File > Preferences > Search and 
select Show Fields.

You may see additional custom fields if the creator 
of the PDF document included them.

If you want to keep the Search window small, you 
can hide (or keep hidden) the Document Info fields 
and type their names in the Find Results Containing 
Text box.

When you enter a Document Info field value and no 
search text, all documents with fields that contain 
the value are returned.



32

Using wild-card characters in fields

You can use wild-card characters in Document Info 
fields. For example, if you enter

Sm?th*

in the Author field, documents with Author field val-
ues that include Smith, Smyth, and Smythe can be 
returned with subsequent searches.

See Searching with wild-card characters for details.



33

Using Boolean expressions in fields

You can use Boolean expressions in Document Info 
fields. For example, if you enter

Shakespeare or Milton

in the Author field, only documents that include 
either Shakespeare or Milton in the Author field are 
found. 

See Searching with Boolean expressions for details.



34

Using operators for document 
information

You can use operators in Document Info field values 
to expand or limit the search.

Operator Meaning
= matches exactly (for text, numeric, and 

date values)

~ contains (for text values)

!= does not contain (for text, numeric, and 
date values)

< is less than (for date or numeric values)

<= is less than or equal to (for date or 
numeric values)

> is greater than (for date or numeric 
values)

>= is greater than or equal to (for date or 
numeric values)



35

You can use only the first three operators (=, ~, !=) 
with text. (The standard Document Info fields—
Title, Subject, Author, and Keywords—are all text 
fields.) For example, 

~ Guide 

in the Title field would find the Acrobat Exchange 
Guide, the Acrobat Search Guide, and so on.

The four comparison operators (<, <=, >, and >=) 
can be used only with values of the same type. For 
example, a date value can be compared only with 
another date value.



36

Searching with two or more fields

Entering values for two or more fields specifies 
an AND condition. For example, if you enter 
~ Samuelson in the Author field, ~ cost analysis 
in the Subject field, and ~ spreadsheet in the 
Keywords field, only documents that contain all 
these values in these fields are returned from 
subsequent searches.

For OR conditions and NOT conditions between 
fields, you can use the Find Results Containing Text 
text box. For example,

(Author ~ Raskin) NOT (Keywords ~ presen-
tation)

finds all documents whose Author fields contain 
Raskin and whose Keywords fields do not contain 
presentation. You can also specify an AND condi-
tion with this method.



37

Searching with document creation 
and modification dates

You can use the Date Info fields in the Search win-
dow to limit search results to just those documents 
that were created or modified in a specific time 
period. To add the Date Info fields to the Search 
window, choose File > Preferences > Search and 
select Show Date.

If you want to keep the Search window small, you 
can hide (or keep hidden) the Date Info fields and 
type their names in the Find Results Containing 
Text box.

When you enter a Date Info field value and no search 
text, all documents with Date Info fields that con-
tain the value are returned.



38

To specify a date:

1 Click the Month, Day, or Year field.

2 Enter a number or use the Up and Down Arrows to 
select a value.

To limit a search to documents created or 
modified after a specific date:

Specify the After date, and leave the Before date 
blank.

To limit a search to documents that were created 
or modified before a specific date:

Specify the Before date, and leave the After date 
blank.

To clear the date fields:

Click Clear.



39

To use both the creation and modification dates:

Entering time periods for both creation and modifi-
cation dates specifies an AND condition. Only 
documents created in the specified period and 
modified in the specified period are returned from 
a search.



40

Typing field and options names

Instead of displaying Document Info fields, Date 
Info fields, or Options in the Search window, you 
can keep the Search window small and type fields 
and options in the Find Results Containing Text 
box. Along with the field names, you need to use 
operators such as = (equals) and > (greater than, 
after).

• For Document Info fields, type Title, Subject, Author, 
Keywords, Producer, or Creator. For example:

Author = Shakespeare

• For Document Info fields, type CreationDate or 
ModificationDate. For example, for a creation date 
after October 9, 1996, type the following:

CreationDate > 10/9/96



41

• For options, type /st (stemming), /so (sounds like), 
/th (thesaurus), /ca (match case), or /pr (proximity). For 
example, find synonyms for publish with

publish /th



42

Using search options

Using search options

Word Stemming option

Thesaurus option

Sounds Like option

Match Case option

Proximity option

Using the Word Assistant



43

Using search options

The options in the Search window expand or limit 
the results of searches with single terms and 
phrases and with Boolean expressions. The options 
appear in the window by default. To restore them to 
the window if the default has been changed, choose 
File > Preferences > Search and select Show 
Options.

If you want to keep the Search window small, you 
can hide (or keep hidden) the options and type their 
names in the Find Results Containing Text box.

• Word Stemming finds words that share a stem with 
the search word.

• Thesaurus finds words that have meanings similar to 
the meaning of the search word.



44

• Sounds Like finds different spellings of proper 
names.

• Match Case finds text only when it has the same 
capitalization as the text you type.

• Proximity limits AND searches so that words must be 
within three pages of each other.

The Word Stemming, Thesaurus, and Sounds Like 
options expand searches. (Before you perform a 
search with one of these options, you can see the 
effects of using it with the Word Assistant.) The 
Match Case and Proximity options limit 
searches.



45

Word Stemming option

The Word Stemming option expands the search by 
finding words that share a word stem with the 
search word you type. For example, with Word 
Stemming selected, searching for building finds 
build and builds as well as building.

Before searching with the Word Stemming option, 
consider using the Word Assistant to see whether 
the option would find too many irrelevant words to 
be practical.

The Word Stemming option

• Applies to single words, not phrases 

• Does not apply to words that contain wild-card 
characters



46

• Finds words that end in ing, ed, s, ion, and so on 
(but not er)

• Cannot be used with the Match Case option

If selecting the Word Stemming option seems to 
have no effect, the index you are searching proba-
bly was not built with the Word Stemming 
option.



47

Thesaurus option

The Thesaurus option expands the search by finding 
words with meanings similar to the meaning of the 
search word. For example, with Thesaurus selected, 
searching for begin finds start.

Searching for begin with the Thesaurus option also 
finds attack and produce. Before searching with the 
option, consider using the Word Assistant to see 
whether the option finds relevant words.

The Thesaurus option

• Applies to single words, not phrases

• Does not apply to words that contain wild-card 
characters

• Cannot be used with the Match Case option

• Finds only the similar words that appear in the docu-
ments you are searching, not all the similar words you 
might find in a complete Thesaurus



48

Sounds Like option

The Sounds Like option expands the search for a 
proper name by finding words that begin with the 
same letter as a search word and that share some 
phonetic feature with it. For example, with Sounds 
Like selected, searching for Smith also finds Smyth 
and Smythe.

Searching for Smith with the Sounds Like option 
also finds send and somewhat. Before searching 
with the option, consider using the Word Assistant 
to see whether the option finds relevant words.

The Sounds Like option

• Applies to single words, not phrases 

• Does not apply to words that contain wild-card 
characters



49

• Cannot be used with the Match Case option

If selecting the Sounds Like option seems to have no 
effect, the index you are searching probably was not 
built with the Sounds Like option.



50

Match Case option

The Match Case option limits the results of the 
search by finding only those documents that con-
tain words with the same capitalization as the 
search word or phrase you type. With Match Case 
selected, for example, searching for He finds all 
occurrences of He, the symbol for Helium, but not 
occurrences of he, the common pronoun.

You can use the Match Case option with a Boolean 
expression or with terms that use wild-card charac-
ters. Characters matched by wild-card characters 
can be either uppercase or lowercase.

You cannot use the Match Case option with the Word 
Stemming, Thesaurus, or Sounds Like option. 

If selecting the Match Case option seems to have no 
effect, the index you are searching probably was not 
built with the option.



51

Proximity option

The Proximity option limits the results of simple 
AND searches to one pair of matches per document 
—the pair closest together. The two matches must 
be within three pages or fewer of each other. The 
option is useful for locating a document that con-
centrates on some topic of interest. For example, 
searching a group of travel guides for information 
about Hawaiian cruises with

Hawaii AND cruise

would be less likely to locate information about 
cruises to other parts of the world or about shore 
visits to Hawaii if the Proximity option was used.

The Proximity option also affects relevance ranking 
in searches. When you use it, the closer the matches 
are within a document, the higher the ranking for 
the document.

Proximity won’t work with complex AND searches—
for example, Hawaii AND (cruise OR fly).



52

Using the Word Assistant

Use the Word Assistant to build a list of terms that 
will appear when the search of a document uses the 
Sounds Like, Word Stemming, or Thesaurus option. 
The list will show you whether the option you are 
using is likely to be helpful in the search.

If the list is too long or full of irrelevant words, you 
can quickly construct a list of words to find with the 
option turned off by copying words from the Word 
Assistant dialog box and pasting them into the 
Search window.

To look up the effects of a search option on a 
search word:

1 Choose Tools > Search > Word Assistant.

2 To check the available indexes and change the selec-
tion of indexes, click Indexes to display the Index Selec-
tion dialog box and select the indexes you want to use.

3 Select the search option from the Assist menu.



53

4 Enter the search word in the Word text box.

5 Click Look Up. All the words that will be found in a 
search for this word with this option are listed.

To search with words copied from the Word 
Assistant dialog box:

1 If the Search window is closed, click the Search Query 
button v on the toolbar to open it.

2 Use the Word Assistant to look up the effects of a 
search option on a search word. And to display a list of 
related words.

3 In the list, double-click a word that you want to use 
in a search. The word appears in the Word text box.

4 Double-click the word to select it, and copy it to the 
Clipboard.



54

5 In the Search window, click the Find text box and 
paste the selected word into the text box.

6 Repeat steps 3 through 5 for each word you want to 
use; separate each pair of words in the Find text box 
with AND or OR.



55

Searching with Boolean expressions

You can use AND, OR, and NOT operators to build 
a Boolean expression that will search for specific 
words.

You can also use Boolean expressions in Document 
Info field text boxes to specify a combination of 
field values in a search.

Searching with Boolean AND

Searching with Boolean OR

Searching with Boolean NOT

Combining Boolean operators

Using operator names and symbols literally



56

Searching with Boolean AND

Use AND to find documents containing two or more 
search terms. For example,

installation AND instructions

finds only those documents that contain both 
installation and instructions.

You can also use the ampersand [&] to specify an 
AND search. For example,

installation & instructions

Choosing the Proximity option changes the way 
AND searches work. Without the Proximity option, 
items in an AND search can be anywhere in a docu-
ment. With the Proximity option, items in an AND 
search must be within three pages of each other to 
be found.



57

Searching with Boolean OR

Use OR to find documents containing any of two or 
more search terms. For example,

television OR tv

finds all documents that contain either or both 
television and tv.

You can also use a comma [,] or a vertical bar [|] to 
separate items in an OR search. For example:

television, tv

and

television | tv

Although any document that contains any item used 
with an OR operator is returned from a search, 
documents that contain both items rank higher in 
the Search Results list. See Interpreting relevance 
ranking for more information.



58

Searching with Boolean NOT

Use NOT to exclude documents that contain a 
search term. For example,

not quarterly

finds all documents that do not contain the word 
quarterly.

You can also use an exclamation point [!] to specify 
a NOT search. (Be sure to place a space between 
the exclamation point and the search item.) For 
example: 

! quarterly



59

Combining Boolean operators

Be careful when combining operators to build Bool-
ean expressions. Unless you work with Boolean 
expressions frequently, it is easy to build an expres-
sion that does not mean what you think it means.

• When NOT is used with either or both of the AND and 
OR operators, it is evaluated before either the AND or 
OR. For example,

evolution AND NOT darwin

finds all documents that contain the word evolution 
but not the word darwin.

• When you combine AND and OR in the same expres-
sion, AND is evaluated before OR. For example,

darwin OR origin AND species

finds all documents that contain darwin or that 
contain both origin and species.



60

• You can use parentheses to change the default order 
of evaluation for Boolean operators. For example,

(darwin OR origin) AND species

finds all documents that contain either darwin and 
species or that contain origin and species. Paren-
theses can be nested.



61

Using operator names and symbols 
literally

When you use a literal phrase that contains an oper-
ator name, a symbol for an operator name (such as 
& for AND), or parentheses, the phrase must be 
enclosed in quotation marks. For example: 

“cats and dogs”

finds all documents that contain the phrase cats 
and dogs, not all documents that contain either the 
word cats or the word dogs. The phrase

cats & dogs

also needs quotes to be interpreted literally.



62

In addition to and, or, not, and parentheses, the 
symbols that require quotation marks are & (amper-
sand, for AND), | and, (vertical bar and comma, for 
OR), and ! (exclamation point, for NOT). However, 
quoted search phrases that contain parentheses or 
vertical bars can produce unexpected results. For 
details, see How Acrobat Catalog treats separator 
characters.



63

Viewing documents returned from a 
search

A search returns a list of indexed documents containing 
items that match your search query, displaying the list 
in the Search Results window. When you open a docu-
ment in the list, you view only pages containing 
matches. All matches on a page are highlighted 
unless you change the default.

Documents more likely to contain relevant informa-
tion are listed first, and the relevance ranking of 
each document is indicated by an icon. For details, 
see Interpreting relevance ranking.

To view a document returned from the search:

1 Double-click the document name to open the 
document. 

2 Use the Search buttons on the toolbar to view all the 
occurrences of matches for your query.



64

• To highlight the next occurrence of a match in the 
document, click the Search Next button y.

• To highlight the previous occurrence of a match in 
a document, click the Search Previous button x.

To view another returned document:

Choose one of the following:

• To highlight the first occurrence of a match in 
the next document listed or previous document 
listed, click the Search Next button y or Search 
Previous button x while pressing the Shift key. 
Or choose Tools > Search > Next Document or 
Tools > Search > Previous Document.

• To view any other document listed, click the Search 
Results button w to redisplay the list, or choose 
Tools > Search > Results; then double-click the 
document name.

If you want to keep the Results list visible, deselect 
the Hide on View preference.



65

Interpreting relevance ranking

A relevance ranking is assigned to each document 
returned from a search. A document’s relevance 
ranking indicates how likely it is that the document 
contains the information you are searching for.

Search uses five icons to indicate relevance ranking:

From left (full circle) to right (empty circle), they 
rank documents from highest to lowest likelihood of 
containing relevant information.

• With ordinary search text, the relevance ranking indi-
cates how frequently the search word appears in the 
document, both in absolute terms and relative to the 
number of other words in the document.



66

• When you use a Boolean OR operator between two 
words or phrases in a search, documents that contain 
both the items have a relevance ranking higher than 
documents that contain just one of them. 

• When you use the Proximity option, the closer the 
occurrences of matches for your query are within a 
document, the higher the relevance ranking for the 
document.



67

  1996 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.

Adobe Acrobat 3.0 Search Online Guide

This manual, as well as the software described in it, is furnished under license 
and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. 
The content of this manual is furnished for informational use only, is subject to 
change without notice, and should not be construed as a commitment by Adobe 
Systems Incorporated. Adobe Systems Incorporated assumes no responsibility 
or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this book.

The copyrighted software that accompanies this manual is licensed to the End 
User for use only in strict accordance with the End User License Agreement, 
which the Licensee should read carefully before commencing use of the soft-
ware. Except as permitted by such license, no part of this publication may be 
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any 
means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without the prior writ-
ten permission of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, Acrobat Capture, the Acrobat logo, Distiller, 
Acrobat Exchange, Adobe Type Manager, PostScript, and the tagline “If you 
can dream it, you can do it” are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated. 
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks and ActiveX and Windows NT 
are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. Apple, 
Macintosh, Power Macintosh, and QuickTime are registered trademarks and 
AppleScript and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Lotus Notes 
is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corporation. Netscape and 
Netscape Navigator are trademarks of Netscape Communications Corporation. 
UNIX is a registered trademark in the U.S. and other countries, licensed exclu-
sively through X/Open Company, Ltd. Pentium is a trademark of Intel Corpora-
tion. All other products or name brands are trademarks of their respective 
owners.

This product contains an implementation of the LZW algorithm licensed under 
U.S. Patent 4,558,302.



68

This software includes software licensed from Verity, Inc., copyright 1994. All 
rights reserved. The address of Verity, Inc., is 894 Ross Drive, Sunnyvale, Cali-
fornia 94089. Verity ® and TOPIC ® are registered trademarks of Verity, Inc. in 
the United States and other countries. English Electronic Thesaurus copyright 
1993 by INSO Corporation. Adapted from the Oxford Thesaurus copyright 1991 
by Oxford University Press and from Roget's II: The New Thesaurus copyright 
1980 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Reproduction or disas-
sembly of embodied programs and databases prohibited. 

 1994 This software includes software licensed from RSA Data Security, Inc.

Written and designed at Adobe Systems Incorporated, 345 Park Ave., San Jose, 
CA 95110-2704.

Adobe Systems Europe Limited, Adobe House, 5 Mid New Cultins, Edinburgh 
EH11 4DU, Scotland, United Kingdom

Adobe Systems Co., Ltd., Yebisu Garden Place Tower, 4-20-3 Ebisu, Shibuya-ku, 
Tokyo 150, Japan

For defense agencies: Restricted Rights Legend. Use, reproduction, or disclosure 
is subject to restrictions set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Tech-
nical Data and Computer Software clause at 252.227-7013. 

For civilian agencies: Restricted Rights Legend. Use, reproduction, or disclosure 
is subject to restrictions set forth in subparagraphs (a) through (d) of the com-
mercial Computer Software Restricted Rights clause at 52.227-19 and the limi-
tations set forth in Adobe’s standard commercial agreement for this software. 
Unpublished rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States.

(9/96)



69

How to use this online guide

 Page back or page forward.

 Undoes a change of page or view, or redoes a
 change (Go Back/Go Forward).

 Go to the Contents.

 Go to the Index.

 Go to the how-to page (this page).

 Go to the “parent” of the current topic.

Go to the indicated topic.

 Go to the next page of a continued topic.

 End of a continued topic.

For instructions on printing this guide, go to the next page.

text



70

How to print this online guide

You can print separate topics or the entire guide. 
Since the pages of the guide have been made small 
for online viewing, Windows and Macintosh users 
may prefer to print them two to a page of paper—
”two up.” 

To print pages two up:

1 Choose File > Print Setup (Windows) or File > Page 
Setup (Macintosh).

2 Follow the instructions for your platform:

• In Windows, click Options, select 2 up on the Paper 
tab, click OK to return to the Print Setup dialog box, and 
click OK again to close it.



71

• On a Macintosh, choose 2 Up from the Layout menu 
and click OK.

Note: If you can’t perform step 2, you may not be 
using an Adobe or PostScript printer driver. If you 
are and you still can’t perform the step, install the 
Adobe printer driver on the Acrobat CD-ROM. See 
the Acrobat Getting Started guide for installation 
instructions.

3 Choose File > Print.

4 Indicate the page range.

Click OK (Windows) or Print (Macintosh).


	Tools and commands
	Using Acrobat Search
	Searching a full-text index
	Expanding a search
	Limiting a search
	Changing search preferences
	Search Preferences dialog box


	Selecting indexes to search
	Defining search queries
	Searching for a term or phrase
	Working around stopwords and other exclusions
	How Acrobat Catalog treats separator characters
	How Acrobat Search treats separator characters
	How Acrobat Catalog excludes numbers

	Searching with wild-card characters
	Refining a search
	Searching with Document Info fields
	Using wild-card characters in fields
	Using Boolean expressions in fields
	Using operators for document information
	Searching with two or more fields

	Searching with document creation and modification ...
	Typing field and options names

	Using search options
	Word Stemming option
	Thesaurus option
	Sounds Like option
	Match Case option
	Proximity option
	Using the Word Assistant

	Searching with Boolean expressions
	Searching with Boolean AND
	Searching with Boolean OR
	Searching with Boolean NOT
	Combining Boolean operators
	Using operator names and symbols literally


	Viewing documents returned from a search
	Interpreting relevance ranking

	How to use this online guide


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open = gocodex.exe
icon= codex.ico


British_Petroluem/British Petroluem/BP-INDEX.PDF
BP Group RPSEs - Subject Index

0 Introductory Volume 42 Piping
4 Civil & Structural 43 Pipelines
6 Corrosion Protection 44 Plant Design
10 Drilling Equipment 46 Pressure Vessels
12 Electrical 48 Project Management
14 Environmental 50 Quality Assurance
18 Fabrication 52 Refractory & Insulation
22 Fired Heaters 56 Steam Plant
24 Fire Protection 58 Storage Tanks
26 Heat Exchangers 59 Telecommunications
28 Hoses 60 Utilities
30 Instruments & Control 62 Valves
32 Inspection
34 Machinery
36 Materials
38 Mechanical Handling
40 Packaged Equipment


	Welcome to CODEX
	CODEX MAIN MENU
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	Home: 



British_Petroluem/British Petroluem/BP-INDEX.TXTRP-4-1    Drainage Systems
RP-4-3    Civil Engineering
RP-4-4    Buildings
RP-4-6    Procedure for the Design of Buildings Subject to Blast Loading
GS-106-1  Cement-Mortar Lined Steel Pipe & Fittings
GS-106-2  Painting of Metal Surfaces
GS-106-4  Polychloroprene Coating of Offshore Risers, Guides and Supports
GS-106-5  Painting of Offshore Packages
RP-6-1    Corrosion Monitoring
GS 110-1  Surface Wellheads and Christmas Trees
GS 118-1   Fabrication of Fixed Offshore Steel Structures to EEMUA 158
GS 118-3   General Specification for Welded Fabrication and Construction
GS 118-4   Storage & Control of Welding Consumables
GS 118-5   The Fabrication, Assembly, Erection and Inspection of Carbon, Carbon Manganese and Low Alloy Steel Pipework to ANSI/ASME B31.3
GS 118-7   The Fab'n, Ass'y, Erect'n and Insp. of Austenitic and Duplex St. Steel, Cupro-Nickel, Nickel Base Alloy,Titanium and Zirconium Pipework to ASME B31.3
GS 118-8   Heat Exchanger Tube End Fixing
GS 118-9   Welding of Transmission Pipelines: Supplementary to API 1104
GS 118-10  Welding of Transmission Pipelines: Supplementary to BS 4515: 1984
GS 122-1  Fired Heaters to API 560
GS 122-2  Natural Draught Burners for Fired Process Heaters
GS 122-3  Forced Draught Burners for Fired Process Heaters
RP 22-1   Fired Heaters
GS 124-1  Firewater Pumps for Onshore Use
GS 124-2  Direct Diesel Engine Driven Fire Water Pumps for offshore use
GS 124-3  Electric Motor Driven Fire Water Pumps for offshore use
GS 124-4  Hydraulic Motor Driven Fire Water Pumps for offshore use
RP 24-1   Fire Protection - Onshore
RP 24-2   Fire Protection - Offshore
GS 126-1  Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
GS 126-2  Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers to API 661
GS 126-5  Design of Plate & Frame Heat Exchangers for Offshore Use
RP 26-1   Heat Exchange Equipment
GS 128-1  Oil Hoses for Dock Loading & Discharging Services
GS 130-1   Automatic Pipeline Sampling of Liquid Hydrocarbons
GS 130-2   Electrical & Instrument Requirements for Rotating Machinery
GS 130-3   Pre-delivery Testing & Inspection of Instrumentation & Control Systems
GS 130-5   Flow Elements for Plant Control and Measurement Service
GS 130-6   Actuators For Shutoff Valves
GS 130-8   Specification for the Supply of Control Systems
GS 130-9   Specification for the Supply of Shutdown Systems
GS 130-10  Specification for the Supply of Fire & Gas Systems
GS 130-11  Specification for Oil & Gas Metering Systems
GS 130-12  Supply of Wellhead Control Systems
RP 30-1    Instrumentation & Control - Design and Practice
RP 30-2    Instrumentation & Control - Selection and Use of Measurement Instrumentation  30-3    Instrumentation & Control - Selection and Use of Control and Shut-Off Valves
RP 30-4    Instrumentation & Control - Selection and Use of Control and Data Acquisition Systems
RP 30-5    Instrumentation & Control - Selection and Use of Equipment for Instrument Protection Systems
RP 30-6    Design Philosophy for Protective Instrument Systems
RP 30-7    Instrumentation & Control - Design Philosophy for Fire and Gas Detection and Control Systems
RP 30-8    Instrumentation & Control - Electromagnetic Compatibility for Instrumentation and Control Systems
RP 30-9    Instrumentation & Control - Design of Instrument Database Systems 
RP 30-10   Selection Supply and Installation of Compression Fittings
RP 30-11   Instrumentation and Control - Symbology for Chemical Processing Plant
RP 30-12   Instrumentation & Control, Field Instrumentation for Chemical processing plant
RP 32-1   Inspection and Testing of New Equipment in Manufacture
RP 32-2   Site Inspection, Testing & Precommissioning of New Plant
RP 32-3   Inspection & Testing of In Service Civil and Mechanical Plant - Management Principles
RP 32-4   Inspection & Testing of In Service Civil and Mechanical Plant - Technical Guidance
RP 32-5   Inspection & Testing of Plant In Service (Electrical Equipment)
RP 32-6   Inspection & Testing of In Service Instrumentation
GS 134-1   Hydraulic Power Supplies
GS 134-3   Lubrication, Shaft Sealing & Control Oil Systems for Special Purpose Applications to API 614
GS 134-4   Centrifugal Pumps to API 610
GS 134-5   Centrifugal Compressors to API 617
GS 134-6   Reciprocating Compressors to API 618
GS 134-7   Special Purpose Steam Turbines to API 612
GS 134-8   Requirements for the Protection of Diesel Engines Operating in Zone 2 Hazardous Areas
GS 134-9   Rotary Type Positive Displacement Compressors to API 619
GS 134-10  Special Purpose Gear Units to API 613
GS 134-12  Packaged Gas Turbines to API RP11 PGT
GS 134-13  Packaging of Rotating Machinery for Offshore Use
RP 34-1    Rotating Machinery
GS 136-1  Materials for Sour Service
GS 136-2  Structural Steel Materials for use in the Fabrication of Fixed Offshore Steel Structures
GS 138-3  Marine Loading Arms
RP 38-3   Inspection and Maintenance of Offshore Pedestal Cranes and Ancillary Equipment
GS 140-1   Glycol Dehydration Unit
GS 140-2   Chemical Dosing Package
GS 140-3   Coarse Water Filter Package
GS 142-1  Line Pipe and Fittings  Part 1: Submerged Arc Welded Pipe to API 5L.
GS 142-2  Line Pipe and Fittings  Part 2: Seamless Pipe to API 5L
GS 142-3  Line Pipe and Fittings  Part 3: Electric Resistance
                Welded Pipe to API 5L
GS 142-4  Pipeline Flanges
GS 142-5  Pipeline Fittings
GS 142-7  Supply of Gaskets and Joint Rings for Bolted Flanged
                Joints
RP 42-1   Piping Systems
RP 42-2   Bolting for Flanged Joints
GS 143-1  Pig Launchers & Receivers
RP 43-1   Onshore Transmission Pipelines to BS 8010
RP 43-3   Subsea Isolation Systems
RP 44-1   Overpressure Protection Systems
RP 44-2   Winterisation - Low Temperature Protection Measures
RP 44-3   Design Guidelines for Relief Disposal Systems
RP 44-6   Area Classification to IP 15
RP 44-7   Plant Layout
RP 44-9   Design Guide for Offshore Evacuation and Escape
RP 44-10  Isolation of Equipment for Maintenance
RP 44-11  Guide to the Selection, Arrangement & Specification of
                Offshore Platform Drainage
RP 44-12  Protection of Chemical Processing Plants Handling
                Flammable Dusts
RP 44-13  Fire Protection for Polyethylene Pellet Warehouses
GS 146-1   Column Internals
GS 146-2   Pressure Vessels
RP 46-1    Unfired Pressure Vessels
RP 48-1   Project Health, Safety and Environmental Reviews
                (PHSER) Procedures
RP 50-1   Guide to the Application of Criticality Ratings
RP 52-1    Thermal Insulation
GS 156-1   Forced Draught Burners for Water Tube Land Boilers
GS 156-3   Water Tube Boilers
GS 156-4   Shell Type Fired Steam Generating Plant
GS 158-1   Internal Floating Decks for Storage Tanks
GS 158-3   Refrigerated Ethylene Storage Tanks for Chemical
               Processing Plant
GS 158-4   Refrigerated Ammonia Storage Tanks for Chemical
               Processing Plant
RP 58-1    Non-Refrigerated Petroleum & Petrochemical Storage
RP 59-1   Telecommunications - Emergency Shutdown Systems
RP 59-2   Telecommunications - Selection of Network
                Communications for Manned Offshore Fixed Platforms
RP 59-3   Telecommunications - Selection of Shipping and
                Aeronautical Communications for Manned Offshore
                Fixed Installations
RP 59-4   Telecommunications - Selection of On-Platform
                Communications for Manned Offshore Fixed
                Installations
RP 59-5   Telecommunications - Selection of Emergency
                Communications for Manned Offshore Fixed
                Installations
RP 59-6   Telecommunications - Selection of Telecommunication
                Power Supplies for Manned Offshore Fixed Installations
RP 59-7   Telecommunications - Electromagnetic Compatibility for
                Telecommunication Systems
RP 59-8   Telecommunications - Selection and Use of Temporary
                Telecommunications Systems for Offshore Installation
                Projects
RP 59-9   Selection and use of Telecommunications Systems for
                Oil/Gas Terminals, Refineries and Chemical Plants
RP 59-11  Telecommunications - Design and Installation Practice
                for Telecommunication Systems on Manned Offshore
                Fixed Installations
RP 59-13  Design and Installation Practice for Telecommunications
                Systems on Oil/Gas Terminals, Refineries and Chemical
                Plants
GS 160-1  Emergency Generator Package
RP 60-1   Cooling Water Treatment
RP 60-5   Potable Water Systems
RP 60-6   Inert Gas Systems
GS 162-1   Steel Gate, Globe & Check Valves
GS 162-5   Land & Topsides Wellhead, Christmas Tree Valves & Valve Actuators
GS 162-6   Subsea Wellhead Valves, Christmas Tree Valve &
                 Actuators
RP 62-1    Guide to Valve Selection
RP 62-2    Isolation Valve Selection Philosophy for Oil and Gas Production and Processing

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British_Petroluem/British Petroluem/CODEX HELP.PDF
CODEX HELP

CODEX HELP
CODEX help, contains all the necessary information that will aid

you in learning how best to navigate through its structure.

What is CODEX ?

CODEX is a system that delivers all the BP Group Recommended
Practices and Specifications for Engineering (RPSEs), on one CD ROM.

CODEX comprises the complete set of BP Group RPSEs current at time
of CD ROM production. It also contains the CODEX Main Menu and
Subject Index, which aid navigation and Document Status information,
enabling the production status of any of the BP Group RPSEs to be
checked.

CODEX is built using Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files,
enabling full text searching and hyper-linking.

Also included on the CD ROM are the complete set of BP Group
RPSEs in Microsoft Word format. “SaveAs”, allows you to adapt these
documents for local usage.



CODEX Main Menu

Navigation through CODEX is best started at the CODEX Main Menu.
This provides structured direction to all parts of CODEX.

Introductory Volume - This document provides information and
guidelines on the philosophy and use of the BP Group RPSEs.

Full Text Search - Activating a full text search, allows searching
the entire contents of CODEX, for occurrences of a particular search
phrase. (see Acrobat Basics for more information)

BP Group RPSEs - Provides a listing of all the BP Group RPSEs,
by subject.

Document Status- This gives the current status(at time of creation)
of the complete set of BP Group RPSEs. It may include references to
documents not currently available electronically.

Getting Back to the CODEX Main Menu

If you wish to return to the CODEX main menu from any point in
CODEX then there are several ways to achieve this.

Adobe Reader maintains a recently used list of documents. If the
CODEX Main menu was within the last four then Select File, from the
menu bar and you will see “CODEX Main menu.pdf“ listed above the
Exit option.

Alternatively select File-Open and from the CODEX CD choose CODEX
Main Menu.pdf



CODEX SPECIFIC CONFIGURATION

CODEX uses various features of Adobe Acrobat to improve
document navigation as follows :-

Hyperlinking  - ALL hyperlinks in CODEX are shown in blue.
(Acrobat also indicates hyperlinks by changing the mouse pointer, see
Acrobat basics)

Hyperlink types- CODEX provides various hyperlinks to improve system
navigation :-

RPSE to RPSE links - Where ever there is a reference to another RPSE, a
link is provided to the front page of the relevant document.

WORD Documents - On the front page of every RPSE is a word icon.
Clicking on this icon opens the Microsoft Word version of the same
document.

 Show me an example

WWW Links - References to External Standards Bodies and their
associated documents are, where possible directed to their web site. When
operating CODEX without an internet connection, these hyperlinks will 
obviously fail.

Show me an example

CONTENTS LISTS
  All CODEX contents list are built using bookmarks. This provides users
with a scoll-able contents list, that links to the relevant page.
(see Acrobat Basics)



Acrobat Basics

If you want to learn more about how to use the Acrobat reader,
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The BP Group RPSEs make reference and qualify many external standards. Where possible we
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British_Petroluem/British Petroluem/GS 114-2.DOC
British_Petroluem/British Petroluem/GS 142.DOC�






WARNING����This document is a master copy of the BP Group RPSE.  If text is edited please remember to re-number the document and delete the data page and foreword.��

GS 142-5

PIPELINE FITTINGS

November 1996

Copyright © The British Petroleum Company p.l.c.
�
	Copyright © The British Petroleum Company p.l.c.

	All rights reserved.  The information contained in this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the agreement or contract under which the document was supplied to the recipient's organisation.  None of the information contained in this document shall be disclosed outside the recipient's own organisation without the prior written permission of Manager, Standards, BP International Limited, unless the terms of such agreement or contract expressly allow.���
BP GROUP RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR ENGINEERING��
		Issue Date			November 1996
Doc. No.   GS 142-5	Latest Amendment Date		





Doc. No.
	RP 32-5 ��Document Title	
PIPELINE FITTINGS��

(Replaces BP Std 166 Part 6)��	APPLICABILITY 
	Regional Applicability:	International
��	SCOPE AND PURPOSE

	This Guidance for Specification defines the general requirements for the design, manufacture and supply of pipeline fittings (other than flanges) for use with pipeline materials up to API 5L Grade X70 and the equivalent grades in ISO 3183.

	The purpose of this document is to provide the basis of job specific procurement specifications to ensure that materials of suitable quality, weldability and mechanical properties are supplied for the exacting demands of any particular pipeline application.��	AMENDMENTS
	Amd	Date 	Page(s)	Description
	___________________________________________________________________
	
����	CUSTODIAN (See Quarterly Status List for Contact)
Welding��	Issued by:-
	Engineering Practices Group, BP International Limited,  Research & Engineering Centre
	Chertsey Road, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex, TW16 7LN, UNITED KINGDOM
	Tel: +44 1932 76 4067	Fax: +44 1932 76 4077	Telex: 296041���CONTENTS

Section	Page

�toc \o�FOREWORD	iii
1.	INTRODUCTION	1
1.1	Scope		1
1.2	Quality Assurance	1
2.	DESIGN	2
3.	MANUFACTURE	2
4.	MATERIALS	3
4.1	Chemical Composition	3
4.2	Mechanical Properties	4
5.	NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT)	5
6.	HYDROSTATIC TEST	7
7.	INSPECTION	7
8.	CERTIFICATION	8
9.	MARKING, COATING AND PACKING	8
10.	INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH BID	8
11.	INFORMATION REQUIRED PRIOR TO MANUFACTURE	9
FIGURE 1	10
Position for Hardness Indents	10
Figure 2	11
Positions for Weld Centre Line and HAZ Charpy Tests	11
Figure 3	12
Charpy Impact Test Temperatures	12
Figure 4	13
Dimensions & Weld Preparation for Split Fittings	13
APPENDIX A	14
DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS	14
APPENDIX B	15
LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS	15
APPENDIX C	17
SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS FOR PARTICULAR FITTINGS	17
�
��FOREWORD
Introduction to BP Group Recommended Practices and Specifications for Engineering

The Introductory Volume contains a series of documents that provide an introduction to the BP Group Recommended Practices and Specifications for Engineering (RPSEs).  In particular, the 'General Foreword' sets out the philosophy of the RPSEs.  Other documents in the Introductory Volume provide general guidance on using the RPSEs and background information to Engineering Standards in BP.  There are also recommendations for specific definitions and requirements.

Value of this Guidance for Specification

By clearly defining requirements the design and quality of the fittings supplied should be consistent with the main transmission pipeline leading to reduced difficulties during construction, operation or any future modification to the pipeline.

Application 

This Guidance for Specification is intended to guide the purchaser in the use or creation of a fit-for-purpose specification for enquiry or purchasing activity.

Text in italics is Commentary.  Commentary provides background information which supports the requirements of the Recommended Practice, and may discuss alternative options.  It also gives guidance on the implementation of any 'Specification' or 'Approval' actions; specific actions are indicated by an asterisk (*) preceding a paragraph number.

This document may refer to certain local, national or international regulations but the responsibility to ensure compliance with legislation and any other statutory requirements lies with the user.  The user should adapt or supplement this document to ensure compliance for the specific application.

Principal Changes from Previous Edition 

This document replaces BP Standard 166 part 6. Modifications to and rationalisation of permitted chemical compositions have been made. An updated diagram used to determine impact test temperature and revised inspection requirements for laminations and other material defects in the region of weld bevel is incorporated.

Feedback and Further Information 

Users are invited to feed back any comments and to detail experiences in the  application of BP RPSE's, to assist in the process of their continuous improvement.

For feedback and further information, please contact Standards Group, BP International or the Custodian.  See Quarterly Status List for contacts.
�1.	INTRODUCTION
1.1	Scope
1.1.1	This Specification defines BP general supplementary requirements for the design, manufacture and supply of pipeline fittings (bends, reducers, tees, sleeves and end caps) for use with linepipe API 5L grades B to grade X70 inclusive or the equivalent grades from ISO 3183. 

Where material grades stronger than X70 or equivalent are necessary requirements in addition to those defined herein may be appropriate.

An international standard encompassing the requirements of API 5L is currently being prepared by ISO.  When all three parts of this Standard, ISO 3183, have been issued reference to API 5L will be deleted from this Specification.

1.1.2	This Specification applies to pipe fittings in transmission pipeline systems both on land and offshore connecting  well, production and process plants and storage facilities, including any section of the pipeline constructed within the boundaries of such facilities for the purpose of its connection to such units.

1.1.3	 This Specification shall not be applied to general refinery and chemical plant duties, these applications are covered by the supplementary requirements of BP Group Specification GS142-12.

1.1.4	Additional requirements for the chemical composition, mechanical testing and non-destructive examination may be specified by BP for sour service.

BP Group Specification GS136-1 defines the testing required on materials proposed for use in sour environments.

1.2	Quality Assurance
Verification of the vendor's quality system is normally part of the pre-qualification procedure, and is therefore not specified in the core text of this specification.  If this is not the case, clauses should be inserted to require the vendor to operate and be prepared to demonstrate the quality system to the purchaser.  The quality system should ensure that the technical and QA requirements specified in the enquiry and purchase documents are applied to all materials, equipment and services provided by sub-contractors and to any free issue materials.

Further suggestions may be found in the BP Group RPSEs Introductory Volume. 
2.	DESIGN
2.1	All fittings shall be designed to ANSI/ASME B16.9, BS 1640 or MSS SP75, except as modified by this Specification.

2.2	The fittings shall be designed in material with a strength equal to the linepipe for which they are intended.

2.3	The proposed manufacturing method and the associated welding procedures, qualified in accordancce with ASME 1X, shall be submitted for approval by BP prior to the commencement of fabrication.

2.4	The fittings shall be formed, and heat treated, while longer than the nominal length.  The tests required by Section 4 shall be carried out on this excess material.  Where this is not possible, tests shall be carried out on an additional fitting manufactured to the same procedure.

2.5	The tolerance on nominal internal diameter at the weld bevel (defined as nominal external diameter minus twice nominal wall thickness) shall be +- 1.5 mm (1/16 in). Where an internal bevel is necessary to achieve this, the angle shall not be greater than 14°, equivalent to a 1 in 4 taper.

This restriction on internal bore dimension for flanges corresponds to that specified for linepipe.

2.6	Ovality of the weld bevels of each fitting shall be checked with a ring type inside gauge.  The diameter of this gauge shall be 5 mm (3/16 in) less than the nominal internal diameter.  It shall pass freely through the end normal to the axis.

2.7	The maximum wall thickness at the weld bevel shall not exceed the nominal wall thickness by more than 10%. Excess material shall be machined back at an angle not exceeding 14°, equivalent to a 1 in 4 taper.

2.8	The weld bevel angle shall be 30° plus 5°, minus 0° for thicknesses up to 20mm.  Above this thickness details of any alternative end bevel preparation will be provided in the Purchase Order.

2.9	The weld bevel root face shall be 1.5 + 0.5mm (1/16in + 0.020in).
3.	MANUFACTURE
3.1	The steel shall be made by the electric furnace or basic oxygen process and shall be fully killed and of fine grain size.

3.2	Hot formed fittings shall be normalised, or quenched and tempered after forming or fabrication to obtain the required mechanical properties.  Where required, welds shall be stress relieved after the completion of all fabrication activities.  The tempering and stress relieving temperatures used in manufacture shall take account of the stress relieved property requirements of Section 4.2.6.
4.	MATERIALS
4.1	Chemical Composition
4.1.1	Unless alternative analyses proposed by a Manufacturer are approved by BP, each steel heat analysis and product analysis shall fall within the following limits.  Alternative analyses which significantly infringe the limit on carbon equivalent are not normally acceptable.

Carbon	0.20% max
Manganese	0.80% to 1.60%
Silicon	0.15% to 0.40%
Sulphur	0.010% max
Phosphorus	0.015% max 
Copper	0.35% max
Aluminium	0.025% to 0.060%
Nitrogen	0.012% max
Boron	0.0005% max
Calcium	0.006%
Nickel plus chromium plus molybdenum	0.30% max
Vanadium plus niobium plus titanium	0.15% max

Carbon Equivalent (CEV):			0.43% max.

where,   CEV = C  +  Mn  +  Cr+Mo+V  +  Ni+Cu  
			6	     5		15

Additional limitations on Manganese (to 1.40% max.) and Sulphur (to 0.003% max.) may be deemed necessary for flanges in sour service.

4.1.2	The analysis shall be determined both on each heat of steel used, and on a broken mechanical test piece from each heat.

4.1.3	Other elements shall not be added to the steel without approval of the BP Materials Engineer.

4.1.4	If any part of the product analyses fails to meet the requirements of 4.1.1, the whole heat shall be rejected or each individual item shall be fully analysed and all items failing to meet the requirements shall be rejected.

4.2	Mechanical Properties
4.2.1	The following tests shall be carried out on one fitting of each size and form in every heat (or in every heat treatment lot if this occurs more frequently).  Tensile and impact testing shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM A370 or agreed alternative.

4.2.2	The tensile properties (yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and reduction of area) shall be determined in the parent metal, transverse to the axis of the fitting.  The tensile properties transverse to any weld shall also be determined.  The round bar specimen detailed in API Specification 5L for transverse tests shall be used for base metal and cross weld tensile tests. The tensile properties shall meet the requirements for the equivalent linepipe and the transverse yield strength shall not exceed 600 MPa.

4.2.3	Guided-bend tests shall be conducted on any longitudinal weld in accordance with the requirements of API Specification 5L except that the specimens shall be bent over a former with radius a maximum of three times the nominal wall thickness of the fitting.

4.2.4	Hardness tests shall be made on the parent steel, and on any heat-affected zones and longitudinal weld on a macro section of the finished fitting.  The hardness shall not exceed 248 HV10 where service is sour, or 300 HV10 where service is non-sour.  The approximate positions of the hardness indents required in any weld region are shown in Figure 1.  In addition, random surface hardness checks shall be carried out, using an equipment type approved by BP, at ten locations on both the internal and external surfaces of the fitting selected for mechanical testing.

4.2.5	Transverse Charpy V-notch impact test pieces shall be taken from parent metal. In addition Charpy V-notch impact test pieces shall be taken from any longitudinal weld and HAZ, as shown in Figure 2. The minimum acceptable Charpy toughness shall be an average, from three specimens, of 50J with no individual value below 40J.  The test temperature shall be established from Figure 3, using the wall thickness of the matching linepipe. The test temperature shall not be greater than the minimum design temperature.

The Charpy impact toughness requirements specified is that considered necessary to meet the HAZ toughness requirement specified in an applicable pipeline welding code e.g. BS 4515.

4.2.6	Unless otherwise specified on the Purchase Order, the above mechanical test requirements shall also be met by samples from the first fitting of each type after an additional heat treatment of 2 hours at 600°C + 10°C (112°F + 18°F).

4.2.7	For fittings in sour service BP may specify additional testing based on BP Group Guidance for Specification GS136-1.  BP will confirm testing frequency and acceptance criteria prior to contract.

4.2.8	BP will only permit a retest if there is reason to believe that failure was due to some fault in preparation or testing, and that the result was not representative of the test sample.  Otherwise the failed test shall be carried out on every fitting in the heat or lot, or alternatively the entire heat or lot shall be re-heat treated and the full set of tests carried out on one item.
5.	NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT)
5.1	Personnel performing NDT activities shall be qualified in the technique being applied in accordance with ISO 9712 or approved equivalent.

5.2	All NDT shall be carried out after the final heat treatment using procedures approved by BP.

5.3	All surfaces of each fitting shall be blast cleaned to Sa 2 1/2 or better as defined by ISO 5801-1 and visually examined internally and externally for surface defects to the requirements of ASTM A 694.  Illumination greater than 500 lux shall be required to enable proper inspection.
	
5.4	Defects on the surface of the fitting may be removed by grinding, provided that a smooth curved surface is maintained, and that the remaining thickness, as verified by ultrasonic testing, is not less than the specified minimum wall thickness.

5.5	Any welds shall be of uniform width and profile, and shall blend smoothly into the body of the fitting.  The height of any internal or external weld beads (as defined in API Specification 5L) shall not exceed 3 mm (1/8 in).  BP may specify tighter tolerances for the height of internal weld beads.

5.6	Any internal longitudinal weld bead shall be ground flush for a distance of 100 mm (4 in) from the end of the fitting.

5.7	Longitudinal, circumferential (and any repairs made to those welds) shall be 100% radiographed. The radiographic examination shall be conducted with X-ray equipment using lead screens and films of agreed type. The image quality indicator (IQI) shall be of agreed type and the thinnest wire clearly visible across the weld shall be not more than 1.25% of the nominal wall thickness of the fitting.

5.8	The following faults disclosed by radiography are unacceptable:

(a)	Cracks or incomplete penetration or fusion of any size.

(b)	Porosity exceeding 1% of the weld area in any 50mm (2 in) length of weld.

(c)	Any slag inclusion exceeding 3mm (1/8 in) long or 1.5mm (1/16 in) wide.

(d)	Slag inclusions exceeding 6mm (1/4 in) total length in 100mm (4 in) of weld.

(e)	Any porosity of slag appearing on the X-ray within 50mm of the bevel ends.

5.9	Repairs to welded seams shall be limited to two per fitting, shall not exceed 5% of the seam length, and shall be carried out prior to final normalising heat treatment.

5.10	Repairs to body imperfections or defects by welding shall not be permitted.

5.11	Cracks shall not be repaired and shall be cause for rejection.  The cause of cracking shall be investigated, and established to the satisfaction of BP.

5.12	Each fitting shall be examined for laminations and inclusion clusters, over a band at least 25mm (1 in) wide at each end of the fitting, using an ultrasonic method approved by the BP Materials Engineer.  The area so examined will meet the acceptance criteria defined by quality level E3 of BS 5996 or an equivalent level of ISO 11496.   

5.13	Where the Purchase Order specifies that a fitting is intended for sour service applications, the bodies of all fittings shall be checked for laminations and inclusion clusters using an approved ultrasonic procedure. Unless stated otherwise in the Purchase Order, the acceptance level for this examination shall be to quality grade B4 of BS 5996.

5.14	Hardness tests shall be performed on the internal and external surface of each fitting at twenty equally spaced locations along its entire length. A portable instrument of a type approved by BP e.g. EQUOTIP shall be used. Values shall not exceed those stated in 4.2.4.

5.15	After bevelling, the whole surface of the bevel and 100mm (4 in) at each end of any longitudinal weld shall be examined by wet magnetic particle inspection, to BS 6072 or ASTM E 709.  Defects such as laps, cracks or laminations shall not be permitted.  Laps and laminations les than 5mm (3/16in) deep may be ground out but the remaining wall thickness shall not be decreased below the minimum acceptable value.

5.16	Each fitting shall be dimensionally checked for the tolerance on diameter and out of roundness in accordance with this Specification and the approved shop drawings. The tolerance on wall thickness shall be checked at a minimum of 10 points equidistant around the circumference of the fitting.
6.	HYDROSTATIC TEST
6.1	When the fttings have been installed they may be required to undergo a field hydrostatic test.  BP will specify the pressure prior to contract.  The Manufacturer will be required to provide a warranty for all fittings supplied to this Specification at all pressures up to and including that advised for the field test following installation.
7.	INSPECTION
7.1	BP or a BP appointed inspector may require:

(a)	Full access to all stages of the manufacturing process at all reasonable times.
	
(b)	Reasonable facilities for inspection.
	
(c)	To stamp or otherwise identify fittings and test pieces, and to reject any material which does not comply with the requirements of this Specification.
	
(d)	To witness all mechanical tests and confirm that all heat treatment and residual imperfections are within the agreed limits, and chemical analyses are within the approved range and that the dimensions of the finished product are within agreed tolerances.

(e)	To carry out dimensional checks on any fitting at any point to ensure that it conforms to the requirements of this Specification and the approved drawings.

NOTE:	Inspection by BP does not relieve the Manufacturer of his responsibility to ensure that the quality plan is strictly implemented and that related documentation is available.
8.	CERTIFICATION
8.1	The original steel makers and pipe makers certificates, when applicable, shall be supplied for each heat of steel used.

The fitting Manufacturer shall prepare a test certificate for each heat of steel used (or each heat treatment lot where more than one lot is made from the same heat).  This shall show the steel manufacturer, steelmaking process, heat number, heat analysis, product analysis, heat treatment, full mechanical properties as determined from test pieces for that heat or lot, and reference numbers of all fittings covered by that certificate.  

When bends, or other type of fitting, manufactured by pressing and longitudinal welding are approved, full details of the welding consumables and weld metal properties shall be included.  The certificate shall be subject to approval by the BP Materials Engineer.
9.	MARKING, COATING AND PACKING
9.1	Each fitting shall have its reference number stamped on the weld bevel, using low stress stamps.  The Manufacturer's name, the heat number, fitting reference number and the strength grade shall be marked on each fitting, by painting on the inside, in a manner approved by the BP Materials Engineer.

9.2	Each fitting shall be re-blast cleaned after testing to a surface finish of Sa 2 1/2, or better, in accordance with ISO 8501-1.  All surfaces, other than those within 25mm (1in) of weld bevel, shall be coated with epoxy primer to a dry film thickness of 50 microns (0.002 in).

9.3	Where the Manufacturer is responsible for handling and transportation, he shall be responsible for maintaining all dimensional tolerances while the fittings are in his custody.

9.4	Protection, labelling and packing shall comply with the requirements specified on the Purchase Order.
10.	INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH BID
10.1	Any proposed deviations from this Specification.
	
10.2	The proposed chemical composition range.

10.3	The proposed guaranteed minimum mechanical properties.

10.4	Details of the dimensions and appropriate tolerances for each finished product.

10.5	If appropriate, the names of companies to whom similar fittings have previously been supplied should be given, together with the actual composition used and mechanical properties obtained.
	
10.6	Proposals for warranty in the event of failure of the fitting during field hydrostatic test.

10.7	The proposed manufacturing procedure and quality plan including steel making technique, casting technique, forming processes, heat treatments, welding procedure specifications and qualification test records where appropriate, non-destructive testing techniques and equipment, and the names of any subcontractors involved, including steelmakers and pipemakers.
11.	INFORMATION REQUIRED PRIOR TO MANUFACTURE
*	11.1	BP will specify whether the fitting will operate in sour or non sour service.

11.2	The Manufacturer shall submit detailed shop drawings including all nominal dimensions, wall thicknesses, tolerances, end bevel angles, grade of material and location of any weld seams) and his manufacturing procedure for approval by the BP Materials Engineer before manufacture begins.

11.3	The Manufacturer shall also submit his proposals for protection during shipment.


�








      �








fIGURE 1
Position for Hardness Indents
�
�









Figure 2
Positions for Weld Centre Line and HAZ Charpy Tests
�
�

Figure 3
Charpy Impact Test Temperatures
�

�








Figure 4
Dimensions & Weld Preparation for Split Fittings 
�APPENDIX A
DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Definitions

Standardised definitions may be found in the BP Group RPSEs Introductory volume.


In this Specification the following definitions apply:
		
BP:	The British Petroleum Company p.l.c., an associate or subsidiary or other organisation as defined in the Conditions of Contract on a project.
		
BP Materials Engineer:	a BP specialist engineer appointed to ensure that the provisions of this Specification are met.

defect:	an imperfection of sufficient magnitude to warrant rejection of the product based on the stipulations of this Specification.

imperfection:	a discontinuity or irregularity in the product detected by the methods outlined in this Specification.

inspector:	an inspector directly responsible to BP for checking work covered by this Specfication.

Manufacturer:	a manufacturer of fittings or his accredited agent.

independent inspectorate	an external body, independent of the purchaser and Manufacturer, possessing the necessary competence to verify that the Manufacturer has satisfied the requirements of this Specification.

sub-contractor:	a Manufacturer or fabricator making fittings for or to the design of a supplier, manufacturer or contractor employed by BP.
	
Note:	Any specific application of these terms and the responsibilities for the parties defined above is a matter for the Conditions of Contract on the project.
�APPENDIX B
LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

A reference invokes the latest published issue or amendment unless stated otherwise.

Referenced standards may be replaced by equivalent standards that are internationally or otherwise recognised provided that it can be shown to the satisfaction of the purchaser's professional engineer that they meet or exceed the requirements of the referenced standards.

Note:  This is a list of other codes and standards referred to in this BP Specification.  A reference in this Specification to these documents invokes the latest published issue or amendment unless otherwise stated.


American Documents

API 5L	API Specification for Line Pipe

ANSI/ASME B31.8		Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems

ANSI/ASME B16.9		Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings

ASME IX			Welding and Brazing Qualifications

ASTM A 370	Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products

ASTM A 694	Forgings, Carbon and Alloy Steel, for flanges, fittings, valves and parts for high-pressure transmission.

ASTM E 709	Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination

MSS SP75			Specification for High Test Wrought Butt Welding Fittings


International Documents

ISO 3183	Linepipe Standard

ISO 8501-1	Preparation for steel substrates

ISO 9712	Non-destructive testing: qualification and certification of Personnel

ISO 11496	Seamless and Welded Steel Tube for Pressure Purposes - Ultrasonic Testing of Tube Ends for the Detection of Laminar Imperfections.


British Standards

BS 1640	Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings for the Petroleum Industry

BS 4515	Welding of Steel Pipelines on Land and Offshore

BS 5996	Acceptance levels for internal imperfections in steel plate, strip and wide flats, based on ultrasonic testing 

BS 6072	Method for Magnetic Particle Flaw Detection


BP Group Documents

BP GS136-1			Materials for Sour Service  

BP GS142-12			Supplementary Requirements for Pipe Flanges and Fittings 
�APPENDIX C
SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS FOR PARTICULAR FITTINGS

A1.1	BENDS

A1.1.1	Bend dimensions in the BP preliminary design assume a material strength equal to that of the linepipe.  Any reduction in strength shall be accompanied by an appropriate increase in thickness.

A1.1.2	Manufacture of bends by hot forming of pipe is preferred, but plates pressed and longitudinally welded may be considered.

A1.1.3	Where bends are formed from longitudinal welded linepipe, the weld shall lie within 5% of the neutral axis of the bend.

A1.1.4	Where large bends are fabricated by joining two smaller bends, the girth welding procedure shall be qualified using the mechanical tests defined in Section 5 of this Specification, and where both smaller bends have longitudinal welds these shall be separated by 180 degrees at the girth weld.

A1.1.5	The tolerance on specified bend angle shall be + 0.75°.

A1.1.6	The maximum out of plane deviation shall be 5mm for bend angles up to 45° and 10mm for angles between 45° and 90°.

A1.1.7	Ovality over the length of the bend, including tangents, shall be checked by passing a gauging having an outside diameter equal to 95% of nominal internal diameter through the bend.  For acceptance, the gauging pig shall pass completely and freely through the bend.

A1.1.8	Where bends are produced with a parallel portion at each end, the test pieces shall be taken from a separate bend (made to the same procedure) with an arc not less than 45°.

A1.1.9	Mechanical test pieces from the body of the bend shall be taken from both the inner and outer radii (intrados and extrados), and both sets shall meet the specified requirements.

A1.1.10	For bend diameters above NPS 600mm (24in) the internal visual examination shall be carried out by an inspector passing through the bend.

A1.1.11	BP may also require wet magnetic particle inspection of the bend surfaces including any welds.

A1.2	REDUCERS

A1.2.1	Reducers shall be fabricated either by forging, or by longitudinal welding of rolled plate.

A1.2.2	Rolled and welded reducers shall have a taper not exceeding degrees (1 in 4).

A1.3	TEES

A1.3.1	Branch reinforcement shall be in accordance with ANSI/ASME B31.8.

A1.3.2	Extruded branches are preferred to fabricated branches.

A1.3.3	The branch shall be formed diametrically opposite any longitudinal weld.

A1.3.4	Non-destructive testing of fabricated branches shall be by ultrasonic testing.  The acceptance levels for defects shall be those of BS 4515.

A1.3.5	When a pup piece is welded to a branch, the tee shall be normalised or stress relieved after welding.

A1.3.6	The internal diameter tolerance in the body of the tee shall be +-1%, and a gauging plate of 95% of the nominal internal diameter shall be passed through the barrel of the tee.

A1.3.7	In the design of split tees, any reinforcement from the existing pipeline shall be neglected.

A1.3.8	Each split tee shall be hydrostatically tested before splitting.  This test shall be witnessed and certified by an independent inspectorate.

A1.3.9	After splitting a tee, the longitudinal weld bevel shall be machined in accordance with Figure 4 .

A1.4	SPLIT SLEEVES

*A1.4.1	Normalising is not required.  Stress relief is required after cold forming when the ratio of pipeline diameter to sleeve thickness is below 20:1. If this ratio is below 10:1, additional requirements will be specified by the BP Materials Engineer.

A1.4.2	Each split sleeve shall be hydrostatically tested before splitting.  This test shall be witnessed and certified by an independent inspectorate.

A1.4.3	After splitting, the longitudinal weld bevel shall be machined in accordance with Figure 4 .

A1.5	END CAPS

A1.5.1	There are no specific, additional requirements for end caps.
	



	



��
GS 142-5
SITE INSPECTION, TESTING AND
PRECOMMISSIONING OF NEW PLANT�
	PAGE �page �i�

��



	



��
GS 142-5
PIPELINE FITTINGS�
	PAGE �page �iv�

��
	



��
GS 142-5
PIPELINE FITTINGS�
	PAGE �page �iv�

��


	



��
GS 142-5
PIPELINE FITTINGS�
	PAGE �page �119�

��






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British_Petroluem/British Petroluem/GS106-1.DOC�



WARNING����This document is a master copy of the BP Group RPSE.  If text is edited please remember to re-number the document and delete the data page and foreword.��







GS 106-1

CEMENT-MORTAR LINED STEEL PIPE AND FITTINGS

October 1995

Copyright © The British Petroleum Company p.l.c.
�
	Copyright © The British Petroleum Company p.l.c.
	All rights reserved.  The information contained in this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the agreement or contract under which the document was supplied to the recipient's organisation.  None of the information contained in this document shall be disclosed outside the recipient's own organisation without the prior written permission of Manager, Standards, BP International Limited, unless the terms of such agreement or contract expressly allow.���
BP GROUP RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR ENGINEERING��
		Issue Date			October 1995
Doc. No.   GS 106-1	Latest Amendment Date		





Doc. No.
	RP 32-5 ��Document Title	
CEMENT-MORTAR LINED STEEL PIPE��AND FITTINGS
(Replaces BP Engineering Std 106)��	APPLICABILITY 
	Regional Applicability:	International
��	SCOPE AND PURPOSE

	This Guidance for Specification specifies BP’s requirements for the lining of steel pipe and fittings with sulphate-resisting cement-mortar for use with water which would otherwise corrode the bare pipe.��	AMENDMENTS
	Amd	Date 	Page(s)	Description
	___________________________________________________________________
	
����	CUSTODIAN (See Quarterly Status List for Contact)
Pipelines & Subsea Engineering, XFE��	Issued by:-
	Engineering Practices Group, BP International Limited,  Research & Engineering Centre
	Chertsey Road, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex, TW16 7LN, UNITED KINGDOM
	Tel: +44 1932 76 4067	Fax: +44 1932 76 4077	Telex: 296041��
�
CONTENTS
Section	Page
� TOC \o �FOREWORD	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689660  � PAGEREF _Toc381689660 �iv��
1. INTRODUCTION	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689661  � PAGEREF _Toc381689661 �1��
1.1 Scope		� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689662  � PAGEREF _Toc381689662 �1��
2. PIPE AND FITTINGS	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689663  � PAGEREF _Toc381689663 �1��
2.1 Pipe		� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689664  � PAGEREF _Toc381689664 �1��
2.2 Fittings		� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689665  � PAGEREF _Toc381689665 �2��
2.3 Joints		� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689666  � PAGEREF _Toc381689666 �4��
3. CEMENT-MORTAR LINING	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689667  � PAGEREF _Toc381689667 �8��
3.1 Surface Preparation	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689668  � PAGEREF _Toc381689668 �8��
3.2 Surface Finish	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689669  � PAGEREF _Toc381689669 �8��
3.3 Lining Methods	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689670  � PAGEREF _Toc381689670 �9��
3.4 Mortar Mix	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689671  � PAGEREF _Toc381689671 �9��
3.5 Lining Thickness	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689672  � PAGEREF _Toc381689672 �10��
3.6 Curing	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689673  � PAGEREF _Toc381689673 �10��
3.7 Repair of Damaged Cement-Mortar Lining	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689674  � PAGEREF _Toc381689674 �10��
3.8 Cutting Cement-Mortar Lined Pipe	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689675  � PAGEREF _Toc381689675 �11��
4. DAMAGE PROTECTION	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689676  � PAGEREF _Toc381689676 �11��
4.1 Handling	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689677  � PAGEREF _Toc381689677 �11��
4.2 Transportation	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689678  � PAGEREF _Toc381689678 �11��
4.3 Pipe Ends and Branch Connections	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689679  � PAGEREF _Toc381689679 �12��
4.4 Installation	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689680  � PAGEREF _Toc381689680 �12��
5. IDENTIFICATION	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689681  � PAGEREF _Toc381689681 �13��
FIGURE 1	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689682  � PAGEREF _Toc381689682 �14��
FLANGED CONNECTIONS WITH CLASS 150 FLANGES	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689683  � PAGEREF _Toc381689683 �14��
FIGURE 2	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689684  � PAGEREF _Toc381689684 �15��
90�symbol 176 \f "Symbol"�� BENDS		� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689685  � PAGEREF _Toc381689685 �15��
FIGURE 3	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689686  � PAGEREF _Toc381689686 �16��
BENDS OTHER THAN 90�symbol 176 \f "Symbol"��	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689687  � PAGEREF _Toc381689687 �16��
FIGURE 4	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689688  � PAGEREF _Toc381689688 �17��
ECCENTRIC REDUCER ASSEMBLIES	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689689  � PAGEREF _Toc381689689 �17��
FIGURE 5	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689690  � PAGEREF _Toc381689690 �18��
TEE BRANCH CONNNECTIONS WITH CLASS 150 FLANGES	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689691  � PAGEREF _Toc381689691 �18��
FIGURE 6	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689692  � PAGEREF _Toc381689692 �19��
ONE-PIECE SLEEVE JOINT FOR NOMINAL PIPE SIZES 3 INCH UP TO AND INCLUDING 24 INCH	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689693  � PAGEREF _Toc381689693 �19��
FIGURE 7	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689694  � PAGEREF _Toc381689694 �20��
HALF-SLEEVE JOINT FOR NOMINAL PIPE SIZES OVER 24 INCH BUT UNDER 48 INCH	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689695  � PAGEREF _Toc381689695 �20��
FIGURE 8	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689696  � PAGEREF _Toc381689696 �21��
HALF-SLEEVE JOINT FOR NOMINAL PIPE SIZES 48 INCH AND LARGER	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689697  � PAGEREF _Toc381689697 �21��
FIGURE 9	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689698  � PAGEREF _Toc381689698 �22��
DETAILS OF CUTTING ANGLES FOR TUNGSTEN CARBIDE TIPPED TOOLS FOR CEMENT-MORTAR LINED STEEL PIPES	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689699  � PAGEREF _Toc381689699 �22��
FIGURE 10	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689700  � PAGEREF _Toc381689700 �23��
MINIMUM BENDING RADII FOR STEEL PIPE	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689701  � PAGEREF _Toc381689701 �23��
FIGURE 11	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689702  � PAGEREF _Toc381689702 �24��
3/4 INCH AND 1 INCH BRANCH FITTINGS FOR NOMINAL PIPE SIZES 3 INCH UP TO AND INCLUDING 24 INCH	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689703  � PAGEREF _Toc381689703 �24��
FIGURE 12	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689704  � PAGEREF _Toc381689704 �25��
3/4 INCH AND 1 INCH BRANCHES FOR NOMINAL PIPE SIZES OVER 24 INCH		� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689705  � PAGEREF _Toc381689705 �25��
FIGURE 13	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689706  � PAGEREF _Toc381689706 �26��
TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF CEMENT-MORTAR LINED	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689707  � PAGEREF _Toc381689707 �26��
STEEL PIPES AND FITTINGS	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689708  � PAGEREF _Toc381689708 �26��
FIGURE 14	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689709  � PAGEREF _Toc381689709 �27��
TYPICAL CONNECTION BETWEEN CEMENT MORTAR LINED PIPE AND RUBBER LINED BUTTERFLY VALVE	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689710  � PAGEREF _Toc381689710 �27��
FIGURE 15	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689711  � PAGEREF _Toc381689711 �28��
TYPICAL DESIGN FOR SPECIAL SLEEVE JOINT	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689712  � PAGEREF _Toc381689712 �28��
FIGURE 16	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689713  � PAGEREF _Toc381689713 �29��
TYPICAL DESIGN FOR REYNOLDS JOINT	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689714  � PAGEREF _Toc381689714 �29��
APPENDIX A	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689715  � PAGEREF _Toc381689715 �30��
DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689716  � PAGEREF _Toc381689716 �30��
APPENDIX B	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689717  � PAGEREF _Toc381689717 �31��
LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS	� GOTOBUTTON _Toc381689718  � PAGEREF _Toc381689718 �31��
�
�FOREWORD
Introduction to BP Group Recommended Practices and Specifications for Engineering

The Introductory Volume contains a series of documents that provide an introduction to the BP Group Recommended Practices and Specifications for Engineering (RPSEs).  In particular, the 'General Foreword' sets out the philosophy of the RPSEs.  Other documents in the Introductory Volume provide general guidance on using the RPSEs and background information to Engineering Standards in BP.  There are also recommendations for specific definitions and requirements.

Value o